Contents 1 Formation 2 Location 3 Historical programs 3.1 Apollo program 3.2 Skylab 3.3 Space Shuttle 3.4 Constellation 3.5 Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) 3.6 Space station processing 4 Current programs and initiatives 5 Facilities 5.1 Payload processing 5.2 Launch Complex 39 5.3 Commercial leasing 5.4 Visitor complex 5.5 Historic locations 6 Weather 7 KSC directors 8 Labor force 9 Film appearances 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links


Formation[edit] The military had been performing launch operations since 1949 at what would become Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. In December 1959, the Department of Defense transferred 5,000 personnel and the Missile Firing Laboratory to NASA to become the Launch Operations Directorate under NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. President John F. Kennedy's 1961 goal of a manned lunar landing before 1970 required an expansion of launch operations. On July 1, 1962, the Launch Operations Directorate was separated from MSFC to become the Launch Operations Center (LOC). Also, Cape Canaveral was inadequate to host the new launch facility design required for the mammoth 363-foot (111 m) tall, 7,500,000-pound-force (33,000 kN) thrust Saturn V rocket, which would be assembled vertically in a large hangar and transported on a mobile platform to one of several launch pads. Therefore, the decision was made to build a new LOC site located adjacent to Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island. NASA began land acquisition in 1962, buying title to 131 square miles (340 km2) and negotiating with the state of Florida for an additional 87 square miles (230 km2).[10] The major buildings in KSC's Industrial Area were designed by architect Charles Luckman.[11] Construction began in November 1962, and Kennedy visited the site twice in 1962, and again just a week before his assassination on November 22, 1963.[12] On November 29, 1963, the facility was given its current name by President Lyndon B. Johnson under Executive Order 11129.[13][14] Johnson's order joined both the civilian LOC and the military Cape Canaveral station ("the facilities of Station No. 1 of the Atlantic Missile Range") under the designation "John F. Kennedy Space Center", spawning some confusion joining the two in the public mind. NASA Administrator James E. Webb clarified this by issuing a directive stating the Kennedy Space Center name applied only to the LOC, while the Air Force issued a general order renaming the military launch site Cape Kennedy Air Force Station.[15]


Location[edit] Located on Merritt Island, Florida, the center is north-northwest of Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic Ocean, midway between Miami and Jacksonville on Florida's Space Coast, due east of Orlando. It is 34 miles (55 km) long and roughly six miles (9.7 km) wide, covering 219 square miles (570 km2). KSC is a major central Florida tourist destination and is approximately one hour's drive from the Orlando area. The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex offers public tours of the center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Because much of the installation is a restricted area and only nine percent of the land is developed, the site also serves as an important wildlife sanctuary; Mosquito Lagoon, Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Canaveral National Seashore are other features of the area. Center workers can encounter bald eagles, American alligators, wild boars, eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, the endangered Florida panther[citation needed] and Florida manatees.


Historical programs[edit] Apollo program[edit] Main articles: Apollo program and List of Apollo missions A Saturn V carrying Apollo 15 rolls out to Pad 39A in 1971 on Mobile Launch Platform 1. From 1967 through 1973, there were 13 Saturn V launches, including the ten remaining Apollo missions after Apollo 7. The first of two unmanned flights, Apollo 4 (Apollo-Saturn 501) on November 9, 1967, was also the first rocket launch from KSC. The Saturn V's first manned launch on December 21, 1968 was Apollo 8's lunar orbiting mission. The next two missions tested the Lunar Module: Apollo 9 (Earth orbit) and Apollo 10 (lunar orbit). Apollo 11, launched from Pad A on July 16, 1969, made the first Moon landing on July 20. Apollo 12 followed four months later. From 1970–1972, the Apollo program concluded at KSC with the launches of missions 13 through 17. Skylab[edit] On May 14, 1973, the last Saturn V launch put the Skylab space station in orbit from Pad 39A. By this time, the Cape Kennedy pads 34 and 37 used for the Saturn IB were decommissioned, and Pad B was modified to launch three manned missions to Skylab that year, as well as the final Apollo spacecraft for the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in 1975. Space Shuttle[edit] Main articles: Space Shuttle program and List of space shuttle missions Shuttle Discovery launching from Pad 39A on STS-60, February 3, 1994 As the Space Shuttle was being designed, NASA received proposals for building alternative launch-and-landing sites at locations other than KSC, which demanded study. KSC had important advantages, including: its existing facilities; location on the Intracoastal Waterway; and its southern latitude, which gives a velocity advantage to missions launched in easterly near-equatorial orbits. Disadvantages included: its inability to safely launch military missions into polar orbit, since spent boosters would be likely to fall on the Carolinas or Cuba; corrosion from the salt air; and frequent cloudy or stormy weather. Although building a new site at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico was seriously considered, NASA announced its decision in April 1972 to use KSC for the shuttle.