Contents 1 History 1.1 Origins 1.2 Renaissance 1.3 Modern era 1.4 Contemporary times 2 Classification 3 Geographic distribution 3.1 Europe 3.2 Africa 3.3 Immigrant communities 3.4 Number of speakers by country[8] 3.5 Education 3.6 Influence and derived languages 3.7 Lingua franca 4 Dialects 5 Phonology 5.1 Assimilation 6 Writing system 7 Grammar 8 Examples 8.1 Conversation 8.2 Question Words[74][75] 8.3 Time[74][75] 8.4 Numbers 8.5 Days of the week 8.6 Months of the year 8.7 Sample texts 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Origins[edit] During the Middle Ages, the established written language in Europe was Latin. With the great majority of people illiterate, however, only a handful were well versed in the language. In Italy, as in all other countries, the majority would instead speak the vernacular (native tongue) of their region. These dialects (as they are commonly referred to as) were derived from Vulgar Latin over the course of centuries, evolving naturally unaffected by formal standards and teachings. These languages of Italy are not truly "dialects" of Standard Italian, evolving independently (and alongside) of the predecessor of Standard Italian. They are often mutually unintelligible, and are better classified as distinct languages.[17][page needed] The standard Italian language has a poetic and literary origin in the writings of Tuscan writers of the 12th century, and, even though the grammar and core lexicon are basically unchanged from those used in Florence in the 13th century,[18] the modern standard of the language was largely shaped by relatively recent events. However, Italian as a language spoken in Italy and some surrounding regions has a longer history. In fact, the earliest surviving texts that can definitely be called Italian (or more accurately, vernacular, as distinct from its predecessor Vulgar Latin) are legal formulae known as the Placiti Cassinesi from the Province of Benevento that date from 960–963, although the Veronese Riddle, probably from the 8th or early 9th century, contains a late form of Vulgar Latin that can be seen as a very early Italian dialect.[19] What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the Commedia, to which another Tuscan poet Giovanni Boccaccio later affixed the title Divina, were read throughout Italy and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language. In addition to the widespread exposure gained through literature, the Florentine language also gained prestige due to the political and cultural significance of Florence at the time and the fact that it was linguistically an intermediate between northern and southern dialects.[17][page needed] Thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the official language of Italy. Italian often was an official language of the various Italian states predating unification, slowly replacing Latin, even when ruled by foreign powers (such as the Spanish in the Kingdom of Naples, or the Austrians in the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia), even though the masses spoke primarily vernacular languages and dialects. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states. Those dialects now have considerable variety. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases: e.g. va bene "all right": is pronounced [va ˈbːɛne] by a Roman (and by any standard-speaker), [va ˈbene] by a Milanese (and by any speaker whose native dialect lies to the north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line); a casa "at home" is [a ˈkːasa] for Roman and standard, [a ˈkaza] for Milanese and generally northern. In contrast to the Gallo-Italic languages of northern Italy, the Italo-Dalmatian Neapolitan language and its dialects were largely unaffected by the Franco-Occitan influences introduced to Italy mainly by bards from France during the Middle Ages, but after the Norman conquest of southern Italy, Sicily became the first Italian land to adopt Occitan lyric moods (and words) in poetry. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are careful not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages. The economic might and relatively advanced development of Tuscany at the time (Late Middle Ages) gave its language weight, though the Venetian language remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life, and Ligurian (or Genoese) remained in use in maritime trade alongside the Mediterranean. The increasing political and cultural relevance of Florence during the periods of the rise of the Banco Medici, Humanism, and the Renaissance made its dialect, or rather a refined version of it, a standard in the arts. Renaissance[edit] The Renaissance era, known as il Rinascimento in Italian, was seen as a time of "rebirth", which is the literal meaning of both renaissance (from French) and rinascimento (Italian). During this time, long-existing beliefs stemming from the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church began to be understood from new a perspectives as humanists—individuals who placed emphasis on the human body and its full potential—began to shift focus from the church to human beings themselves.