Contents 1 Early life and career 2 Military career 3 After the Navy and education 4 Early radio and television 5 The Tonight Show 5.1 Move to Burbank 5.2 Uri Geller 5.3 Comic characters 5.4 Carson uncensored on satellite 6 Effect on popular culture 7 Controversies and feuds 8 Business ventures 9 Retirement 9.1 Post-retirement appearances 9.2 Letterman 10 Personal life 10.1 Politics 10.2 Marriages 10.3 Children 10.4 Charity 10.5 Other notes 11 Death and tributes 12 References 13 Further reading 13.1 Accounts on work and life 13.2 Humor material collections 14 External links

Early life and career[edit] John William Carson was born on October 23, 1925, in Corning, Iowa, to Homer Lloyd "Kit" Carson (1899–1983), a power company manager, and Ruth Elizabeth (Hook) Carson (1901–1985), who was of Irish descent.[4][5] He grew up in the nearby towns of Avoca, Clarinda, and Red Oak in southwest Iowa before moving to Norfolk, Nebraska at the age of eight. There, Carson grew up and began developing his talent for entertaining. At the age of 12, Carson found a book on magic at a friend's house and immediately purchased a mail-order magician's kit. After the purchase of the kit, Carson practiced his entertainment skills on family members with card tricks. He was known for following his family members around saying, "Pick a card, any card."[6] Carson's mother sewed him a cape, and his first performance was staged in front of the local Kiwanis Club. He debuted as "The Great Carsoni" at age 14 and was paid $3 a show.[6] Soon, many other performances at local picnics and country fairs followed. After graduating from high school, Carson had his first encounter with Hollywood.[7] He hitchhiked to Hollywood, where he was arrested and fined $50 for impersonating a midshipman, a story often regarded as apocryphal.[7] "Johnny embarked on an adventure, one so laden with implications about his future, that some have wondered if the escapade might not actually be a legend."[8]

Military career[edit] Navy portrait of Carson[4] Carson joined the United States Navy on June 8, 1943, and received V-12 Navy College Training Program officer training at Columbia University[9] and Millsaps College.[10] Commissioned an ensign late in the war, Carson was assigned to the USS Pennsylvania in the Pacific. While in the Navy, Carson posted a 10–0 amateur boxing record, with most of his bouts fought on board the Pennsylvania.[11] He was en route to the combat zone aboard a troop ship when the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ended the war. Carson served as a communications officer in charge of decoding encrypted messages. He said that the high point of his military career was performing a magic trick for United States Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal. In a conversation with Forrestal, the Secretary asked Carson if he planned to stay in the navy after the war.[8] In response, Carson said no and told him he wanted to be a magician. Forrestal asked him to perform, and Carson responded with a card trick.[8] Carson made the discovery that he could entertain and amuse someone as cranky and sophisticated as Forrestal.[8]

After the Navy and education[edit] To take advantage of the educational opportunities from the Navy, Carson attended the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, where he joined Phi Gamma Delta fraternity and continued performing magic (then paid $25 per appearance[4]). He majored in journalism with the intention of becoming a comedy writer. Instead, he switched his major to speech and drama a few months later, because he wanted to become a radio performer.[12] Carson's college thesis, titled "How to Write Comedian Jokes", was a compilation of taped skits and jokes from popular radio shows with Carson explaining the comedic technique in a voice-over. It allowed him to graduate in three years.[12] Carson graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Radio and Speech with a minor in Physics in 1949.[12]

Early radio and television [edit] Carson began his broadcasting career in 1950 at WOW radio and television in Omaha, Nebraska.[13] Carson soon hosted a morning television program called The Squirrel's Nest. One of his routines involved interviewing pigeons on the roof of the local courthouse that would report on the political corruption they had seen. Carson supplemented his income by serving as master of ceremonies at local church dinners, attended by some of the same politicians and civic leaders whom he had lampooned on the radio. Carson as a guest on Jack Benny's television program, 1955 Carson in 1957 The wife of one of the Omaha political figures Carson spoofed owned stock in a radio station in Los Angeles, and in 1951 referred Carson to her brother, who was influential in the emerging television market in southern California. Carson joined CBS-owned Los Angeles television station KNXT. In 1953, comic Red Skelton—a fan of Carson's "cult success" low-budget sketch comedy show, Carson's Cellar (1951 to 1953) on KNXT—asked Carson to join his show as a writer. In 1954, Skelton during rehearsal accidentally knocked himself unconscious an hour before his live show began, and Carson successfully filled in for him.[4] In 1955, Jack Benny invited Carson to appear on one of his programs during the opening and closing segments. Carson imitated Benny and claimed that Benny had copied his gestures. Benny predicted that Carson would have a successful career as a comedian.[14] Carson hosted several shows besides Carson's Cellar, including the game show Earn Your Vacation (1954) and the CBS variety show The Johnny Carson Show (1955–1956).[4][15] He was a guest panelist on the original To Tell the Truth starting in 1960, later becoming a regular panelist from 1961 until 1962. After the prime time The Johnny Carson Show failed, he moved to New York City to host Who Do You Trust? (1957–1962), formerly known as Do You Trust Your Wife?. In 1958, he appeared as a guest star in an episode entitled "Do You Trust Your Wife" on NBC's short-lived variety show, The Polly Bergen Show. On Who Do You Trust?, Carson met his future sidekick and straight man, Ed McMahon. Although he believed moving to daytime would hurt his career, Who Do You Trust? was a success. It was the first show where he could ad lib and interview guests,[16] and because of Carson's on-camera wit, the show became "the hottest item on daytime television" during his five years at ABC.[4]