[16] Since the Shuttle could not be landed automatically or by remote control, the launch of Columbia on April 12, 1981 for its first orbital mission STS-1, was NASA's first manned launch of a vehicle that had not been tested in prior unmanned launches. Shuttle Atlantis is moved to Pad 39A for the 1990 launch of STS-36. In 1976, the VAB's south parking area was the site of Third Century America, a science and technology display commemorating the U.S. Bicentennial. Concurrent with this event, the U.S. flag was painted on the south side of the VAB. During the late 1970s, LC-39 was reconfigured to support the Space Shuttle. Two Orbiter Processing Facilities were built near the VAB as hangars with a third added in the 1980s. KSC's 2.9-mile (4.7 km) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was the orbiters' primary end-of-mission landing site, although the first KSC landing did not take place until the tenth flight, when Challenger completed STS-41-B on February 11, 1984; the primary landing site until then was Edwards Air Force Base in California, subsequently used as a backup landing site. The SLF also provided a return-to-launch-site (RTLS) abort option, which was not utilized. The SLF is among the longest runways in the world.[17] After 24 successful shuttle flights, Challenger was torn apart 73 seconds after the launch of STS-51-L on January 28, 1986; the first shuttle launch from Pad 39B and the first U.S. manned launch failure, killing the seven crew members. An O-ring seal in the right booster rocket failed at liftoff, leading to subsequent structural failures. Flights resumed on September 29, 1988 with STS-26 after modifications to many aspects of the shuttle program. On February 1, 2003, Columbia and her crew of seven were lost during re-entry over Texas during the STS-107 mission (the 113th shuttle flight); a vehicle breakup triggered by damage sustained during launch from Pad 39A on January 16, when a piece of foam insulation from the orbiter's external fuel tank struck the orbiter's left wing. During reentry, the damage created a hole allowing hot gases to melt the wing structure. Like the Challenger disaster, the resulting investigation and modifications interrupted shuttle flight operations at KSC for more than two years until the STS-114 launch on July 26, 2005. The shuttle program experienced five main engine shutdowns at LC-39, all within four seconds before launch; and one abort to orbit, STS-51-F on July 29, 1985. Shuttle missions during nearly 30 years of operations included deploying satellites and interplanetary probes, conducting space science and technology experiments, visits to the Russian MIR space station, construction and servicing of the International Space Station, deployment and servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and serving as a space laboratory. The shuttle was retired from service in July 2011 after 135 launches. Constellation[edit] On October 28, 2009, the Ares I-X launch from Pad 39B was the first unmanned launch from KSC since the Skylab workshop in 1973. Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs)[edit] Beginning in 1958, NASA and military worked side by side on robotic mission launches (previously referred to as unmanned),[18] cooperating as they broke ground in the field. In the early 1960s, NASA had as many as two robotic mission launches a month. The frequent number of flights allowed for quick evolution of the vehicles, as engineers gathered data, learned from anomalies and implemented upgrades. In 1963, with the intent of KSC ELV work focusing on the ground support equipment and facilities, a separate Atlas/Centaur organization was formed under NASA's Lewis Center (now Glenn Research Center (GRC)), taking that responsibility from the Launch Operations Center (aka KSC).[6] Though almost all robotics missions launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), KSC "oversaw the final assembly and testing of rockets as they arrived at the Cape."[6] In 1965, KSC's Unmanned Launch Operations directorate became responsible all NASA unmanned launch operations, including those at Vandenberg Air Force Base. From the 1950s to 1978, KSC chose the rocket and payload processing facilities for all robotic missions launching in the U.S., overseeing their near launch processing and checkout. In addition to government missions, KSC performed this service for commercial and foreign missions also, though non-U.S. government entities provided reimbursement. NASA also funded CCAFS launch pad maintenance and launch vehicle improvements. All this changed with the Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984, after which NASA only coordinated its own and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ELV launches. Companies were able to "operate their own launch vehicles"[6] and utilize NASA's launch facilities. Payload processing handled by private firms also started to occur outside of KSC. Reagan's 1988 space policy furthered the movement of this work from KSC to commercial companies.[19] That same year, launch complexes on CCAFS started transferring from NASA to air force management.[6] In the 1990s, though KSC was not performing the hands-on ELV work, engineers still maintained understanding of ELVs and had contracts allowing them insight in the vehicles so they could provide knowledgeable oversight. KSC also worked on ELV research and analysis and the contractors were able to utilize KSC personnel as a resource for technical issues. KSC, with the payload and launch vehicle industries, developed advances in automation of the ELV launch and ground operations for the purpose of enabling competitiveness of U.S. rockets against the global market.