[20] Humanists began forming new beliefs in various forms: social, political, and intellectual. The ideals of the Renaissance were evident throughout the Protestant Reformation, which took place simultaneously with the Renaissance. The Protestant Reformation began with Martin Luther's rejection of the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel and other authorities within the Roman Catholic Church, resulting in Luther's eventual break-off from the Roman Catholic Church in the Diet of Worms. After Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church, he founded what was then understood to be a sect of Catholicism, later referred to as Lutheranism.[20] Luther's preaching in favor of faith and scripture rather than tradition led him to translate the Bible into many other languages, which would allow for people from all over Europe to read the Bible. Previously, the Bible was only written in Latin, but after the Bible was translated, it could be understood in many other languages, including Italian. The Italian language was able to spread even more with the help of Luther and the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. The printing press facilitated the spread of Italian because it was able to rapidly produce texts, such as the Bible, and cut the costs of books which allowed for more people to have access to the translated Bible and new pieces of literature.[21] The Roman Catholic Church was losing its control over the population, as it was not open to change, and there was an increasing number of reformers with differing beliefs.[22] Dante Alighieri (top) and Petrarch (bottom) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages. Pietro Bembo was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language from the Tuscan dialect, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage. Italian became the language used in the courts of every state in the Italian peninsula. The rediscovery of Dante's De vulgari eloquentia and a renewed interest in linguistics in the 16th century, sparked a debate that raged throughout Italy concerning the criteria that should govern the establishment of a modern Italian literary and spoken language. This discussion, known as "questione della lingua" (i. e., the problem of the language), ran through the Italian culture until the end of the 19th century, often linked to the political debate on achieving a united Italian state. Renaissance scholars divided into three main factions: The purists, headed by Venetian Pietro Bembo (who, in his Gli Asolani, claimed the language might be based only on the great literary classics, such as Petrarch and some part of Boccaccio). The purists thought the Divine Comedy was not dignified enough because it used elements from non-lyric registers of the language. Niccolò Machiavelli and other Florentines preferred the version spoken by ordinary people in their own times. The courtiers, like Baldassare Castiglione and Gian Giorgio Trissino, insisted that each local vernacular contribute to the new standard. A fourth faction claimed the best Italian was the one that the papal court adopted, which was a mix of Florentine and the dialect of Rome. Eventually, Bembo's ideas prevailed, and the foundation of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence (1582–1583), the official legislative body of the Italian language led to publication of Agnolo Monosini's Latin tome Floris italicae linguae libri novem in 1604 followed by the first Italian dictionary in 1612. The continual advancements in technology plays a crucial role in the diffusion of languages. After the invention of the printing press in the fifteen century, the number of printing presses in Italy grew rapidly and by the year 1500 reached a total of 56, the biggest number of printing presses in all of Europe. This allowed to produce more pieces of literature at a lower cost and as the dominant language, Italian spread.[23] Modern era[edit] An important event that helped the diffusion of Italian was the conquest and occupation of Italy by Napoleon in the early 19th century (who was himself of Italian-Corsican descent). This conquest propelled the unification of Italy some decades after and pushed the Italian language into a lingua franca used not only among clerks, nobility, and functionaries in the Italian courts, but also by the bourgeoisie. Contemporary times[edit] Italian literature's first modern novel, I Promessi Sposi (The Betrothed), by Alessandro Manzoni, further defined the standard by "rinsing" his Milanese "in the waters of the Arno" (Florence's river), as he states in the Preface to his 1840 edition. After unification, a huge number of civil servants and soldiers recruited from all over the country introduced many more words and idioms from their home languages ("ciao" is derived from Venetian word "s-cia[v]o" (slave), "panettone" comes from Lombard word "panetton" etc.). Only 2.5% of Italy's population could speak the Italian standardized language properly when the nation was unified in 1861.[24]

Classification[edit] Italian is a Romance language, and is therefore a descendant of Vulgar Latin (the spoken form of non-classical Latin).[note 1] Standard Italian is based on Tuscan, especially its Florentine dialect, and is therefore an Italo-Dalmatian language, to which Sicilian and the extinct Dalmatian also belong, among a few others. Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary.[26] Lexical similarity is 89% with French, 87% with Catalan, 85% with Sardinian, 82% with Spanish, 78% with Ladin, and 77% with Romanian.[8][27][28] One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin (comparing phonology, inflection, discourse, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation) estimated that among the languages analyzed the distance between Italian and Latin is only higher than that between Sardinian and Latin.[29]

