Contents 1 History 2 Characteristics 2.1 Japanese architectural styles 2.2 Japanese language 3 Locations 3.1 Americas 3.1.1 Argentina 3.1.2 Brazil 3.1.3 Canada 3.1.4 United States Concentrated and historical Japanese populations in the United States 3.2 Asia 3.2.1 China 3.2.2 Hong Kong 3.2.3 India 3.2.4 Malaysia 3.2.5 Philippines 3.2.6 Singapore 3.2.7 South Korea 3.2.8 Taiwan 3.2.9 Vietnam 3.2.10 Concentrated and historical Japanese populations in Asia Indonesia Pakistan Thailand 3.3 Europe 3.3.1 Germany 3.3.2 United Kingdom 3.3.3 France 3.3.4 The Netherlands 3.4 Oceania 3.4.1 Australia 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] See also: Japanese diaspora Historically, Japantowns represented the Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei (日系), are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants that reside in a foreign country. Emigration from Japan first happened and was recorded as early as the 12th century to the Philippines,[1] but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji Era, when Japanese began to go to the Philippines,[2] North America, and beginning in 1897 with 35 emigrants to Mexico;[3] and later to Peru, beginning in 1899 with 790 emigrants.[4] There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period; however, most such emigrants repatriated to Japan after the end of World War II in Asia.[5] For a brief period in the 16th-17th centuries, Japanese overseas activity and presence in Southeast Asia and elsewhere in the region boomed. Sizeable Japanese communities, known as Nihonmachi, could be found in many of the major ports and political centers of the region, where they exerted significant political and economic influence. The Japanese had been active on the seas and across the region for centuries, traveling for commercial, political, religious and other reasons. The 16th century, however, saw a dramatic increase in such travel and activity. The internal strife of the Sengoku period caused a great many people, primarily samurai, commoner merchants, and Christian refugees to seek their fortunes across the seas. Many of the samurai who fled Japan around this time were those who stood on the losing sides of various major conflicts; some were ronin, some veterans of the Japanese invasions of Korea or of various other major conflicts. As Toyotomi Hideyoshi and later the Tokugawa shoguns issued repeated bans on Christianity, many fled the country; a significant portion of those settled in Catholic Manila.[6] In the western countries such as Canada and the United States, the Japanese tended to integrate with society that many if not all Japantowns are in danger of completely disappearing with the remaining only existing in San Francisco and San Jose, California.[7]

Characteristics[edit] The features described below are characteristic of many modern Japantowns. Japanese architectural styles[edit] Main article: Japanese architecture The five-tiered Peace Pagoda made of concrete. Many historical Japantowns will exhibit architectural styles that reflect the Japanese culture. Japanese architecture has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (fusuma) were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized for different occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 20th century. Since the 19th century, however, Japan has incorporated much of Western, modern, and post-modern architecture into construction and design, and is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design and technology. The Japanese Village Plaza in Los Angeles' Little Tokyo. Japanese language[edit] Main articles: Japanese language and Japanese dialects Many Japantowns will exhibit the use of the Japanese language in signage existing on road signs and on buildings as Japanese is the official and primary language of Japan. Japanese is relatively small but has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known largely on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled. The earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 252 AD. Japanese is written with a combination of three scripts: hiragana, derived from the Chinese cursive script, katakana, derived as a shorthand from Chinese characters, and kanji, imported from China. The Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is also often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising, and when inputting Japanese into a computer. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are also common.