[6] In 1998, the Launch Services Program (LSP) formed at KSC, pulling together programs (and personnel) that already existed at KSC, GRC, Goddard Space Flight Center, and more to manage the launch of NASA and NOAA robotic missions. CCAFS and VAFB are the primary launch sites for LSP missions, though other sites are occasionally used. LSP payloads such as the Mars Science Laboratory have been processed at KSC before being transferred to a launch pad on CCAFS. Space station processing[edit] As the International Space Station modules design began in the early 1990s, KSC began to work with other NASA centers and international partners to prepare for processing prior to launch on board the Space Shuttles. KSC utilized its hands-on experience processing the 22 Spacelab missions in the Operations and Checkout Building to gather expectations of ISS processing. These experiences were incorporated into the design of the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), which began construction in 1993. The Space Station Directorate formed in 1996. KSC personnel were embedded at station module factories for insight into their processes.[6] From 1997 to 2007, KSC planned and performed on the ground integration tests and checkouts of station modules: three Multi-Element Integration Testing (MEIT) sessions and the Integration Systems Test (IST). Numerous issues were found and corrected that would have been difficult to nearly impossible to do on-orbit. Today KSC continues to process ISS payloads from across the world prior to launch along with developing its own experiments for on orbit.[20]


Current programs and initiatives[edit] The following are current programs and initiatives at Kennedy Space Center:[21] Commercial Crew Program[22] Ground Systems Development and Operations Program[23] NASA is currently designing the next heavy launch vehicle known as the Space Launch System (SLS) for continuation of human spaceflight. On December 5, 2014, NASA launched the first unmanned flight test of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), currently under development to facilitate human exploration of the Moon, asteroids, and Mars.[24][25] Launch Services Program[26] Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa)[27] Research and Technology[7] International Space Station Payloads[20]


Facilities[edit] The KSC Industrial Area, where many of the center's support facilities are located, is 5 miles (8 km) south of LC-39. It includes the Headquarters Building, the Operations and Checkout Building and the Central Instrumentation Facility. The astronaut crew quarters are in the O&C; before it was completed, the astronaut crew quarters were located in Hangar S[28] at the Cape Canaveral Missile Test Annex (now CCAFS).[12] Located as KSC was the Merritt Island Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network station (MILA), a key radio communications and spacecraft tracking complex. Official visitor map of KSC industrial area Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center are directly related to its mission to launch and, in some ksc dires, recover missions. Facilities are available to prepare and maintain spacecraft and payloads for flight.[29][30] The Headquarters (HQ) Building houses offices for the Center Director, library, film and photo archives, a print shop and security.[31] A new Headquarters Building is under construction as a part of the Central Campus consolidation and the first phase is expected to be complete in 2017.[9][32][33][34] The center operated its own 17-mile (27 km) short-line railroad.[35] This operation was discontinued in 2015, with the sale of its final two locomotives. A third had already been donated to a museum. The line was costing $1.3 million annually to maintain.[36] Payload processing[edit] Payloads are received, processed and integrated together in the Operations and Checkout Building (O&C) dating back to the 1960s with the Gemini and Apollo programs, 70s with the Skylab program and 80s and 90s for initial segments of the International Space Station.[37] The three-story, 457,000 square feet (42,500 m2) Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) consists of two processing bays, an airlock, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas and office space for support of non-hazardous Station and Shuttle payloads to ISO 14644-1 class 5 standards.[38] The Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) features a 71 feet (22 m) x 38 feet (12 m) door where payloads which are processed in the vertical position are brought in and manipulated with two overhead cranes and a hoist capable of lifting up to 35 short tons (32 t).[39] The Hypergolic Maintenance and Checkout Area (HMCA) comprises three buildings which are isolated from the rest of the industrial area because of the hazardous materials handled there. Hypergolic-fueled modules that made up the Space Shuttle Orbiter's reaction control system, orbital maneuvering system and auxiliary power units were stored and serviced in the HMCF.[40] Launch Complex 39[edit] Main article: Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 The Vehicle Assembly Building (center) in 1999, with the Launch Control Center jutting out from its right, and Pads A and B in the distance Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) was originally built for the Saturn V, the largest and most powerful operational launch vehicle in history, for the Apollo manned Moon landing program. Since the end of the Apollo program in 1972, LC-39 has been used to launch every NASA human space flight, including Skylab (1973), the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1975), and the Space Shuttle program (1981-2011). Since December 1968, all launch operations have been conducted from launch pads A and B at LC-39. Both pads are on the ocean, 3 miles (4.8 km) east of the VAB. From 1969–1972, LC-39 was the departure point for all six Apollo manned Moon landing missions using the Saturn V, and was used from 1981–2011 for all Space Shuttle launches. Human missions to the Moon required the large three-stage Saturn V rocket, which was 363 feet (111 meters) tall and 33 feet (10 meters) in diameter. At KSC, Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) was built on Merritt Island to accommodate the new rocket. Construction of the $800 million project began in November 1962. LC-39 pads A and B were completed by October 1965 (planned Pads C, D and E were canceled), the VAB was completed in June 1965, and the infrastructure by late 1966. The complex includes: the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), a 130,000,000 cubic feet (3,700,000 m3) hangar capable of holding four Saturn Vs. The VAB is the fourth-largest structure in the world by volume, and was the largest when completed in 1965.