Geographic distribution[edit] Use of the Italian language in Europe Use of the Italian language in Europe and former use in Africa Europe[edit] Italian is an official language of Italy and San Marino and is spoken fluently by the majority of the countries' populations. Italian is official, together with French, German and Romansch in Switzerland, with most of the 0.5 million speakers concentrated in the south of the country, in the cantons of Ticino and southern Graubünden (predominately in Italian Grigioni). Italian is the third most spoken language in Switzerland (after German and French), and its use has modestly declined since the 1970s.[30] Italian is also used in administration and official documents in Vatican City.[31] Italian is widely spoken in Malta, where nearly two-thirds of the population can speak it fluently.[32] Italian served as Malta's official language until 1934, when it was abolished by the British colonial administration amid strong local opposition.[33] Italian is also recognized as an official language in Istria County, Croatia, and Slovenian Istria, where there are significant and historic Italian populations.[34][35][36] It is used as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, a Roman Catholic chivalric order which, while not a nation per se, is still recognized as a sovereign subject of international law. In Albania, it is one of the most spoken languages. This is due to the strong historical ties between Italy and Albania but also the Albanian communities in Italy, and the 19,000 Italians living in Albania.[37] It is reported as high as 70% of the Albanian adult population has some form of knowledge of Italian. Furthermore, the Albanian government has pushed to make Italian a compulsory second language in schools.[38] Today, Italian is the third most spoken language in the country after Albanian and Greek. Italian is also spoken by a minority in Monaco and France (especially in the southeast region of the country).[39][40] Africa[edit] Due to heavy Italian influence during the Italian colonial period, Italian is still understood by some in former colonies.[8] Although it was the primary language in Libya since colonial rule, Italian greatly declined under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, who expelled the Italian Libyan population and made Arabic the sole official language of the country.[41] Nevertheless, Italian continues to be used in economic sectors in Libya. In Eritrea, Italian is at times used in commerce and the capital city Asmara still has one Italian-language school.[42] Italian was also introduced to Somalia through colonialism and was the sole official language of administration and education during the colonial period but fell out of use after government, educational and economic infrastructure were destroyed in the Somali Civil War. Italian is still understood by some elderly and other people. The official languages of the Somali Republic are Somali (Maay and Maxaatiri) and Arabic. The working languages during the Transitional Federal Government were Italian and English.[43] Immigrant communities[edit] Although over 17 million Americans are of Italian descent, only a little over one million people in the United States speak Italian at home.[44] Nevertheless, an Italian language media market does exist in the country.[45] On the other hand, although technology allows for the Italian language to spread globally, there has been a decrease in the number of Italian speakers in the United States. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of Italian speakers in 1980 was 1,614,344. In 1990, the number of Italian speakers in the United States dropped to 1,308,648. In 2000, the number of speakers decreased to 1,008,370, and finally, in 2010, the number of Italian speakers plummeted to 725,223. The percent change from 1980–2010 was a negative 55.2.[46] In Canada, Italian is the second most spoken non-official language when varieties of Chinese are not grouped together, with over 660,000 speakers (or about 2.1% of the population) according to the 2006 Census.[47] In Australia, Italian is the second most spoken foreign language after Chinese, with 1.4% of the population speaking it as their home language.[48] Italian immigrants to South America have also brought a presence of the language to that continent. Italian is the second most spoken language in Argentina[49] after the official language of Spanish, with over 1 million (mainly of the older generation) speaking it at home, and Italian has also influenced the dialect of Spanish spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, mostly in phonology, as well as the Portuguese prosody of the Brazilian state of São Paulo which itself has 15 million Italian descendants. This form of Spanish is known as Rioplatense Spanish.[50] Italian bilingual speakers can be found in the Southeast of Brazil as well as in the South. In Venezuela, Italian is the second most spoken language after Spanish, with around 200,000 speakers.