The Tonight Show[edit] Main article: The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson With Dick Cavett and Alan King in 1968 NBC's Tonight was the late-night counterpart to its early-morning show Today. Originating in 1953 with host Steve Allen, Tonight was somewhat experimental at the time, as the only previous network late-night program was NBC's Broadway Open House which starred Jerry Lester and Dagmar. Tonight was successful, and when Allen moved on to primetime comedy-variety shows in 1956, Jack Paar replaced him as host of Tonight. Paar left the show in 1962. Johnny Carson's success on ABC's Who Do You Trust? led NBC to invite him to take over Tonight a few months before Paar's departure. Carson declined the offer because he feared the difficulty of interviewing celebrities for 105 minutes daily. Bob Newhart, Jackie Gleason, Groucho Marx, and Joey Bishop all also declined. NBC finally convinced Carson to sign by early February 1962. Carson can be seen discussing his upcoming job for the first time on the February 11, 1962, episode of What's My Line?.[17] Due to Carson having six months left on his ABC contract, NBC used multiple guest hosts until he could take over. Guest hosts included Merv Griffin, Art Linkletter, Joey Bishop, Arlene Francis (the first woman to host The Tonight Show), Bob Cummings, Jerry Lewis, Groucho Marx, Donald O'Connor, and others.[16][4] Although he continued to have doubts about his new job, Carson became the host of Tonight (later becoming The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson) on October 1, 1962. After a difficult first year, he overcame his fears.[16] While Tonight, under its previous hosts had been successful, especially under Paar, Carson's version eventually did very well in the ratings. Billy Wilder said of Carson: By the simple law of survival, Carson is the best. He enchants the invalids and the insomniacs as well as the people who have to get up at dawn. He is the Valium and the Nembutal of a nation. No matter what kind of dead-asses are on the show, he has to make them funny and exciting. He has to be their nurse and their surgeon. He has no conceit. He does his work and he comes prepared. If he's talking to an author, he has read the book. Even his rehearsed routines sound improvised. He's the cream of middle-class elegance, yet he's not a mannequin. He has captivated the American bourgeoisie without ever offending the highbrows, and he has never said anything that wasn't liberal or progressive. Every night, in front of millions of people, he has to do the salto mortale [a circus parlance for an aerial somersault performed on the tightrope]. What's more, he does it without a net. No rewrites. No retakes. The jokes must work tonight.[4] McMahon followed Carson from Who Do You Trust? as his announcer and sidekick and Skitch Henderson was installed as the maestro of the NBC orchestra. McMahon's famous introduction, "Heeeeere's Johnny!!!" was followed by a brief monologue by Carson. This was often followed by comedy sketches, interviews, and music. Carson's trademark was a phantom golf swing at the end of his monologues, aimed stage left toward the studio orchestra. (Guest hosts sometimes parodied that gesture. Bob Newhart rolled an imaginary bowling ball toward the audience.) Paul Anka wrote the theme song, ("Johnny's Theme"), a reworking of his "Toot Sweet"; given lyrics, it was renamed, "It's Really Love" and recorded by Annette Funicello in 1959. Before taking over The Tonight Show, Carson wrote lyrics for the song, and thus claimed 50% of the song's performance royalties (though the lyrics were never used). The theme is heard being played on sound recordings of Carson's first Tonight Show and it was used without interruption through to his last broadcast on May 22, 1992. The show was originally produced in New York City, with occasional stints in California. It was not live in its early years, although during the 1970s, NBC fed the live taping from Burbank to New York via satellite for editing (see below). The program had been done "live on tape" (uninterrupted unless a problem occurred) since the Jack Paar days. Carson had a talent for quick quips to deal with problems.[4] If the opening monologue fared poorly, the band would start playing "Tea for Two" and Carson danced a softshoe to laughs from the studio audience. Alternatively, Carson might pull the boom microphone close to his face and announce, "Attention K-Mart shoppers!" Move to Burbank[edit] On May 1, 1972, the show was moved from Thirty Rockefeller Plaza, New York, to Burbank, California, because of the studio's proximity to the celebrities.[18] Carson often joked about "beautiful downtown Burbank"[19] and referred to "beautiful downtown Bakersfield", which prompted Bakersfield Mayor Mary K. Shell to chide Carson and invite him to her city to see improvements made during the early 1980s.[20] From July 1971, Carson stopped hosting five shows per week. Instead, Mondays featured a guest host, leaving Carson to host the other four weeknights. Shows were videotaped in Burbank at 5:30 pm, fed from there to the Central and Eastern time zone stations via cross-country television line at 8:30 pm Pacific time (11:30 pm Eastern time), and later sent from Burbank to the Pacific time zone stations at 11:30 pm Pacific time. Since only two feeds originated from Burbank, Central time zone stations received the Eastern feed one hour earlier at 10:30 pm local time, and Mountain time stations received the Pacific time zone feed one hour later at 12:30 am local time. In 1980, at Carson's request,[21] the show cut its 90-minute format to 60 minutes on September 16;[22] Tom Snyder's Tomorrow added a half-hour to fill the vacant time. Joan Rivers became the "permanent" guest host from September 1983 until 1986. The Tonight Show returned to using rotating guest hosts, including comic George Carlin. Jay Leno then became the exclusive guest host in fall 1987. Leno joked that although other guest hosts had upped their fees, he had kept his low, assuring himself more bookings. Eventually, Monday night was for Leno, Tuesday for The Best of Carson—rebroadcasts usually dating from a year earlier, but occasionally from the 1970s. Although Carson's work schedule became more attenuated, Tonight remained so successful that his compensation from NBC continued to rise; by the mid-1970s, he had become the highest-paid personality on television, earning about $4 million a year ($15,008,000 today), not including nightclub appearances and his other businesses. He refused many offers to appear in films, including title roles in The Thomas Crown Affair and Gene Wilder's role in Blazing Saddles.