[41] a transporter capable of carrying 5,440 tons along a crawlerway to either of two launch pads; a 446-foot (136 m) mobile service structure, with three Mobile Launcher Platforms, each containing a fixed launch umbilical tower; the Launch Control Center; and a news media facility. Commercial leasing[edit] As a part of promoting commercial space industry growth in the area and the overall center as a multi-user spaceport,[42][43] KSC leases some of its properties. Here are some major examples: Exploration Park to multiple users (partnership with Space Florida) Shuttle Landing Facility to Space Florida (who contracts use to private companies) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF)-3 to Boeing (for CST-100 Starliner) LC-39A to SpaceX O&C High Bay to Lockheed Martin (for Orion processing) Land for FPL’s Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center to Florida Power and Light (FPL)[44][45][46] Hypergolic Maintenance Facility (HMF) to United Paradyne Corporation (UPC)[47] Visitor complex[edit] Main article: Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex Gate to the KSC Visitor Complex in 2006; Explorer, a Space Shuttle mock-up, is in the background The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, operated by Delaware North since 1995, has a variety of exhibits, artifacts, displays and attractions on the history and future of human and robotic spaceflight. Bus tours of KSC originate from here. The complex also includes the separate Apollo/Saturn V Center, north of the VAB and the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame, six miles west near Titusville. There were 1.5 million visitors in 2009. It had some 700 employees.[48] It was announced on May 29, 2015 that the Astronaut Hall of Fame exhibit would be moved from its current location to another location within the Visitor Complex to make room for an upcoming high-tech attraction entitled "Heroes and Legends". The attraction, to be designed by Orlando-based design firm Falcon's Treehouse, is slated to open sometime late 2016.[49] In March 2016, the visitor center unveiled the new location of the iconic countdown clock at the complex's entrance; previously, the clock was located with a flagpole at the press site. The clock was originally built and installed in 1969 and listed with the flagpole in the National Register of Historic Places in January 2000.[50] Historic locations[edit] NASA lists the following Historic Districts at KSC; each district has multiple associated facilities:[51][52][53] Launch Complex 39: Pad A Historic District Launch Complex 39: Pad B Historic District Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) Area Historic District Orbiter Processing Historic District Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Disassembly and Refurbishment Complex Historic District NASA KSC Railroad System Historic District NASA-owned Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Industrial Area Historic District There are 24 historic properties outside of these historic districts, including the Space Shuttle Atlantis, Vehicle Assembly Building, Crawlerway, and Operations and Checkout Building.[51] KSC has one National Historic Landmark, 78 National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) listed or eligible sites, and 100 Archaeological Sites.[54] Further information: John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS


Weather[edit] A Mercury Redstone rocket on display at Gate 3 was toppled by Hurricane Frances on September 7, 2004. Florida's peninsular shape and temperature contrasts between land and ocean provide ideal conditions for electrical storms, earning Central Florida the reputation as "lightning capital of the United States".[55][56] This makes extensive lightning protection and detection systems necessary to protect employees, structures and spacecraft on launch pads.[57] On November 14, 1969, Apollo 12 was struck by lightning just after lift-off from Pad 39A, but the flight continued safely. The most powerful lightning strike recorded at KSC occurred at LC-39B on August 25, 2006, while shuttle Atlantis was being prepared for STS-115. NASA managers were initially concerned that the lightning strike caused damage to Atlantis, but none was found.[58] On September 7, 2004, Hurricane Frances directly hit the area with sustained winds of 70 miles per hour (110 km/h) and gusts up to 94 miles per hour (151 km/h), the most damaging storm to date. The Vehicle Assembly Building lost 1,000 exterior panels, each 3.9 feet (1.2 m) x 9.8 feet (3.0 m) in size. This exposed 39,800 sq ft (3,700 m2) of the building to the elements. Damage occurred to the south and east sides of the VAB. The shuttle's Thermal Protection System Facility suffered extensive damage. The roof was partially torn off and the interior suffered water damage. Several rockets on display in the center were toppled.[59] Further damage to KSC was caused by Hurricane Wilma in October 2005.


