Contents 1 Background and governorship 2 Híjar-Padrés colony 3 Figueroa's manifesto 4 Illness, death and burial 5 Legacy 5.1 Figueroa rancho land grants 6 References


Background and governorship[edit] Figueroa was a Mestizo of Spanish and Aztec ancestry, and was proud of his Indian background.[2] He had served as a military officer on the Sonoran frontier. He achieved the rank of Brevet Brigadier general.[3] Figueroa was appointed governor of Alta California in 1832, and arrived for duty in January, 1833.[2] Due to political turbulence, Alta California had two rival acting governors at that time. Agustín V. Zamorano held office in Monterey in the north, while José María de Echeandía ruled Southern California from Los Angeles and San Diego. Both men deferred to Figueroa, and the government of Alta California was united.[2] Figueroa oversaw the initial secularization of the missions of upper California, which included the expulsion of the Spanish Franciscan mission officials. This also involved the issuing of many Mexican land grants for former mission lands, originally intended to be held in trust for Mission Indians. He also had to deal with the Híjar-Padrés colony, and a resulting rebellion. Many historians consider Figueroa to be "the most competent governor of California during the Mexican era".[2][3] Many of the communities that had grown up around the twenty-one missions became secular pueblos (towns). Most of the towns kept their previous mission names. In the case of Mission Santa Cruz, Figueroa considered changing the town name to Villa Figueroa, but the change was never put into effect.[4]


Híjar-Padrés colony[edit] In 1833, the Mexican Congress passed legislation to secularize the California missions. Acting Mexican president Valentín Gómez Farías, a liberal reformer, appointed José María de Híjar and D. José María Padrés to lead a group of 239 colonists to establish secular control of Alta California. Híjar, a wealthy landowner, was appointed governor to replace Figueroa, and Padrés, an army officer, was appointed military commander. The colonists were farmers and artisans, and were volunteers carefully selected by Farías. His objective was to modernize and strengthen Mexican rule over California, as a bulwark against the growing influence of Russia and the United States.[3] While the colonists were traveling north to Alta California on two ships, president Antonio López de Santa Anna took full power, and revoked Híjar's appointment as governor, thereby allowing Figueroa to continue in that post. A horseman traveled for 40 days from Mexico City to Monterey to bring the news to Figueroa.[2] One of the colonists' ships arrived in San Diego on September 1, and the second ship arrived in Monterey on September 25. As the horseback courier had arrived previously, Híjar learned to his consternation that he had no official powers. [2] Figueroa objected to the colonization plan since he believed that at least half of the mission lands should be turned over to the California natives. The Franciscan missionaries had administered the missions in trust for the original inhabitants. On August 4, 1834, Figueroa issued a 180-page proclamation setting out a plan for secularization of the missions, which was far more favorable to the native peoples than the Híjar-Padrés plan.[3] On March 7, 1835, a small group of the Híjar-Padrés colonists launched a brief rebellion against Figueroa in Los Angeles. Although the rebels took control of the town hall, the revolt promptly collapsed, and its leaders were arrested.[2] When word of the failed coup reached Figueroa, he promptly had Híjar and Padrés arrested.[2] Híjar and his closest associates were ousted from California, although many of the colonists stayed and became productive citizens of California.[3]


Figueroa's manifesto[edit] Figueroa's 1835 Manifesto, published in Monterey, was the first book printed in California. In 1835, Figueroa published in Monterey, California his manifesto defending his administration and explaining his opposition to the Híjar-Padrés colonization plan. This was the first book published in California.[5]


Illness, death and burial[edit] Francisco García Diego y Moreno, who later became California's first bishop, reported that Figueroa was "greatly agitated on account of the disturbances that the colonists caused",[6] and set out on a strenuous voyage in 1835 to calm the political turmoil. He sailed from Monterey to San Francisco, and with very little rest, on to San Diego and then he returned to Monterey in June, 1835, and was "already ailing".[6] Although he was initially able to continue his work, he felt weak and did not recover. He participated in the session of the territorial assembly that convened on August 25, but informed that body on August 27 that he needed to take a leave of absence for health reasons, appointing José Castro as interim governor.[6] Beginning September 6, he was confined to his bed and on September 22, he resigned, appointing José Castro as his successor. On September 27, he wrote his last will, asking that his body be preserved and buried at Mission Santa Barbara.[6] Figueroa died in Monterey on the afternoon of September 29, 1835.[6] As he had requested, his body was preserved, and sent to Santa Barbara by ship where it arrived on October 27.[6] He was buried in a crypt beneath Mission Santa Barbara.[7] Rumors circulated after his death that he had been poisoned. The following year, Diego reported to the Mexican government that Figueroa had shown symptoms of apoplexy in his final months, and that blood clots had been discovered in his brain when his body was preserved after his death.[6] There were also persistent rumors that his body was not buried in Santa Barbara. In 1912, his casket was opened, and the body was consistent in that it was in a Mexican military uniform. The size of the skeleton matched Figueroa's small stature, no more than five feet, two inches tall.[6]