[4] He also declined director Martin Scorsese's offer to co-star with Robert De Niro in the 1983 film The King of Comedy, the role of a TV talk-show host then going to Jerry Lewis. In recognition of his 25th anniversary on The Tonight Show, Carson received a personal Peabody Award, the board saying he had "become an American institution, a household word, [and] the most widely quoted American." They also said they "felt the time had come to recognize the contributions that Johnny has made to television, to humor, and to America."[23] Uri Geller[edit] In 1973, magician, television personality, and self-proclaimed psychic Uri Geller appeared on The Tonight Show. In the NOVA documentary, James Randi - Secrets of the Psychics, magician and skeptical activist James Randi says that “Johnny had been a magician himself and was skeptical” of Geller’s claimed paranormal powers, so prior to the date of taping, Randi was asked "to help prevent any trickery.” Per Randi's advice, the show prepared their own props without informing Geller, and did not let Geller or his staff "anywhere near them.” When Geller joined Carson on stage, he appeared surprised that he was not going to be interviewed, but instead was expected to display his abilities using the provided articles. Geller said “This scares me.” and “I’m surprised because before this program your producer came and he read me at least 40 questions you were going to ask me.” Geller was unable to display any paranormal abilities, saying “I don’t feel strong” and he expressed his displeasure at feeling like he was being “pressed” to perform by Carson.[24]:8:10 According to Adam Higginbotham's Nov. 7, 2014 article in the New York Times: The result was a legendary immolation, in which Geller offered up flustered excuses to his host as his abilities failed him again and again. “I sat there for 22 minutes, humiliated,” Geller told me, when I spoke to him in September. “I went back to my hotel, devastated. I was about to pack up the next day and go back to Tel Aviv. I thought, That’s it — I’m destroyed.” [25] However, this appearance on The Tonight Show, which Carson and Randi had orchestrated to debunk Geller's claimed abilities, backfired. According to Higginbotham, To Geller’s astonishment, he was immediately booked on The Merv Griffin Show. He was on his way to becoming a paranormal superstar. “That Johnny Carson show made Uri Geller,” Geller said. To an enthusiastically trusting public, his failure only made his gifts seem more real: If he were performing magic tricks, they would surely work every time.[25] Comic characters[edit] Carson played several continuing characters on sketches during the show, including Art Fern was the "Tea Time Movie" announcer,[26] whose theme song was "Hooray for Hollywood". Carson once admitted on camera that this was his favorite character, based on late-afternoon TV hosts who would deliver commercials throughout the movie. Each sketch usually featured three long commercials interrupted by silent, four-second clips from antique films. When the camera returned from each clip, Art was always caught off-guard and immediately reminded viewers that they were watching a film favorite. The movies always had unlikely casts and even less likely titles: "Slim Pickens, Patti Page, Duke Wayne, and Charlton Heston in another classic Western: 'Kiss My Saddle Horn'!" Carson originally played the fast-talking huckster in his own voice (as Honest Bernie Schlock or Ralph Willie), and finally settled on a nasal, high-pitched, smarmy drone, reminiscent of Jackie Gleason's "Reginald Van Gleason III" character. The character, now permanently known as Art Fern, wore a lavish toupee, loud jackets, and a pencil mustache. Actress Carol Wayne became famous for her 100-plus appearances (1971–1982) as Art's buxom assistant, the Matinée Lady. While Art gave his spiel, she would enter the stage behind him. Art would react to her attractive body by wincing, loudly shouting "Ho — leeeee!" and turning almost everything she said into a sexual double entendre. After Carol Wayne's death in 1985, Carson kept Art Fern off the air for most of the next year, and finally hired Danuta Wesley and then Teresa Ganzel to play the Matinée Lady. Carson also used these sketches to poke fun at the intricate Los Angeles interstate system, using a pointer and map to give confusing directions to shoppers, often including points where he would unfold the cardboard map to point out, via the appropriate picture, when the shopper would arrive at "the fork in the road". Another freeway routine in the same theme centered on the "Slauson Cutoff", a slang term Carson popularized to describe the truncated Marina Freeway (which ended abrubtly at Slauson Avenue in Culver City). Art Fern would advise drivers to take a series of freeways until they reached the Slauson Cutoff, and would then advise them to "Get out of your car, cut off your slauson, get back in your car," often followed by peals of laughter from the audience, led by McMahon. Carnac the Magnificent, a turbaned psychic, could answer questions before seeing them. Carnac had a trademark entrance in which he always turned the wrong direction when coming onto stage and then tripped on the step up to Carson's desk. (In one episode, technicians rigged Carson's desk to fall apart when Carnac fell into it.) These comedic missteps were an indication of Carnac's true prescient abilities. Ed McMahon would hand Carnac a series of envelopes containing questions, said to have been "hermetically sealed in a mayonnaise jar kept on Funk & Wagnall's porch since noon today." Carnac would place each envelope against his forehead and predict the answer, such as "Gatorade". Then, he would read the question: "What does an alligator get on welfare?" Some of the jokes were feeble, and McMahon used pauses after terrible puns and audience groans to make light of Carnac's lack of comic success ("Carnac must be used to quiet surroundings"), prompting Carson to return an equal insult. Pat McCormick wrote some of the zaniest Carnac material. The one that had Ed and Carnac nearly rolling on the floor with sustained laughter was "Sis, boom, bah" Answer – "Describe the sound made when a sheep explodes." McMahon would always announce near the end, "I hold in my hand the last envelope," at which the audience would applaud wildly, prompting Carnac to pronounce a comedic "curse" on the audience, such as "May a flock of wild geese leave a deposit on your breakfast!!", "May your sister elope with a camel!", "May a diseased yak take a liking to your sister", or the most famous: "May the bird of paradise fly up your nose!"