KSC directors[edit] Dr. Kurt Debus, first director of KSC Since KSC's formation, ten NASA officials have served as directors, including three former astronauts (Crippen, Bridges and Cabana): Name Start End Reference Dr. Kurt H. Debus July 1962 November 1974 [60] Lee R. Scherer January 19, 1975 September 2, 1979 [61] Richard G. Smith September 26, 1979 August 2, 1986 [62] Forrest S. McCartney August 31, 1987 December 31, 1991 [63] Robert L. Crippen January 1992 January 1995 [64] Jay F. Honeycutt January 1995 March 2, 1997 [65] Roy D. Bridges, Jr. March 2, 1997 August 9, 2003 [66] James W. Kennedy August 9, 2003 January 2007 [67] William W. Parsons January 2007 October 2008 [68] Robert D. Cabana October 2008 present [69]


Labor force[edit] When KSC separated from Marshall Space Flight Center in July 1962, it took 375 employees with it. In May 1965, KSC had 7,000 employees and contractors move from rented space in Cocoa Beach to the new Merritt Island facilities. The peak number of persons working on center was 26,000 in 1968 (3,000 were civil servants). In 1970, President Nixon announced intent to reduce cost of space operations and major cuts occurred at KSC. By 1974, KSC's workforce was down to 10,000 employees (2,408 civil servants).[6] A total of 13,100 people worked at the center as of 2011. Approximately 2,100 are employees of the federal government; the rest are contractors.[70] The average annual salary for an on-site worker in 2008 was $77,235.[71] The end of the Space Shuttle program in 2011, preceded by the cancellation of Constellation Program in 2010, produced a significant downsizing of the KSC workforce similar to that experienced at the end of the Apollo program in 1972. As part of this downsizing, 6,000 contractors lost their jobs at the Center during 2010 and 2011.[72]


Film appearances[edit] In addition to being frequently featured in documentaries, Kennedy Space Center has been portrayed on film many times. Some studio movies have even gained access and filmed scenes within the gates of the space center. If extras are needed in those scenes, space center employees are recruited (employees use personal time during filming). Films with scenes at KSC include:[73] Moonraker SpaceCamp Apollo 13 Contact Armageddon[74] Space Cowboys Transformers 3: Dark of the Moon Tomorrowland Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No! First Man (upcoming) Several television shows have had KSC as one of the primary settings, though not necessarily with any scenes filmed on center: I Dream of Jeannie The Cape The Astronaut Wives Club


See also[edit] Florida portal Government of the United States portal Spaceflight portal Air Force Space & Missile Museum Astronaut beach house Mobile Launcher Platform NASA Causeway List of tallest buildings and structures in the world Kerbal Space Program Solar eclipse of August 12, 2045 [Kennedy Space Center will be in the path of totality]


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Bibliography[edit] Benson, Charles D.; Faherty, William Barnaby (1978). Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations. Scientific and Technical Information Office, NASA. Archived from the original on November 17, 2004. . Middleton, Sallie. "Space Rush: Local Impact of Federal Aerospace Programs on Brevard and Surrounding Counties," Florida Historical Quarterly, Fall 2008, Vol. 87 Issue 2, pp 258–289 Reynolds, David West (September 2006). Kennedy Space Center: Gateway to Space. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-039-8. Retrieved January 30, 2010.   This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kennedy Space Center. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Cape Canaveral. Kennedy Space Center Web site Kennedy History Vault Spaceport News KSC Employee Magazine KSC Visitor Complex Web site Streaming audio of KSC radio communications Astronauts Memorial Foundation Web site John F. Kennedy Space Center from Encyclopedia Astronautica "America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier", a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan "Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms", a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage travel itinerary A Field Guide to American Spacecraft Documentary of the U.S. Space Program in Florida v t e NASA facilities NASA Headquarters Primary 10 centers Space/space flight Goddard Space Flight Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Johnson Space Center Kennedy Space Center Marshall Space Flight Center Stennis Space Center Research Ames Research Center Armstrong Flight Research Center Glenn Research Center Langley Research Center Other facilities Michoud Assembly Facility Wallops Flight Facility White Sands Test Facility Goddard Institute for Space Studies Santa Susana Field Laboratory Scientific Balloon Flight Facility Independent Verification and Validation Facility Deep Space Network Goldstone Madrid Canberra Space Flight Operations Facility v t e Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island launch sites Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Kennedy Space Center Spaceport Florida LC-1 LC-2 LC-3 LC-4 LC-5 LC-6 LC-9 LC-10 LC-11 LC-12 LC-13 / LZ-1 & LZ-2 LC-14 LC-15 LC-16 SLC-17 LC-18 LC-19 LC-20 LC-21 LC-22 LC-25 