Legacy[edit] Landmarks named after General José Figueroa include: Figueroa Mountain, in the San Rafael Mountains, Los Padres National Forest, Santa Barbara County, California Figueroa Street and Figueroa Avenue, in Los Angeles, California Figueroa Street Tunnels Figueroa at Wilshire Figueroa rancho land grants[edit] Mexican land grants in Alta California issued by Governor José Figueroa: Rancho Acalanes Rancho Aguajito Rancho Aptos Rancho Arroyo de Las Nueces y Bolbones Rancho Arroyo del Rodeo Rancho Ausaymas y San Felipe Rancho Bolsa de San Cayetano Rancho Cañada del Corte de Madera Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana Rancho Corte Madera del Presidio Rancho El Alisal Rancho El Molino Rancho El Rincon (Arellanes) Rancho El Sur Rancho Encinal y Buena Esperanza Rancho Guadalupe y Llanitos de los Correos Rancho Laguna Seca Rancho Laguna Seca (Alvires) Rancho Las Animas Rancho Las Posas Rancho Los Alamitos Rancho Los Carneros (Littlejohn) Rancho Monte del Diablo Rancho Nuestra Señora del Refugio Rancho Ojo del Agua de la Coche Rancho Paso de Bartolo Rancho Pescadero (Gonzalez) Rancho Petaluma Rancho Punta de Pinos Rancho Salsipuedes Rancho San Andrés Rancho San Agustin Rancho San Francisco de las Llagas Rancho San Pascual Rancho San Ramon (Amador) Rancho San Ramon (Pacheco-Castro) Rancho San Ysidro Rancho Santa Teresa Rancho Saucito Rancho Sausal Rancho Sespe Rancho Solis Rancho Soquel Rancho Tecate Rancho Tularcitos (Gomez) Rancho Yerba Buena Rancho Zayante


References[edit] ^ Francis J. Weber Prominent visitors to the California missions, 1786–1842 1991 "Jose Figueroa (1792–1835), an Aztecan mestigo, was a veteran of the Sonora frontier. He was Governor of California between 1833 and 1835. " ^ a b c d e f g h Guinn, James Miller (1902). Historical and Biographical Record of Southern California:Containing a History of Southern California from Its Earliest Settlement to the Opening Year of the Twentieth Century. Chicago: Chapman Publishing Company. pp. 72–73.  ^ a b c d e Starr, Kevin (2007). California: A History. Modern Library. pp. 47–49. ISBN 9780812977530.  ^ Rowland, L. (1980). Santa Cruz, the early years: The collected historical writings of Leon Rowland, p.16. Santa Cruz, Calif: Paper Vision Press. ^ Johnson, David. "Book Review: Manifesto to the Mexican Republic, which Brigadier General José Figueroa, Commandant and Political Chief of Upper California Presents on his Conduct and on that of José María de Híjar and José María Padrés as Directors of Colonization in 1834 and 1835". San Diego History Center. Retrieved September 5, 2016. In this handsomely designed and intelligently conceived volume, C. Alan Hutchinson has made available an important document concerning California’s Mexican period. Governor José Figueroa’s Manifesto to the Mexican Republic was the first book length imprint published in California (1835).  ^ a b c d e f g h Engelhardt, Zephyrin (1913). The Missions and Missionaries of California. San Francisco: The James H. Barry Company. pp. 597–605.  ^ Bush, Sara (April 1, 2013). "Santa Barbara Mission crypt undergoes retrofitting". KEYT-TV. Santa Barbara, California. Retrieved September 5, 2016.  v t e Governors of California Colony (1769–1822) Capt. Portolà Col. Fages Capt. Rivera Capt-Gen. de Neve Col. Fages Capt. Roméu Capt. Arrillaga Col. Bórica Lt. Col. Alberní Capt. Arrillaga Capt. J. Argüello Don Solá Territory (1822–36) Capt. L. Argüello Lt. Col. Echeandía Gen. Victoria Don P. Pico Lt. Col. Echeandía Brig. Gen. Figueroa Lt. Col. Castro Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Col. Chico Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Sovereignty (1836–46) Pres. Castro Pres. Alvarado · Uncle Carrillo (rival) Brig. Gen. Micheltorena Don P. Pico Republic (1846–50) Cdre. Sloat Cdre. Stockton · Gen. Flores (rival) Gen. Kearny · Maj. Frémont (mutineer) Gen. Mason Gen. Smith Gen. Riley Burnett (from 1849) U.S. State (since 1850) Burnett McDougal Bigler J. Johnson Weller Latham Downey Stanford Low Haight Booth Pacheco Irwin Perkins Stoneman Bartlett Waterman Markham Budd Gage Pardee Gillett H. Johnson Stephens Richardson Young Rolph Merriam Olson Warren Knight P. Brown Reagan J. Brown Deukmejian Wilson Davis Schwarzenegger J. Brown Before 1850 After 1850 After 1850 by age Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71288351 LCCN: nr96013840 ISNI: 0000 0000 5559 4337 SNAC: w6cg12qp Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=José_Figueroa&oldid=800157359" Categories: Californios1792 births1835 deathsGovernors of Mexican California19th-century American politiciansHidden categories: Pages using infobox officeholder with unknown parametersUse dmy dates from February 2011Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers


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José Figueroa (disambiguation)MexicoGovernor Of Alta CaliforniaJosé María De EcheandíaJosé CastroGovernorPoliticianSoldierMexicoMexican ArmyGeneralList Of Pre-statehood Governors Of CaliforniaAlta CaliforniaMestizoBrevet (military)Brigadier GeneralAgustín V. ZamoranoJosé María De EcheandíaMexican Secularization Act Of 1833Spanish Missions In CaliforniaCaliforniaSpanish PeopleFranciscanRanchos Of CaliforniaMission IndiansMission Santa CruzValentín Gómez FaríasAntonio López De Santa AnnaLos AngelesEnlargeMonterey, CaliforniaFrancisco García Diego Y MorenoJosé CastroMission Santa BarbaraMission Santa BarbaraFigueroa MountainSan Rafael MountainsLos Padres National ForestSanta Barbara County, CaliforniaFigueroa StreetLos AngelesFigueroa Street TunnelsFigueroa At WilshireRancho AcalanesRancho AguajitoRancho AptosRancho Arroyo De Las Nueces Y BolbonesRancho Arroyo Del RodeoRancho Ausaymas Y San FelipeRancho Bolsa De San CayetanoRancho Cañada Del Corte De MaderaRancho Cañón De Santa AnaRancho Corte Madera Del PresidioRancho El AlisalRancho El MolinoRancho El Rincon (Arellanes)Rancho El SurRancho Encinal Y Buena EsperanzaRancho Guadalupe Y Llanitos De Los CorreosRancho Laguna SecaRancho Laguna Seca (Alvires)Rancho Las AnimasRancho Las PosasRancho Los AlamitosRancho Los Carneros (Littlejohn)Rancho Monte Del DiabloRancho Nuestra Señora Del RefugioRancho Ojo Del Agua De La CocheRancho Paso De BartoloRancho Pescadero (Gonzalez)Rancho PetalumaRancho Punta De PinosRancho SalsipuedesRancho San AndrésRancho San AgustinRancho San Francisco De Las LlagasRancho San PascualRancho San Ramon (Amador)Rancho San Ramon (Pacheco-Castro)Rancho San YsidroRancho Santa TeresaRancho SaucitoRancho SausalRancho SespeRancho SolisRancho SoquelRancho TecateRancho Tularcitos (Gomez)Rancho Yerba BuenaRancho ZayanteChicagoKevin StarrModern LibraryInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780812977530Zephyrin EngelhardtSan FranciscoKEYT-TVSanta Barbara, CaliforniaTemplate:Governors Of CaliforniaTemplate Talk:Governors Of CaliforniaGovernor Of CaliforniaSpanish EmpireGaspar De PortolàPedro FagesFernando Rivera Y MoncadaFelipe De NevePedro FagesJosé Antonio RoméuJosé Joaquín De ArrillagaDiego De BoricaPedro De AlberniJosé Joaquín De ArrillagaJosé Darío ArgüelloPablo Vicente De SoláSeal Of The Governor Of California1824 Constitution Of MexicoLuis Antonio ArgüelloJosé María De EcheandíaManuel VictoriaPío PicoJosé María De EcheandíaJosé CastroNicolás GutiérrezMariano ChicoNicolás GutiérrezJuan Bautista AlvaradoJosé CastroJuan Bautista AlvaradoCarlos Antonio CarrilloManuel MicheltorenaPío PicoCalifornia RepublicJohn D. SloatRobert F. StocktonJosé María FloresStephen W. KearnyJohn C. FrémontRichard Barnes MasonPersifor Frazer SmithBennet C. RileyPeter Hardeman BurnettList Of Governors Of CaliforniaPeter Hardeman BurnettJohn McDougalJohn BiglerJ. Neely JohnsonJohn B. WellerMilton LathamJohn G. DowneyLeland StanfordFrederick LowHenry Huntly HaightNewton BoothRomualdo PachecoWilliam Irwin (California Politician)George Clement PerkinsGeorge StonemanWashington BartlettRobert Waterman (governor)Henry MarkhamJames BuddHenry GageGeorge PardeeJames GillettHiram JohnsonWilliam StephensFriend RichardsonC. C. YoungJames RolphFrank MerriamCulbert OlsonEarl WarrenGoodwin KnightPat BrownRonald ReaganJerry BrownGeorge DeukmejianPete WilsonGray DavisArnold SchwarzeneggerJerry BrownList Of Governors Of California Before 1850List Of Governors Of CaliforniaList Of Governors Of California By AgeHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierSNACHelp:CategoryCategory:CaliforniosCategory:1792 BirthsCategory:1835 DeathsCategory:Governors Of Mexican CaliforniaCategory:19th-century American PoliticiansCategory:Pages Using Infobox Officeholder With Unknown ParametersCategory:Use Dmy Dates From February 2011Category:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SNAC-ID IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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