[citation needed] Floyd R. Turbo, American (with no pause between words) was a stereotypical common working man, wearing a plaid hunting coat and cap, who offered "editorial responses" to left-leaning causes or news events. Railing against women's rights in the workplace, for example, Turbo would shout: "This raises the question: kiss my Dictaphone!" Aunt Blabby, a cantankerous and sometimes amorous old lady, was invariably interviewed by straight man Ed McMahon about elder affairs.[26] McMahon would innocently use a common expression like "check out", only to have Aunt Blabby warn him: "Don't say 'check out' to an old person!" Aunt Blabby was an obvious copy of Jonathan Winters' most famous creation, Maude Frickert, including her black spinster dress and wig. El Mouldo, a mentalist, would attempt to perform mind-reading and mind-over-matter feats, all of which failed. Often, his tricks would include an attempt to bilk money from Ed McMahon or would end with his begging the audience for a dollar, or at least bus fare. The Maharishi, whose theme song was "Song of India", was a frizzy-haired "holy man" who spoke in a high-pitched, tranquil tone, greeted announcer McMahon with a flower, and answered philosophical questions.[citation needed] Carson uncensored on satellite[edit] Although Carson's program was based in Burbank beginning in 1972, NBC's editing and production services for the show remained in New York, requiring that the program be transmitted between the two cities. In 1976, NBC used the Satcom 2 satellite to achieve this, feeding the live taping (which started around 5:30 pm local time) directly to New York, where it would be edited prior to the late-night broadcast. This live feed lasted usually for two to two-and-a-half hours a night and was both uncensored and commercial-free. During the slots for commercial breaks, the audio and picture feed would continue, capturing at times risqué language and other events that would certainly be edited out before transmission. At the same time, satellite ground stations owned by individuals began appearing, and some found the live feed. Satellite dish owners began to document their sightings in technical journals, giving viewers knowledge of things they were not meant to see. Carson and his production staff grew concerned about this and pressured NBC into ceasing the satellite transmissions of the live taping in the early 1980s. The satellite link was replaced by microwave transmission until the show's editing facilities were moved to Burbank.[27]

Effect on popular culture[edit] Carson's show launched the careers of many performers, especially comedians and musicians. For a comedian appearing on the show, getting him to laugh and being invited to the guest chair were considered the highest honors.[4] Most notable among these were David Letterman, Jay Leno, Jerry Seinfeld, Jeff Foxworthy, Ellen DeGeneres, Joan Rivers, David Brenner, Tim Allen, Drew Carey, and Roseanne Barr. Carson was successor to The Ed Sullivan Show as a showcase for all kinds of talent, as well as continuing a vaudeville-style variety show. In 1966, Carson popularized Milton Bradley's game Twister when he played it with actress Eva Gabor. Not widely known at the time, the game skyrocketed in popularity after the broadcast.[28]

Controversies and feuds[edit] Carson often made jokes at the expense of other celebrities. In 1980, Carson backed out of a deal to acquire the Aladdin Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas, and a competing group led by Wayne Newton successfully bought the property. According to lawyer Henry Bushkin, Carson became annoyed that he was often portrayed by the media as having "lost" the deal and reacted by telling jokes on his show about Newton, who had spent a great deal of effort building a masculine image. This created something of a high-profile feud between Carson and Newton. Years later, Newton appeared on Larry King Live, declaring that "Johnny Carson is a mean-spirited human being. And there are people that he has hurt that people will never know about. And for some reason at some point, he decided to turn that kind of negative attention toward me. And I refused to have it."[29] Newton has often told of personally confronting Carson; after the final straw, Newton barged into his office at the studio and threatened to beat him up unless the jokes stopped. They did.[30] Veteran NBC actor Raymond Burr became angry over Carson's continuing fat jokes and he only appeared on The Tonight Show[31] in 1968 and in 1976. Carson reportedly loathed what he perceived as disloyalty, and he was furious when former Tonight Show guest hosts John Davidson and Joan Rivers began hosting their own talk shows. Rivers' show on the Fox Network directly competed with Carson during the 1986-1987 season before being cancelled. On June 24, 2009, following Ed McMahon's death, Rivers lauded McMahon on Larry King Live, but said that after she got her own show, Carson never spoke to her again.[32] In December 1973, Carson joked on Tonight about an alleged shortage of toilet paper. Viewers believed the story and panic buying and hoarding ensued across the United States as consumers emptied stores,[33] causing a real shortage that lasted for weeks. Stores and toilet paper manufacturers had to ration supplies until the panic ended.[34][35] Carson apologized in January 1974[36] for the incident, which became what The New York Times called a "classic study" of how rumors spread.[37] Carson successfully sued a manufacturer of portable toilets that wanted to call its product "Here's Johnny".[38] Carson did a send-up of the "Mr. Rogers" character, where he played an evil Mr. Rogers who wanted children to steal money from their parents for his show to continue. Fred Rogers was not impressed with the skit. Carson later apologized to Rogers for making fun of him.[citation needed]