LC-26 LC-29 LC-30 LC-31 LC-32 LC-34 LC-36 SLC-37 LC-39 SLC-40 SLC-41 LC-43 LC-45 LC-46 LC-47 Atlantic Missile Range drop zone Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Skid Strip Cape Canaveral Mobile Launch Area Eastern Test Range SLBM Launch Area Grand Turk Island drop zone Patrick Air Force Base Shuttle Landing Facility v t e Missions and tests of the Apollo program Rocket tests SA-1 SA-2 SA-3 SA-4 SA-5 AS-203 Abort tests QTV Pad Abort Test-1 A-001 A-002 A-003 Pad Abort Test-2 A-004 Boilerplate tests AS-101 AS-102 AS-103 AS-104 AS-105 Unmanned missions AS-201 AS-202 Apollo 4 Apollo 5 Apollo 6 Skylab 1 Low Earth orbit missions Apollo 7 Apollo 9 Skylab 2 Skylab 3 Skylab 4 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Lunar orbit missions Apollo 8 Apollo 10 Lunar landing missions Apollo 11 Apollo 12 Apollo 14 Apollo 15 Apollo 16 Apollo 17 Failed missions Apollo 1 (AS-204) Apollo 13 List of missions Mission types Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 Canceled missions v t e NASA Space Shuttle (STS) Space Shuttle Programs Missions Crews Parts Orbiter Vehicle (OV) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) External Tank (ET) Main Engine (SSME) Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) Reaction control system (RCS) Thermal protection system Booster separation motor Orbiters Enterprise Columbia Challenger Discovery Atlantis Endeavour Add-ons Spacelab (ESA) RMS (CSA) Extended Duration Orbiter Remote Controlled Orbiter Spacehab MPLM Sites Kennedy Space Center LC-39 Vandenberg SLC-6 Landing sites (Abort Landing Sites) Operations Missions (canceled) Crews Mission timeline Rollbacks Abort modes Rendezvous pitch maneuver Testing Pathfinder (simulator) MPTA MPTA-ET Approach and Landing Tests Disasters Challenger disaster (report) Columbia disaster (report) Support Crawler-transporter Mate-Demate Device Mobile Launcher Platform NASA recovery ship Orbiter Processing Facility Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) Shuttle Carrier Aircraft Shuttle Training Aircraft Special Deutschland-1 Getaway Special Teacher in Space Project Shuttle-Mir Hitchhiker Derivatives Saturn-Shuttle (canceled) Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Shuttle-Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) Jupiter Shuttle-C Ares Space Launch System (SLS) Replicas Inspiration Independence Related Space Shuttle design process Inertial Upper Stage Payload Assist Module ISS Space Shuttle retirement Conroy Virtus Criticism of the Space Shuttle program Space Shuttle America Rendezvous: A Space Shuttle Simulation Space Shuttle Project Shuttle Space Shuttle: A Journey into Space Space Shuttle Mission 2007 Orbiter v t e NASA Policy and history History NACA (1915) National Aeronautics and Space Act (1958) Space Task Group (1958) Paine (1986) Rogers (1986) Ride 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Sweden Kronogård USA Edwards WSSH v t e John F. Kennedy 35th President of the United States (1961–1963) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts (1953–1960) U.S. Representative for MA-11 (1947–1953) Presidency (timeline) Presidential Office: Inauguration Cabinet Judicial appointments Supreme Court Presidential pardons Domestic policy: Clean Air Act Communications Satellite Act Community Mental Health Act Equal Pay Act Federal affirmative action Federal housing segregation ban Fifty-mile hikes Food for Peace New Frontier Pilot Food Stamp Program Space policy Status of Women (Presidential Commission) University of Alabama integration Voter Education Project Foreign policy: Alliance for Progress Arms Control and Disarmament Agency Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Flexible response Kennedy Doctrine Peace Corps Trade Expansion Act USAID Vietnam War Cuba: Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Project Cuban Missile Crisis ExComm Soviet Union: Berlin Crisis Moscow–Washington hotline Vienna summit White House: Presidential limousine Presidential yacht Resolute desk Situation Room Presidential speeches Inaugural address American University speech "We choose to go to the Moon" Report to the American People on Civil Rights "Ich bin ein Berliner" "A rising tide lifts all boats" Elections U.S. States House of Representatives elections, 1946 1948 1950 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts, 1952 1958 1960 Presidential primaries 1960 Presidential campaign Democratic National Convention 1956 1960 U.S. presidential election, 1960 debates Personal life Birthplace and childhood home Kennedy Compound US Navy service PT-109 Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana Arthur Evans PT-59 Castle Hot Springs Hammersmith Farm Coretta Scott King phone call Rocking chair "Happy Birthday, Mr. President" Books Why England Slept (1940) Profiles in Courage (1956) A Nation of Immigrants (1958) Death Assassination timeline reactions in popular culture State funeral Riderless horse attending dignitaries Gravesite and Eternal Flame Legacy John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum (Boston) 1964 Civil Rights Act Apollo 11 Moon landing Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Kennedy Space Center (Florida) Kennedy Round U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development VISTA Cultural