Locations[edit] Japanese diaspora 日系人 Total population About 3,600,000[8] Regions with significant populations  Brazil 1,600,000[9][10][11]  United States 1,404,286[12]  China 127,282[13]note  Philippines 120,000[14][15][16]  Canada 109,740[17]  Peru 103,949[18]  Germany 70,000[19]  Argentina 65,000[20][21]  United Kingdom 63,011[22]  South Korea 58,169[23]note  Australia 54,830[24]  Thailand 67,424[25]  Mexico 35,000[26]  France 30,947[13]note  Singapore 27,525[27]  Hong Kong 27,429[28]  Malaysia 22,000[29]  Micronesia 20,000[30]  Indonesia 14,720[31]  New Zealand 14,118[32]  Bolivia 14,000[33]  India 8,398[34][35]  New Caledonia 8,000[36]  Italy 7,556[37]note  Paraguay 7,000[38]  Belgium 6,519  Marshall Islands 6,000[39]  Sweden 5,235  Palau 5,000[40]  Macau 4,200[41]   Switzerland 4,071[13]note  Uruguay 3,456[42]note  Colombia 3,000[43]note  Chile 2,600[1]  Russian Federation 1,700[citation needed]  Pakistan 1,500[citation needed]  Qatar 1,000[44] Related ethnic groups Ryukyuan diaspora ^ note: The population of naturalized Japanese people and their descendants is unknown. Only the number of the permanent residents with Japanese nationality is shown, except for the United States, where ancestral origin is recorded independent of nationality. Americas[edit] Japantowns were created because of the widespread immigration of Japanese to America in the Meiji period (1868–1912). At that time, many Japanese were poor and sought economic opportunities in the United States. Japanese immigrants initially settled in Western parts of the US and Canada. At one time, there were 43 different Japantowns in California,[45] ranging from several square blocks of Little Tokyo in Los Angeles, to one in the small farming community of Marysville in Yuba County. Besides typical businesses, these communities usually had Japanese language schools for the immigrant's children, Japanese language newspapers, Buddhist and Christian churches, and sometimes Japanese hospitals.[46] After the World War II internment of the Japanese, most of those communities declined significantly or disappeared altogether. There are currently four recognized Japantowns left in the United States, which are facing issues such as commercialization, reconstruction, gentrification and dwindling Japanese populations.[47] Argentina[edit] Colonia Urquiza is the Japanese district in La Plata, Argentina. Colonia Urquiza is the largest Japanese district in Argentina, and concentrates many institutions such as schools, restaurants and training centers.[48] Brazil[edit] Liberdade is the Japanese district in São Paulo, Brazil. São Paulo metropolitan area is the city that has the largest Japanese population outside Japan and the largest population of people that have Japanese descent. Canada[edit] Kids at play in 1927 in Japantown, Vancouver Japantown, Vancouver, British Columbia Steveston, British Columbia Some municipalities with Japanese populations higher than the national average (0.3%) include: Richmond, British Columbia (2%) Lethbridge, Alberta (1.9%) - this city also has a Chinatown. Burnaby, British Columbia (1.7%) Vancouver, British Columbia (1.7%) - this city also has a Chinatown, a Little India, and a Little Italy. North Vancouver, British Columbia (1.6%) North Vancouver (district municipality), British Columbia (1.5%) Port Coquitlam, British Columbia (1.4%) West Vancouver, British Columbia (1.2%) Coquitlam, British Columbia (1%) Kamloops, British Columbia (7000100000000000000♠1%) Port Moody, British Columbia (1%) Calgary, Alberta (0.6%) - 29 Street SW - this city also has a Chinatown. Richmond Hill, Ontario (0.5%) Toronto, Ontario (0.5%) - a Little Tokyo has been emerging in the Bay and Dundas area, particularly on Dundas between Bay Street and University Avenue.