Business ventures[edit] Carson was a major investor in the failed DeLorean Motor Company. Carson was head of a group of investors who purchased and operated two television stations. The first was KVVU-TV in Henderson, Nevada, an independent station serving Las Vegas, acquired by the Carson group in 1979. Shortly after buying the station, KVVU was rumored to be acquiring an NBC affiliation as then long-time affiliate KORK-TV was in the process of being replaced by KVBC (and now KSNV), but it never happened.[citation needed] Carson's second station, independent KNAT-TV in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was purchased in 1982. Unlike the Las Vegas operation, KNAT faced stiffer competition for top-quality, syndicated programming. Carson sold both of his stations in 1985 and 1986 with KVVU-TV (FOX 5) going to the James Meredith Corporation and KNAT being sold to Trinity Broadcasting Network. Carson's other business ventures included the successful Johnny Carson Apparel, Inc.[4]—his turtlenecks became a fashion trend—and a failed restaurant franchise.[39]

Retirement[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Carson in the 1990s Carson retired from show business on May 22, 1992, at age 66 when he stepped down as host of The Tonight Show. His farewell was a major media event, often emotional for Carson, his colleagues and the audiences, and stretched over several nights. In tribute to Carson and his enormous influence, several networks that had late-night variety talk shows "went dark" for the entire hour he did the last show. The Tonight Show finally won the Emmy for Outstanding Late-night Series after 13 tries later that year, buoyed by the penultimate broadcast which featured Johnny's final two guests, Robin Williams and Bette Midler. NBC gave the role of host to the show's then-current permanent guest host, Jay Leno. Leno and David Letterman were soon competing on separate networks. Post-retirement appearances[edit] On a trip to Tanzania in 1994 At the end of his final Tonight Show episode, Carson indicated that he might, if so inspired, return with a new project. Instead, he chose to go into full retirement, rarely giving interviews and declining to participate in NBC's 75th-anniversary celebrations. He made an occasional cameo appearance, including voicing himself on the May 13, 1993, episode of The Simpsons ("Krusty Gets Kancelled"), telephoning David Letterman on a November 1993 episode of Late Show with David Letterman, and appearing in the 1993 NBC special Bob Hope: The First 90 Years. On May 13, 1994, Carson appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman. During a week of shows from Los Angeles, Letterman was having Larry "Bud" Melman (Calvert DeForest) deliver his "Top Ten Lists" under the guise that a famous personality would be delivering the list, instead. On the last show of the week, Letterman indicated that Carson would be delivering the list. Instead, DeForest delivered the list, insulted the audience (in keeping with the gag), and walked off to polite applause. Letterman then indicated that the card he was given did not have the proper list on it and asked that the "real" list be brought out. On that cue, the real Carson emerged from behind the curtain (as Letterman's band played "Johnny's Theme"), an appearance that prompted a standing ovation from the audience. Carson then asked to sit behind Letterman's desk; Letterman obliged, as the audience continued to cheer and applaud. After some moments, Carson departed from the show without having spoken to the audience. He later cited acute laryngitis as the reason for his silence. This turned out to be Carson's last television appearance. Letterman[edit] Just days before Carson's death, The New York Times published a story revealing that he occasionally sent jokes to David Letterman.[40] Letterman would then use these jokes in the monologue of his show, which Carson got "a big kick out of", according to Worldwide Pants Inc. Senior Vice-President Peter Lassally, who formerly produced both men's programs. He also claimed that Carson had always believed Letterman, not Leno, to be his "rightful successor".[41] In his first broadcast after Carson's death, Letterman delivered a monologue compiled entirely of jokes sent in by Carson, a fact the host revealed later in the program.

Personal life[edit] Despite his on-camera demeanor, Carson was extremely shy off-camera. He was known for avoiding most large parties and was referred to as "the most private public man who ever lived."[4][42] Dick Cavett recalled, "I felt sorry for Johnny in that he was so socially uncomfortable. I've hardly ever met anybody who had as hard a time as he did."[16] In addition, George Axelrod once said of Carson, "Socially, he doesn't exist. The reason is that there are no television cameras in living rooms. If human beings had little red lights in the middle of their foreheads, Carson would be the greatest conversationalist on Earth."[4]. His lavish Malibu beachfront residence, valued at $81 million in 2017, contained only one bedroom. Friends and family members staying over would sleep in the guest house across the street.[43] He normally refused to discuss politics, social controversies, his childhood, or his private life with interviewers, and offered the following list of written answers to journalists who wanted to ask him questions:[4] Yes, I did. No, I didn't. Not a bit of truth in that rumor. Only twice in my life, both times on Saturday. I can do either, but I prefer the first. No. Kumquats. I can't answer that question. Toads and tarantulas. Turkestan, Denmark, Chile, and the Komandorski Islands. As often as possible, but I'm not very good at it yet. I need much more practice. It happened to some old friends of mine, and it's a story I'll never forget.