depictions films Kennedy half dollar U.S. postage stamps U.S. five cent stamp Lincoln–Kennedy coincidences Operation Sail Memorials, namesakes Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (Washington, D.C.) John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York) John F. Kennedy Memorial (London) John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial (Dallas) John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial (Portland, Oregon) John F. Kennedy Memorial (Runnymede, Britain) John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge (Kentucky–Indiana) John F. Kennedy School of Government (Harvard Univ.) John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School (Fort Bragg, North Carolina) John F. Kennedy University (California) John Kennedy College (Mauritius) Kennedy Expressway (Chicago) MV John F. Kennedy USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) Yad Kennedy (Jerusalem) Family Jacqueline Bouvier (wife) Caroline Kennedy (daughter) John F. Kennedy Jr. son plane crash Patrick Bouvier Kennedy (son) Jack Schlossberg (grandson) Rose Schlossberg (granddaughter) Tatiana Schlossberg (granddaughter) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. (father) Rose Fitzgerald (mother) Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (brother) Rosemary Kennedy (sister) Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington (sister) Eunice Kennedy Shriver (sister) Patricia Kennedy Lawford (sister) Robert F. Kennedy (brother) Jean Kennedy Smith (sister) Ted Kennedy (brother) P. J. Kennedy (grandfather) John F. Fitzgerald (grandfather) ← Dwight D. Eisenhower Lyndon B. Johnson → Category Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144777016 LCCN: n50082518 ISNI: 0000 0001 0845 4769 GND: 5143972-4 SUDOC: 02729627X NLA: 35860386 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kennedy_Space_Center&oldid=825964269" Categories: Kennedy Space CenterNASA facilitiesAerospace museums in FloridaBuildings and structures in Merritt Island, FloridaBuildings and monuments honoring American PresidentsJohn F. Kennedy memorialsGovernment buildings in FloridaIMAX venuesIndustrial buildings and structures in FloridaLandmarks in FloridaMuseums in Brevard County, FloridaGovernment buildings on the National Register of Historic Places in FloridaIndustrial buildings and structures on the National Register of Historic Places in FloridaNational Register of Historic Places in Brevard County, FloridaParks and attractions with Angry Birds exhibitsRocket launch sitesScience museums in FloridaSpaceports in the United StatesTitusville, FloridaGovernment buildings completed in 19621962 establishments in FloridaTourist attractions in Brevard County, FloridaTourist attractions in FloridaHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksPages with citations lacking titlesPages with citations having bare URLsPages with URL errorsUse American English from January 2014All Wikipedia articles written in American EnglishUse mdy dates from November 2015Coordinates on WikidataAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2015Wikipedia articles incorporating text from NASAWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with NLA identifiers


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Cape Canaveral Air Force StationKSC Headquarters BuildingFederal Government Of The United StatesMerritt Island, FloridaFloridaGeographic Coordinate SystemRobert D. CabanaNASACape Canaveral Air Force StationNASANASA FacilitiesApollo ProgramSkylabSpace Shuttle ProgramKennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39Cape Canaveral Air Force StationProject MercuryProject GeminiMercury Control CenterLaunch Control CenterChristopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control CenterIn-Situ Resource UtilizationSpaceportKennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39Vehicle Assembly BuildingOperations And Checkout BuildingShuttle Landing FacilityKennedy Space Center Visitor ComplexCape Canaveral Air Force StationUnited States Department Of DefenseNASAMarshall Space Flight CenterJohn F. KennedySaturn VMerritt IslandCharles LuckmanAssassination Of John F. KennedyJames E. WebbMerritt Island, FloridaCape CanaveralJacksonville, FloridaSpace CoastOrlando, FloridaTourist DestinationOrlando, FloridaKennedy Space Center Visitor ComplexWildlife SanctuaryMosquito LagoonIndian River (Florida)Merritt Island National Wildlife RefugeCanaveral National SeashoreBald EagleAmerican AlligatorRazorbackCrotalus AdamanteusFlorida PantherWikipedia:Citation NeededWest Indian ManateeApollo ProgramList Of Apollo MissionsEnlargeApollo 15Mobile Launcher Platform 1Apollo 4Apollo 8Apollo Lunar ModuleApollo 9Apollo 10Apollo 11Apollo 12Saturn VSkylabApollo–Soyuz Test ProjectSpace Shuttle ProgramList Of Space Shuttle MissionsEnlargeSpace Shuttle DiscoverySTS-60Intracoastal WaterwayPolar OrbitWhite Sands Missile RangeSpace Shuttle ColumbiaSTS-1EnlargeSpace Shuttle AtlantisSTS-36U.S. BicentennialOrbiter Processing FacilityShuttle Landing FacilitySpace Shuttle ChallengerSTS-41-BEdwards Air Force BaseReturn To Launch SiteSpace Shuttle Challenger DisasterSTS-51-LO-ringSTS-26Re-entrySTS-107Space Shuttle Columbia DisasterSTS-114Space Shuttle Main EngineAbort To OrbitSTS-51-FShuttle–Mir ProgramInternational