[51] Smaller Italian-speaking minorities on the continent are also found in Paraguay and Ecuador. In Costa Rica, Central America, Italian is one of the most important immigration community languages, after English. It is spoken in the southern area of the country in cities like San Vito and other communities of Coto Brus, near the south borderline with Panama.[52] Number of speakers by country[8][edit] Country Number of speakers  Italy 57,700,000  Romania 1,502,950  France 829,000   Switzerland 666,000  Croatia 618,600  Australia 300,000  Brazil 50,000  San Marino 25,000  Monaco 5,600  Somalia 4,000  Slovenia 3,760   Vatican City 330 Education[edit] Knowledge of Italian according to EU statistics Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first foreign language. Italian is the fourth[11][53] most frequently taught foreign language in the world.[54] In the 21st century, technology also allows for the continual spread of the Italian language, as people have new ways for one to learn how to speak, read, and write languages at their own pace and at any given time. For example, in 2017 the free website and application Duolingo had 22.3 million English speakers learning the Italian language.[55] According to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, every year there are more than 200,000 foreign students who study the Italian language; they are distributed among the 90 Institutes of Italian Culture that are located around the world, in the 179 Italian schools located abroad, or in the 111 Italian lecturer sections belonging to foreign schools where Italian is taught as a language of culture.[56] In the United States, Italian is the fourth most taught foreign language after Spanish, French, and German, in that order (or the fifth if American Sign Language is considered).[57] In central-east Europe Italian is first in Montenegro, second in Austria, Croatia, Slovenia, and Ukraine after English, and third in Hungary, Romania and Russia after English and German.[56] But throughout the world, Italian is the fifth most taught foreign language, after English, French, German, and Spanish.[58] In the European Union statistics, Italian is spoken as a native language by 13% of the EU population, or 65 million people,[1] mainly in Italy. In the EU, it is spoken as a second language by 3% of the EU population, or 14 million people. Among EU states, the percentage of people able to speak Italian well enough to have a conversation is 66% in Malta, 15% in Slovenia, 14% in Croatia, 8% in Austria, 5% in France and Luxembourg, and 4% in the former West Germany, Greece, Cyprus, and Romania.[59] Italian is also one of the national languages of Switzerland, which is not a part of the European Union.[60] The Italian language is well-known and studied in Albania,[61] another non-EU member, due to its historical ties and geographical proximity to Italy and to the diffusion of Italian television in the country.[62] Influence and derived languages[edit] See also: Italian diaspora From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Venezuela, where they formed a physical and cultural presence. In some cases, colonies were established where variants of regional languages of Italy were used, and some continue to use this regional language. Examples are Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where Talian is used, and the town of Chipilo near Puebla, Mexico; each continues to use a derived form of Venetian dating back to the nineteenth century. Another example is Cocoliche, an Italian–Spanish pidgin once spoken in Argentina and especially in Buenos Aires, and Lunfardo. Rioplatense Spanish, and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian languages because Argentina has had a continuous large influx of Italian settlers since the second half of the nineteenth century: initially primarily from northern Italy; then, since the beginning of the twentieth century, mostly from southern Italy. Lingua franca[edit] See also: Mediterranean Lingua Franca Starting in late medieval times in much of Europe and the Mediterranean, Latin was replaced as the primary commercial language by Italian language variants (especially Tuscan and Venetian). These variants were consolidated during the Renaissance with the strength of Italy and the rise of humanism and the arts. During that period, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. It was the norm for all educated gentlemen to make the Grand Tour, visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art. It thus became expected to learn at least some Italian. In England, while the classical languages Latin and Greek were the first to be learned, Italian became the second most common modern language after French, a position it held until the late eighteenth century, when it tended to be replaced by German. John Milton, for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. Within the Catholic church, Italian is known by a large part of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and is used in substitution for Latin in some official documents. Italian loanwords continue to be used in most languages in matters of art and music (especially opera), in the design and fashion industries, in some sports like football[63] and especially, in culinary terms.