[4] Politics[edit] Carson opposed the Vietnam War,[1] and capital punishment, favored racial equality, and was against criminalizing extramarital sex and pornography. He avoided explicitly mentioning his views on The Tonight Show, saying he "hates to be pinned down" as that would "hurt me as an entertainer, which is what I am."[4] As he explained in 1970, "In my living room I would argue for liberalization of abortion laws, divorce laws, and there are times when I would like to express a view on the air. I would love to have taken on Billy Graham. But I'm on TV five nights a week; I have nothing to gain by it and everything to lose."[44] He also seldom invited political figures onto the Tonight Show because he "didn't want it to become a political forum" and did not want the show used, by himself or others, to influence the opinions of the viewers.[1] In his book, Carson's former lawyer Henry Bushkin stated, he "was by instinct and upbringing definitely Republican, but of an Eisenhower sort that we don't see much of anymore... Overall, you'd have to say he was anti-big: anti-big government, anti-big money, anti-big bullies, anti-big blowhards." Carson served as MC for Ronald Reagan's inauguration in 1981 at the request of Frank Sinatra.[45] Marriages[edit] The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In 1948, Carson married Jody Wolcott.[4] The marriage was volatile, with infidelities committed by both parties, and ended in divorce in 1963.[46] Carson married Joanne Copeland the same year, on August 17. After a second protracted divorce in 1972, Copeland received a settlement of $6000 per month in alimony until she remarried or until Johnny's death (she received it until his death in 2005). She also received "a pretty nice little art collection."[4][47] She later had a second marriage that also ended in divorce, and died in California, aged 83, in 2015. She had no children.[48] At the Carson Tonight Show's 10th-anniversary party on September 30, 1972, Carson announced that former model Joanna Holland and he had been secretly married that afternoon,[4] shocking his friends and associates. On March 8, 1983, Holland filed for divorce. The divorce case finally ended in 1985 with an 80-page settlement, Holland receiving $20 million in cash and property. On June 20, 1987, Carson married Alexis Mass. The marriage lasted until his death in 2005. Carson reportedly joked, "My giving advice on marriage is like the captain of the Titanic giving lessons on navigation."[49] Children[edit] Carson reading a story to his three sons in 1955: From left: Chris, Cory, and Richard (Ricky) Carson had three sons, Christopher, Cory, and Richard. All three sons were from his first marriage. Richard Carson died on June 21, 1991, when his car plunged down a steep embankment along a paved service road off Highway 1 near Cayucos, California. Apparently, Richard had been taking photographs when the accident occurred. On the first Tonight Show after Ricky's death, Carson paid tribute to Ricky's photographic work by showing his nature slides, accompanied by Stevie Ray Vaughan on blues guitar playing "Riviera Paradise". In addition, the final image of the show, as well as some "More to Come" bumpers, of Carson's last show on May 22, 1992, featured a photo Richard had taken. Charity[edit] In 1981, Carson created the John W. Carson Foundation, dedicated to supporting children, education, and health services. The foundation continues to support charitable causes.[50] In November 2004, Carson announced a $5.3 million gift to the University of Nebraska Foundation to support the Hixson–Lied College of Fine and Performing Arts Department of Theater Arts, which created the Johnny Carson School of Theater and Film. Another $5 million donation was announced by the estate of Carson to the University of Nebraska following his death,[51][52] while a $1 million donation was announced on November 4, 2011, creating the Johnny Carson Opportunity Scholarship Fund.[53] Carson also donated to causes in his hometown of Norfolk, including the Carson Cancer Center at Faith Regional Health Services, the Elkhorn Valley Museum, and the Johnny Carson Theater at Norfolk Senior High School. Carson also donated to the Northeast Community College Lifelong Learning Center in honor of his favorite teacher, Miss Faye Gordon. Miss Gordon had appeared on his show a number of times. His last known visit to Norfolk was to throw the 100th-birthday party for Miss Gordon, which Carson had promised to do several years earlier. In August 2010, the charitable foundation created by Johnny Carson reported receiving $156 million from a personal trust established by the entertainer years prior to his January 2005 death. Carson's foundation was now by far the largest of the Hollywood charities.[54] Other notes[edit] Carson, an amateur astronomer, was a close friend of astronomer Carl Sagan, who often appeared on The Tonight Show. The unique way Sagan had of saying certain words, like "billions" of stars, would lead Carson to ribbing his friend, saying "BILL-ions and BILL-ions". Carson was the first person to contact Sagan's wife Ann Druyan with condolences when the scientist died in 1996. He owned several telescopes, including a top-of-the-line unit.[55] In 1981, the minor planet 1981 EM4 was named in his honor, 3252 Johnny.[56][57] Carson was shown on a 1978 segment of 60 Minutes practicing at home on a drum set given to him by close friend Buddy Rich, who was the jazz musician with the most appearances on The Tonight Show. Gore Vidal, another frequent Tonight Show guest and friend, wrote about Carson's personality in his 2006 memoir.[58] In 1982, Carson was found to be driving his DeLorean while under the influence of alcohol. He pleaded nolo contendere to a misdemeanor charge and received a sentence of three years' probation. Carson was required to attend an alcohol program for drivers and was permitted to use his car only to drive to work and back, without transporting any persons or animals in his vehicle.[59] Carson was an avid tennis player. When he sold a Malibu house to John McEnroe and Tatum O'Neal, the escrow terms required McEnroe to give Johnny six tennis lessons. Carson's primary tennis teacher was Bob Trapenberg, who taught him for some time, and traveled with him to Wimbledon.