[49] This city also has a Chinatown, a Koreatown, a Little India and a Little Tibet. Markham, Ontario (0.4%) - this city also has a Little India. United States[edit] Looking across Post Street north on Buchanan Street in San Francisco's Japantown. Little Tokyo, Los Angeles, California Sawtelle Japantown, Los Angeles, California Japantown, San Francisco, California Japantown, San Jose, California International District in Seattle, Washington Concentrated and historical Japanese populations in the United States[edit] Northern California: In addition to Japantown districts in San Francisco and San Jose, suburbs and neighborhoods with significant Japanese American populations and/or histories include: Alameda, California (1.1%) Berkeley, California (1.6%) Hayward, California (0.5%) Livingston, California Lower Haight, San Francisco, California Mountain View, California (2.1%) Oakland, California (0.5%) Palo Alto, California (2.0%) Sacramento, California - this city also has a Chinatown, also Japanese presence in Florin, California. San Mateo, California (2.2%) Salinas, California[50] Santa Clara, California (1.5%) South San Francisco, California Sunnyvale, California Walnut Creek, California Watsonville, California (0.8%) Southern California: Gardena, California Long Beach, California (0.6%) Torrance, California Sawtelle Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California Elsewhere in western U.S.: Honolulu, Hawaii - this city also has a Chinatown Lower Colorado River Valley, Arizona Sakura Square, Denver, Colorado Sakura Square, Denver, Colorado - this city also has a Chinatown Portland, Oregon[51] - this city also has a Chinatown Ontario, Oregon (1.6%) Japantown Street, Salt Lake City, Utah[52] - this city also has a Chinatown Eastern U.S.: North Side, Chicago and Northwestern Chicago metro area, Illinois Porter Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts Novi, Michigan near Detroit St. Mark's Place, East Village, New York City (there are 150,000 Japanese in NYC). Westchester County, New York Dublin, Ohio Asia[edit] China[edit] Gubei, Shanghai, a residential area which has many expatriates from Japan. It is informally referred to as a "Little Tokyo." There is a Takashimaya department store in Gubei.[53] Hong Kong[edit] Eastern District in Hong Kong Island is the home to the largest Japanese community in Hong Kong, where it is widely distributed in district such as Taikoo Shing, with nearly a quarter of total Japanese in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Japanese School is also settled their headquarter in Eastern district. More than 50 percent of Kowloon Japanese residents live in Hung Hom in Kowloon City District, as one of the most popular area in Hong Kong for Japanese,[54] it is called as "Little Japan" or Hong Kong's "Shitamachi (Japanese: 下町) when there is great concentration with Japanese restaurants with traditional style.[55] Furthermore, there is also a Japanese school campus in Tai Po area in the New Territories. India[edit] Sataku, Haldia Malaysia[edit] In the late 2000s, Malaysia began to become a popular destination for Japanese retirees. Malaysia My Second Home retirement programme received 513 Japanese applicants from 2002 until 2006. Motivations for choosing Malaysia include the low cost of real-estate and of hiring home care workers. Such retirees sometimes refer to themselves ironically as economic migrants or even economic refugees, referring to the fact that they could not afford as high a quality of life in retirement, or indeed to retire at all, were they still living in Japan. Mont Kiara, Kuala Lumpur Little Japan, Taman Molek, Johor Bahru Jalan Bendahara, Ipoh Jalan Air Itam, Penang Philippines[edit] Japantown, Paco, Manila, Philippines Japantown, Iloilo City, Philippines Japantown, Cebu City, Philippines Japantown, Mandaue City, Philippines Japantown, Davao City, Philippines Little Tokyo, Davao City, Philippines Little Tokyo, Makati City, Philippines Singapore[edit] Clementi Changi South Korea[edit] Yongsan District, Seoul Taiwan[edit] Tianmu, Taipei, Taiwan Linsen North Road, Taipei, Taiwan Vietnam[edit] Le Thanh Ton Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City Concentrated and historical Japanese populations in Asia[edit] Indonesia[edit] About 7,000 Japanese used to live in Jakarta,[citation needed] Indonesia, mainly concentrated in Blok M district and the rest lived by surrounding area. This number decreased drastically following the Indonesian riots of May 1998. Pakistan[edit] There is an active Japanese presence (including multinational companies and expatriates) in industrial areas of Karachi, such as Port Qasim. During the 1980s and 1990s, there were over 2,000 Japanese living in Karachi, making them one of the significant expatriate communities in the country. Now, the community has shrunk to a few hundred.[56] There is also a Karachi Japanese School.