Dialects[edit] Main article: Regional Italian See also: Languages of Italy Geographical distribution of major Italian dialects Throughout Italy, regional variations of Standard Italian, called Regional Italian, are spoken. In Italy, almost all Romance languages spoken as the vernacular—other than standard Italian and distantly-related, non-Romance languages spoken in border regions or among immigrant communities—are often imprecisely called "Italian dialects",[64] even though they are quite different, with some belonging to different branches of the Romance language family. The only exceptions to this are Sardinian, Ladin and Friulian, which are officially recognized as distinct minority languages by the law. On the other hand, Corsican (a language spoken on the French island of Corsica) is closely related to Tuscan, from which Standard Italian derives and evolved. The differences in the evolution of Latin in the different regions of Italy can be attributed to the presence of three other types of languages: substrata, superstrata, and adstrata. The most prevalent were substrata (the language of the original inhabitants), as the Italian dialects were most likely simply Latin as spoken by native cultural groups. Superstrata and adstrata were both less important. Foreign conquerors of Italy that dominated different regions at different times left behind little to no influence on the dialects. Foreign cultures with which Italy engaged in peaceful relations with, such as trade, had no significant influence either.[17][page needed] Regional differences can be recognized by various factors: the openness of vowels, the length of the consonants, and influence of the local language (for example, in informal situations the contraction annà replaces andare in the area of Rome for the infinitive "to go"; and nare is what Venetians say for the infinitive "to go"). There is no definitive date when the various Italian variants of Latin—including varieties that contributed to modern Standard Italian—began to be distinct enough from Latin to be considered separate languages. From a linguistic perspective, two language variants are considered separate languages (rather than variant dialects of a single language) when they are no longer mutually intelligible. For the Italian Romance languages, the first extant written evidence of varieties that can be considered no longer to be Latin comes from the ninth and tenth centuries C.E. These written sources demonstrate certain vernacular characteristics and sometimes explicitly mention the use of the vernacular in Italy. Full literary manifestations of the vernacular began to surface around the 13th century in the form of various religious texts and poetry.[17][page needed] Although these are the first written records of Italian varieties separate from Latin, the spoken language had likely diverged long before the first written records appear, since those who were literate generally wrote in Latin even if they spoke other Romance varieties in person. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the use of Standard Italian became increasingly widespread and was mirrored by a decline in the use of the dialects. An increase in literacy was one of the main driving factors (one can assume that only literates were capable of learning Standard Italian, whereas those who were illiterate had access only to their native dialect). The percentage of literates rose from 25% in 1861 to 60% in 1911, and then on to 78.1% in 1951. Tullio De Mauro, an Italian linguist, has asserted that in 1861 only 2.5% of the population of Italy could speak Standard Italian. He reports that in 1951 that percentage had risen to 87%. The ability to speak Italian did not necessarily mean it was in everyday use, and most people (63.5%) still usually spoke their native dialects. In addition, other factors such as mass emigration, industrialization and urbanization, and internal migrations after World War II contributed to the proliferation of Standard Italian. The Italians who emigrated during the Italian diaspora beginning in 1861 were often of the uneducated lower class, and thus the emigration had the effect of increasing the percentage of literates, who often knew and understood the importance of Standard Italian, back home in Italy. A large percentage of those who had emigrated also eventually returned to Italy, often more educated than when they had left.[17][page needed] The Italian dialects have declined in the modern era, as Italy unified under Standard Italian and continues to do so aided by mass media, from newspapers to radio to television.[17][page needed]