Death and tributes[edit] Johnny Carson's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame On March 19, 1999, Carson suffered a severe heart attack at his home in Malibu, California, and was hospitalized in nearby Santa Monica, where he underwent quadruple-bypass surgery. Carson was a heavy smoker for decades and, in the early days of his tenure on Tonight, often smoked on-camera. It was reported that as early as the mid-1970s, he would repeatedly say, "These things are killing me." His younger brother recalled that during their last conversation, Carson kept saying, "Those damn cigarettes."[60] At 6:50 am PST on January 23, 2005, Carson died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles of respiratory failure arising from emphysema.[61][62][63] He was 79, and had revealed his terminal illness to the public in September 2002. His body was cremated, and the ashes were given to his wife, Alexis Maas. In accordance with his family's wishes, no public memorial service was held. Carson is also survived by his younger brother, Dick, who is an Emmy Award-winning director of, among other things, the competing Merv Griffin Show and Wheel of Fortune.[64][65] Numerous tributes were paid to Carson upon his death, including a statement by then-President George W. Bush, all recognizing the deep and enduring affection held for him.[66] On January 31, The Late Show with David Letterman paid tribute with former Tonight Show executive producer Peter Lassally and bandleader Doc Severinsen. At the beginning of this show, Letterman said that for 30 years no matter what was going on in the world, whether people had a good or bad day, they wanted to end it being "tucked in by Johnny." He also told his viewers that the monologue he had just spoken, which was very well received by the studio audience, consisted entirely of jokes sent to him by Carson in the last few months of his life.[67] Doc Severinsen ended the Letterman show that night by conducting and playing, along with Tommy Newsom and Ed Shaughnessy, one of Carson's two favorite songs, "Here's That Rainy Day" (the other was "I'll Be Seeing You"). The Tonight Show with Jay Leno also paid tribute to Carson with guests Ed McMahon, Bob Newhart, Don Rickles, Drew Carey , and k.d. lang.[68] On his final Tonight Show appearance, Carson himself said that while sometimes people who work together for long stretches of time on television do not necessarily like each other, this was not the case with McMahon and him; they were good friends who would have drinks and dinner together, and the camaraderie they had on the show could not be faked. Carson and McMahon were friends for 46 years.[69] The 2005 film The Aristocrats was dedicated to Carson.[70] The Simpsons, season 16 episode 7, "Mommie Beerest", was dedicated to his memory. At the first Comedy Awards on Comedy Central, the Johnny Carson Award was given to David Letterman. At the 2nd Annual Comedy Awards on Comedy Central, the Johnny Carson Award was given to Don Rickles. A two-hour documentary about his life, Johnny Carson: King of Late Night, aired on PBS on May 14, 2012, as part of their American Masters series. It is narrated by Kevin Spacey and features interviews with many of Carson's family, fellow comedians, and protégés.[71]

References[edit] ^ a b c "American National Biography Online".  ^ Johnny Carson. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 30, 2009. ^ "Interview :David Letterman He's No Johnny Carson". Time. February 6, 1989.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Tynan, Kenneth (February 20, 1978). "Fifteen Years of the Salto Mortale". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2011-03-16.  ^ Zehme, Bill. "Johnny Carson". PBS. Retrieved May 7, 2012.  ^ a b Baughman, Judith. "Johnny Carson". Gale Research Group. American Decades. Retrieved December 2, 2014.  ^ a b Baughman, Judith. "Johny Carsom". Gale Research Group. American Decades.  Missing or empty |url= (help) ^ a b c d Corkery, Paul. "Carson: Biography". New York, Kampmann & Co.  Missing or empty |url= (help) ^ "Careers Johnny Carson". Retrieved 2011-04-26.  ^ "Timeline". Millsaps College. Archived from the original on November 14, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2011.  ^ "Johnny Carson Amateur Boxing Record". Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ a b c Bushkin, Henry (2013). Johnny Carson. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.  ^ The Official Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson ^ "Jack Gives Johnny Carson Advice (1955)". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-04-26.  ^ The Johnny Carson Show on IMDb ^ a b c d "Pioneers of Television: Johnny Carson" Retrieved December 12, 2014. ^ What's My Line? - Toots Shor; Johnny Carson; Tony Randall & Martin Gabel [panel] (Feb 11, 1962). YouTube. September 1, 2014.  ^ ""Here's Johnny" to come to California permanently". Lodi News-Sentinel. California. UPI. March 1, 1972. p. 16.  ^ James, Meg; Gold, Matea (October 11, 2007). "NBC socks it to Burbank". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010.  ^ UPI (April 17, 1981). "Bakersfield invites Johnny Carson to 'see for yourself'". Lodi News-Sentinel.  ^ "Carson wants shorter show". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. Florida. Associated Press. March 5, 1980. p. 2A.  ^ "'Tonight Show' begins one-hour broadcasts". Lakeland Ledger. Florida. September 14, 1980. p. 46, TV section.  ^ "Johnny Carson Personal Award". Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication. 1985. Retrieved 2011-04-26.  ^ "James Randi - Secrets of the Psychics Documentary (Full)". JREF. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ a b Higginbotham, Adam. "The Unbelievable Skepticism of the Amazing Randi". New York Times. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ a b Hibberd, James. "'Johnny Carson: King of Late Night' airing tonight: Overrated royalty? A review | Ken Tucker's TV |". Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ Cooper, Jr., Robert B. (2006). Television's Pirates: Hiding Behind Your Picture Tube.  ^ "Menace to Morals: Twister." Minnesota Monthly, January 2011, 70. ^ "Wayne Newton on Larry King Live". CNN. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  ^ Henry Bushkin. Johnny Carson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2013, ISBN 978-0-544-21762-1, pp. 135–6 ^ Michael S. Starr, "Hiding in Plain Sight", 184. ^ 219520.html|date=2009-06-23 ^ Buchsbaum, Susan (October 21, 1986). "On a roll: Unraveling the truth about toilet paper". Boston Phoenix. p. 6. Retrieved May 10, 2012.  ^ Huntley, Helen (December 27, 1973). "Toilet Paper Shortage Hits Suncoast Shoppers". St. Petersburg Times. pp. 2–B. Retrieved May 10, 2012.  ^ "Firm Allocates Toilet Paper". Milwaukee Journal. Washington Post Service. January 14, 1974. pp. Accent 2. Retrieved May 10, 2012.  ^ "Toilet Tissue Shortage: Real or Contrived?". St. Petersburg Times. January 18, 1974. pp. 25–A. Retrieved May 10, 2012.  ^ Malcolm, Andrew H. (February 3, 1974). "The 'Shortage' of Bathroom Tissue: A Classic Study in Rumor". The New York Times. p. 29. Retrieved July 5, 2013.  ^ Carson v. Here's Johnny Portable Toilets, Inc., 810 F.2d 104, 105 (6th Cir. 1987) ^ Bernstein, Adam (January 24, 2005). "For Decades, Comic Ruled Late-Night TV". The Washington Post.  ^ "Carson Feeds Letterman Lines". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2008.  ^ "Carson Feeds Letterman Lines". The New York Post. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2008.  ^ Reader's Digest September 2005, p. 178; Book Bonus: Ed McMahon Here's Johnny, Berkley Trade, 2006 ISBN 978-0-425-21229-5 ^ [1] ^ Barthel, Joan (January 23, 1970). "Here's Johnny! Out There". Life: 52. Retrieved March 28, 2012.  ^ Henry Bushkin, Johnny Carson, 153–175. ^ Pleading Poverty and Demanding Money, Johnny Carson's First Wife Tells the Sad Secrets of Her Troubled Marriage By Michelle Green, Sue Carswell, Eleanor Hoover May 7, 1990 Vol. 33 No. 18 People Magazine ^ Johnny Carson by Henry Bushkin, p. 74 ^ Death of Joanne Carson,; accessed May 10, 2015. ^ Mary Vespa (February 28, 1983). "With Her Marriage in Limbo, Joanna Carson Finds Solace in Friends, Charity and a Job". Retrieved 4 August 2017.  ^ "Making a World of Difference" (PDF). Children's Hospital Los Angeles. November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 17, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2010.  ^ "UNL receives $5 million from Johnny Carson estate". University of Nebraska–Lincoln. July 26, 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2017.  ^ "Johnny Carson Estate Gives $5 Million to Nebraska Hospital". Philanthropy News Digest. July 1, 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2017.  ^ "Carson Foundation donates $1M for UNL scholarships". Lincoln Journal Star. November 2011.  ^ Time Waster. "Carnac The Munificent". The Smoking Gun. Retrieved 2011-04-26.  ^ "Company Seven – Questar Products Index & Overview Page". November 2, 2012.  ^ Wikipedia, List of minor planets. ^ "Minor Planet Center: (3252) Johnny = 1981 EM4".  ^ Gore Vidal, Point to Point Navigation: A Memoir, New York: Doubleday, 2006. ^ Wilson, Jeff (October 13, 1982). "Johnny Carson's Driving Restricted". UPI. Retrieved 2011-04-06.  ^ Template:Cite Carson said he had smoked up to five packs a day.web ^ Severo, Richard; Carter, Bill (January 24, 2005). "Johnny Carson, Low-Key King of Late-Night TV, Dies at 79". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010.  ^ Longtime host of 'Tonight Show' dies at 79 Associated Press, February 8, 2005 ^ Net mourns death of Johnny Carson Jeff Pelline CNET News February 8, 2005 ^ "Dick Carson". IMDb.  ^ "Richard C. ("Dick") Carson". ★ Nebraska Coast Connection & The Hollywood Salon.  ^ Quotations on Johnny Carson's Death Associated Press January 23, 2005 ^ "Letterman Pays Special Tribute to Carson". Associated Press. February 1, 2005.  ^ Tribute To Johnny Carson Friends Return To Stage Where They And Johnny Carson Made TV Magic By Chris Hawke CBS News Burbank, Calif. January 25, 2005 ^ Drury, Jack (2008). Lauderdale: Playground of the Stars. Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 0-7385-5351-4. Retrieved 2011-04-26.  ^ "The Aristocrats Synopsis". HBO. Retrieved 2011-04-26.  ^ Lloyd, Robert (May 12, 2012). "'Johnny Carson: King of Late Night' goes behind throne: Review". Retrieved 2012-05-22.  Johnny Carson: American Masters Documentary (Reference 4 Marriages)

Further reading[edit] Accounts on work and life[edit] Bart, Peter (May 18, 1992). "We Hardly Knew Ye". Los Angeles: Variety.  Boulware, Jack (February 20, 2001). "Johnny Carson". Salon. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008.  Bushkin, Henry (2013). Johnny Carson. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-544-21762-1.  Corkery, Paul (August 1987). Carson: The Unauthorized Biography. Randt & Co. ISBN 0-942101-00-6.  Cox, Stephen (August 15, 2002). Here's Johnny: Thirty Years of Americas Favorite Late Night Entertainer. Cumberland House Publishing. ISBN 1-58182-265-0.  De Cordova, Fred (March 15, 1988). Johnny Came Lately. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-55849-8.  Ephron, Nora (1968). And now here's Johnny!. Avon Books. OCLC 3302852.  Hise, James Van (1992). 40 Years at Night: the Story of the Tonight Show. Movie Publisher Services. ISBN 1-55698-308-5.  Knutzen, Erik (May 21, 1992). Celebs Say Thanks, Johnny. Herald.  Leamer, Laurence (March 29, 2005). King of the Night: The Life of Johnny Carson. Avon. ISBN 0-06-084099-4.  McMahon, Ed (October 18, 2005). Here's Johnny!: My Memories of Johnny Carson, The Tonight Show, and 46 Years of Friendship. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 1-4016-0236-3.  Smith, Ronald L. (October 1987). Johnny Carson: An Unauthorized Biography. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-01051-6.  Sweeney, Don (2005). Backstage at the Tonight Show, from Johnny Carson to Jay Leno. Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58979-303-3.  Tennis, Craig (1980). Johnny Tonight: A Behind the Scenes Closeup of Johnny Carson & the Tonight Show. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-41451-8.  Tynan, Kenneth (February 20, 1978). "Fifteen Years of the Salto Mortale". The New Yorker.  Wilde, Larry (2000). The Great Comedians Talk About Comedy. Executive Books. ISBN 978-0-937539-51-4.  Zoglin, Richard (March 16, 1992). And What A Reign It Was: In His 30 Years, Carson Was The Best. Time.  Humor material collections[edit] Carson, Johnny (1965). Happiness is a Dry Martini. Doubleday and Company. ISBN 1-199-39735-0.  Carson, Johnny (1967). Misery is a blind date. Doubleday and Company. ASIN B002J1EG3A.  Johnny Carson Collection, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

External links[edit] United States Navy portal Wikiquote has quotations related to: Johnny Carson Wikimedia Commons has media related to Johnny Carson. 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