Space StationHubble Space TelescopeSpacelabAres I-XExpendable Launch VehicleGlenn Research CenterCape Canaveral Air Force StationVandenberg Air Force BaseCommercial Space Launch Act Of 1984National Oceanic And Atmospheric AdministrationLaunch Services ProgramGoddard Space Flight CenterMars Science LaboratoryInternational Space StationSpacelabOperations And Checkout BuildingSpace Station Processing FacilitySpace Station Processing FacilityCommercial Crew ProgramSpace Launch SystemOrion (spacecraft)MoonAsteroidMarsLaunch Services ProgramLaunch Services ProgramInternational Space StationKSC Headquarters BuildingOperations And Checkout BuildingCentral Instrumentation FacilityCape Canaveral Air Force StationMerritt Island Spaceflight Tracking And Data Network StationEnlargeNASA RailroadOperations And Checkout BuildingSpace Station Processing FacilityClass 3000Hypergolic-fuelReaction Control SystemKennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39EnlargeVehicle Assembly BuildingLaunch Control CenterKennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39Saturn VApollo ProgramSkylabApollo-Soyuz Test ProjectSpace Shuttle ProgramLaunch PadApollo ProgramSaturn VSpace ShuttleMoonKennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39Vehicle Assembly BuildingCrawler-transporterCrawlerwayService StructureMobile Launcher PlatformLaunch Control CenterLaunch Complex 39 Press SiteExploration ParkSpace FloridaShuttle Landing FacilitySpace FloridaOrbiter Processing FacilityBoeingCST-100 StarlinerKennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39SpaceXOperations And Checkout BuildingLockheed MartinOrion (spacecraft)Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy CenterFlorida Power And LightKennedy Space Center Visitor ComplexEnlargeSpace Shuttle ExplorerSpace ShuttleDelaware NorthApollo/Saturn V CenterUnited States Astronaut Hall Of FameTitusville, FloridaShuttle Landing FacilitySpace Shuttle AtlantisVehicle Assembly BuildingOperations And Checkout BuildingNational Historic LandmarkNational Register Of Historic PlacesJohn F. 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Johnson Space CenterMarshall Space Flight CenterJohn C. Stennis Space CenterAmes Research CenterNeil A. Armstrong Flight Research CenterGlenn Research CenterLangley Research CenterMichoud Assembly FacilityWallops Flight FacilityWhite Sands Test FacilityGoddard Institute For Space StudiesSanta Susana Field LaboratoryFort Sumner Municipal AirportIndependent Verification And Validation FacilityNASA Deep Space NetworkGoldstone Deep Space Communications ComplexMadrid Deep Space Communications ComplexCanberra Deep Space Communication ComplexSpace Flight Operations FacilityTemplate:Merritt IslandTemplate Talk:Merritt IslandList Of Cape Canaveral And Merritt Island Launch SitesCape Canaveral Air Force StationSpace FloridaCape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 1Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 2Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 3Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 4Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 5Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 6Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 9Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 10Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 11Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 12Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 13Landing Zones 1 And 2Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 14Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 15Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 16Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 18Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 19Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 20Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 21Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 22Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 25Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 26Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 29Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 30Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 31Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 32Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 34Spaceport Florida Launch Complex 36Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 37Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 40Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 43Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 45Spaceport Florida Launch Complex 46Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 47Eastern RangeCape Canaveral Air Force Station Skid StripEastern RangeGrand Turk IslandPatrick Air Force BaseShuttle Landing FacilityTemplate:Apollo ProgramTemplate Talk:Apollo ProgramList Of Apollo MissionsApollo ProgramSaturn I SA-1Saturn I SA-2Saturn I SA-3Saturn I SA-4Saturn I SA-5AS-203Apollo Program InsigniaLittle Joe II Qualification Test VehiclePad Abort Test 1A-001A-002A-003Pad Abort Test 2A-004Boilerplate (spaceflight)AS-101 (spacecraft)AS-102 (spacecraft)AS-103 (spacecraft)AS-104 (spacecraft)AS-105 (spacecraft)AS-201AS-202Apollo 4Apollo 5Apollo 6SkylabLow 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