[57] Thailand[edit] In Bangkok a Japanese population lives in and around Sukhumvit Road, and Phrompong. Many of the apartment complexes are rented solely to Japanese people (although they are owned by Thais), and there are Japanese grocery shops, restaurants, bars, dry cleaning, clubs, etc. in and around Phrompong. In Si Racha a Japanese population lives in and around the city center as the second largest Japanese community outside Bangkok. In Chiangmai a Japanese population lives around the city center as the popular place for Japanese retirees with good weather and less crowded city. In Ayutthaya a growing number of Japanese population returns and lives in and around Rojana Road close to many Japanese companies, the city also well known place of the first Japanese quarter in Thailand dated back to 16th century. Europe[edit] Germany[edit] Düsseldorf (especially the district Oberkassel) has the largest Japanese population in Germany (and Europe). It has the biggest Buddhist temple of Europe as well. The towns surrounding Düsseldorf (e.g. Meerbusch in the west of Düsseldorf) have significant Japanese population as well. United Kingdom[edit] London is home to the largest Japanese communities, with Acton and Finchley having the highest concentration of residents from Japanese origin. North London is the most popular area in London for Japanese residents to live.[58] France[edit] Paris has a Japanese community. Its Japanese restaurants and shops are concentrated near the Opéra Garnier (especially on Rue Sainte-Anne) and the city's Japanese population is largely concentrated in 15th arrondissement and 16th arrondissement. The Netherlands[edit] Amstelveen Buitenveldert Oceania[edit] Australia[edit] Little Tokyo, Adelaide Japantown, Darwin Artarmon, Sydney has a small Japantown by the railway station, containing Japanese restaurants, Japanese grocery stores and a Japanese bookshop. Nearby suburbs such as Northbridge and St Leonards also have a number of Japanese businesses. Gold Coast, Australia has a big Japanese population which is still rising.

See also[edit] Chinatown Koreatown Little Saigon Little Manila Little India List of named ethnic enclaves in North American cities

References[edit] ^ Kekai Manansala, Paul. "Philippine Civilization, Culture and Technology".  ^ Shiraishi, Saya; Shiraishi, Takashi, eds. (1993). The Japanese in Colonial Southeast Asia. Cornell Southeast Asia Program. p. 157. ISBN 9780877274025.  ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), Japan: Japan-Mexico relations ^ Palm, Hugo. "Desafíos que nos acercan," Archived 2009-04-15 at the Wayback Machine. El Comercio (Lima, Peru). March 12, 2008. ^ Azuma, Eiichiro (2005). "Brief Historical Overview of Japanese Emigration". International Nikkei Research Project. Retrieved 2007-02-02.  ^ Wray. p8. ^ "SF Japantown's Last Hurrah".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 December 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2014.  ^ "Japan-Brazil Relations (Basic Data)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 14 July 2016.  ^ "Centenário da Imigração Japonesa - Reportagens - Nipo-brasileiros estão mais presentes no Norte e no Centro-Oeste do Brasil".  ^ "ブラジル基礎データ | 外務省". 外務省.  ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results".  ^ a b c "Annual Report of Statistics on Japanese Nationals Overseas" (PDF). Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Japanese Filipinos - Ethnic Groups of the Philippines". Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ Agnote, Dario (October 11, 2006). "A glimmer of hope for castoffs". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2016.  ^ Ohno, Shun (2006). "The Intermarried issei and mestizo nisei in the Philippines". In Adachi, Nobuko. Japanese diasporas: Unsung pasts, conflicting presents, and uncertain futures. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-135-98723-7.  ^ "File not found - Fichier non trouvé".  ^ "Japan-Peru Relations". 2012-11-27. Retrieved April 29, 2016.  ^ "BiB - Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung - Pressemitteilungen - Zuwanderung aus außereuropäischen Ländern fast verdoppelt". Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ "Japan-Argentine Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.  ^ "Argentina inicia una nueva etapa en su relación con Japón". Retrieved November 21, 2016.  ^ Itoh, p. 7. ^ "통계 - 국내 체류외국인 140만명으로 다문화사회 진입 가속화". Archived from the original on 26 January 2016.  ^ "3412.0 - Migration, Australia, 2013-14".  ^ "MOFA 2016 タイ王国". Retrieved August 26, 2016.  ^ Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Revista Convergencia (in Spanish). Toluca, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. 12 (38): 201. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2015.  ^ "MOFA Japan". 3 December 2014.  ^ "海外在留邦人数調査統計(平成28年要約版)" [Annual Report of Statistics on Japanese Nationals Overseas (Heisei 28 Summary Edition)] (PDF) (in Japanese). October 1, 2015. p. 32. Retrieved November 10, 2016.  ^ "マレーシア基礎データ | 外務省". 外務省.  ^ "Letter from the Embassy of the Federated States of Micronesia" (PDF). Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "インドネシア基礎データ | 外務省". 外務省.  ^ "5. – Japanese – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand".  ^ "ボリビア基礎データ | 外務省". 外務省.  ^ "海外在留邦人数調査統計(平成28年要約版)" [Annual Report of Statistics on Japanese Nationals Overseas (Heisei 28 Summary Edition)] (PDF) (in Japanese). October 1, 2015. p. 30. Retrieved November 10, 2016.  ^ See also Japanese people in India ^ "Tourism New Caledonia - Prepare your trip in New Caledonia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2008.  ^ "外務省: ご案内- ご利用のページが見つかりません" (PDF).  ^ "Japan-Paraguay Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.  ^ Rachel Pritchett. "Pacific Islands President, Bainbridge Lawmakers Find Common Ground". BSUN. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2010.  ^ "Macau Population Census". Census Bureau of Macau. May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2016.  ^ "ウルグアイ基礎データ | 外務省". 外務省.  ^ "コロンビア基礎データ | 外務省". 外務省.  ^ "Qatar's population - by nationality". bq Magazine. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014.  ^ Donna Graves; Gail Dubrow. "Preserving California's Japantowns". Preserving California's Japantowns. Retrieved 2006-11-04.  ^ "A History of Japanese Americans in California: HISTORIC SITES". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-01-04. Retrieved August 2010.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ^ Kori-Kai Yoshida (2006-06-24). "Community Leaders Discuss State of California's J-Towns". Nichi Bei Times, reprinted at Rafu Shimpo Online. Los Angeles News Publishing Co. Archived from the original on 2010-12-23. Retrieved August 2010.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ^ La pequeña japon argenta ^ ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2014-04-05.  ^ ^ Elaine Jarvik (2007-01-22). "Salt Lake street may honor Japantown". Deseret News archives. Deseret News Publishing Company. Retrieved April 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ^ 2011年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:虹桥镇 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 2012-08-09. [permanent dead link] ^ 2011年按區議會分區、國籍及在港居住年期劃分的人口 (A208) ^ 香港淺草 日本人愛紅磡 下町飲食街 ^ Karachi: Enclave for Japanese investors at Port Qasim ^ Karachi Japanese School ^ "Born abroad - an immigration map of Britain: Japan". BBC News. 

External links[edit] Japantown Atlas The Japantown Atlas maps nearly two dozen communities in California where Japanese Americans lived and worked prior to World War II. California Japantowns Sawtelle Blvd. (West L.A.) Nijiya Market Locations (may give a hint as to the locations of Japanese populations in California) Arnold, Bruce Makoto. "The Japanese Ethnopole as Determinant: The Effects of the Japantowns on Second-Generation Japanese-Americans." v t e Ethnic enclaves African-American list Arabic Armenian Australian Cambodian Canadian Chinese Cuban Filipino Greek Hispanic and Latino American Indian Irish Italian Iranian Japanese Jewish Korean Pakistani Serbian Vietnamese Retrieved from "" Categories: JapantownsEthnic enclavesHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 Spanish-language sources (es)CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja)CS1 errors: datesCS1 uses Chinese-language script (zh)CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh)All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from November 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksArticles containing Japanese-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2017Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015"Related ethnic groups" needing confirmationArticles using infobox ethnic group with image parametersArticles with unsourced statements from August 2010

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