Phonology[edit] Main article: Italian phonology This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Consonant phonemes Bilabial Labio- dental Dental/ Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar Nasal m n ɲ Stop p b t d k ɡ Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ Fricative f v s z ʃ Approximant j w Lateral l ʎ Trill r Notes: Between two vowels, or between a vowel and an approximant or liquid (/l r/ or /w j/), consonants can be either single or geminated. Geminated consonants shorten the preceding vowel (or block phonetic lengthening) and the first geminated element is unreleased. For example, /fato/ [ˈfaː.to] ~ /fatto/ [ˈ] (first one means "fate, destiny" and the second means "fact", see "fato" and "fatto"). However, /ɲ/, /ʃ/, /ʎ/, are always geminated word-internally.[65] Similarly, nasals, liquids, and sibilants are pronounced slightly longer before medial consonant clusters.[66] /z/ is the only consonant that cannot be geminated. /t d t͡s d͡z s z/ are denti-alveolar, while /l n/ are alveolar.[67][68] The trill /r/ is sometimes reduced to a single vibration when not geminated, but it is not a flap *[ɾ][clarification needed]. Nasals assimilate to the point of articulation of whatever consonant they precede. For example, /nɡ/ is realized as [ŋɡ]. The distinction between /s/ and /z/ is neutralized before consonants and at the beginning of words: the former is used before voiceless consonants and before vowels at the beginning of words; the latter is used before voiced consonants (meaning [z] is an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants). The two are only contrasted between two vowels within a word. According to Canepari,[69] though, the traditional standard has been replaced by a modern neutral pronunciation which always prefers /z/ when intervocalic, except when the intervocalic s is the initial sound of a word or a morpheme, if the compound is still felt as such: for example, presento /preˈsɛnto/[70] ('I foresee', with pre meaning 'before' and sento meaning 'I see') vs. presento /preˈzɛnto/[71] ('I present'). There are many words in which dictionaries now indicate that both pronunciations with /z/ and with /s/ are acceptable. The two phonemes have merged in many regional varieties of Italian, either into /z/ (Northern-Central) or /s/ (Southern-Central). Geminate /ss/ can be pronounced as single [s]. Italian has a seven-vowel system, consisting of /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/, as well as 23 consonants. Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian phonology is conservative, preserving many words nearly unchanged from Vulgar Latin. Some examples: Italian quattordici "fourteen" < Latin quattuordecim (cf. Romanian paisprezece/paișpe, Spanish catorce, French quatorze /kaˈtɔʁz/, Catalan and Portuguese catorze) Italian settimana "week" < Latin septimāna (cf. Romanian săptămână, Spanish and Portuguese semana, French semaine /s(ǝ)ˈmɛn/, Catalan setmana) Italian medesimo "same" < Vulgar Latin *medi(p)simum (cf. Spanish mismo, Portuguese mesmo, French même /mɛm/, Catalan mateix; note that Italian usually uses the shorter stesso) Italian guadagnare "to win, earn, gain" < Vulgar Latin *guadanyāre < Germanic /waidanjan/ (cf. Spanish ganar, Portuguese ganhar, French gagner /ɡaˈɲe/, Catalan guanyar) The conservativeness of Italian phonology is partly explained by its origin. Italian stems from a literary language that is derived from the 13th-century speech of the city of Florence in the region of Tuscany, and has changed little in the last 700 years or so. Furthermore, the Tuscan dialect is the most conservative of all Italian dialects, radically different from the Gallo-Italian languages less than 100 miles to the north (across the La Spezia–Rimini Line). The following are some of the conservative phonological features of Italian, as compared with the common Western Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan). Some of these features are also present in Romanian. Little or no lenition of consonants between vowels, e.g. vīta > vita "life" (cf. Romanian viață, Spanish vida [biða], French vie), pedem > piede "foot" (cf. Spanish pie, French pied /pje/). Preservation of doubled consonants, e.g. annum > anno "year" (cf. Spanish año /aɲo/, French an /ɑ̃/, Portuguese ano /ˈã.nu/). Preservation of all Proto-Romance final vowels, e.g. pacem > pace "peace" (cf. Romanian pace, Spanish paz, French paix /pɛ/), octō > otto "eight" (cf. Romanian opt Spanish ocho, French huit /ɥi(t)/), fēcī > feci "I did" (cf. Spanish hice, French fis /fi/). Preservation of most intertonic vowels (those between the stressed syllable and either the beginning or ending syllable). This accounts for some of the most noticeable differences, as in the forms quattordici and settimana given above. Slower consonant development, e.g. folia > Italo-Western /fɔʎʎa/ > foglia /ˈfɔʎʎa/ "leaf" (cf. Romanian foaie /ˈfo̯aje/, Spanish hoja /ˈoxa/, French feuille /ˈfœj/; but note Portuguese folha /ˈfoʎɐ/). Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian has a large number of inconsistent outcomes, where the same underlying sound produces different results in different words, e.g. laxāre > lasciare and lassare, captiāre > cacciare and cazzare, (ex)dēroteolāre > sdrucciolare, druzzolare and ruzzolare, rēgīna > regina and reina, -c- > /k/ and /ɡ/, -t- > /t/ and /d/. Although in all these examples the second form has fallen out of usage, the dimorphism is thought to reflect the several-hundred-year period during which Italian developed as a literary language divorced from any native-speaking population, with an origin in 12th/13th-century Tuscan but with many words borrowed from languages farther to the north, with different sound outcomes. (The La Spezia–Rimini Line, the most important isogloss in the entire Romance-language area, passes only about 20 miles to the north of Florence.) Some other features that distinguish Italian from the Western Romance languages: Latin ce-,ci- becomes /tʃe, tʃi/ rather than /(t)se, (t)si/. Latin -ct- becomes /tt/ rather than /jt/ or /tʃ/: octō > otto "eight" (cf. Spanish ocho, French huit, Portuguese oito). Vulgar Latin -cl- becomes cchi /kkj/ rather than /ʎ/: oclum > occhio "eye" (cf. Portuguese olho /oʎu/, French oeil /œj/ < /œʎ/); but Romanian ochi /okʲ/. Final /s/ is not preserved, and vowel changes rather than /s/ are used to mark the plural: amico, amici "male friend(s)", amica, amiche "female friend(s)" (cf. Romanian amic, amici,amică, amice, Spanish amigo(s) "male friend(s)", amiga(s) "female friend(s)"); trēs, sex → tre, sei "three, six" (cf. Romanian trei, șase, Spanish tres, seis). Standard Italian also differs in some respects from most nearby Italian languages: Perhaps most noticeable is the total lack of metaphony, though metaphony is a feature characterizing nearly every other Italian language. No simplification of original /nd/, /mb/ (which often became /nn/, /mm/ elsewhere). Assimilation[edit] Italian phonotactics do not usually permit verbs and polysyllabic nouns to end with consonants, excepting poetry and song, so foreign words may receive extra terminal vowel sounds.

Writing system[edit] Main article: Italian alphabet The Italian alphabet is typically considered to consist of 21 letters. The letters j, k, w, x, y are traditionally excluded, though they appear in loanwords such as jeans, whisky, taxi, xenofobo, xilofono. The letter ⟨x⟩ has become common in standard Italian with the prefix extra-, although (e)stra- is traditionally used; it is also common to use of the Latin particle ex(-) to mean "former(ly)" as in: la mia ex ("my ex-girlfriend"), "Ex-Jugoslavia" ("Former Yugoslavia"). The letter ⟨j⟩ appears in the first name Jacopo and in some Italian place-names, such as Bajardo, Bojano, Joppolo, Jerzu, Jesolo, Jesi, Ajaccio, among others, and in Mar Jonio, an alternative spelling of Mar Ionio (the Ionian Sea). The letter ⟨j⟩ may appear in dialectal words, but its use is discouraged in contemporary standard Italian.[72] Letters used in Foreign words can be replaced with phonetically equivalent native Italian letters and digraphs: ⟨gi⟩, ⟨ge⟩, or ⟨i⟩ for ⟨j⟩; ⟨c⟩ or ⟨ch⟩ for ⟨k⟩ (including in the standard prefix kilo-); ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or ⟨v⟩ for ⟨w⟩; ⟨s⟩, ⟨ss⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨zz⟩ or ⟨cs⟩ for ⟨x⟩; and ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩ for ⟨y⟩. The acute accent is used over word-final ⟨e⟩ to indicate a stressed front close-mid vowel, as in perché "why, because". In dictionaries, it is also used over ⟨o⟩ to indicate a stressed back close-mid vowel (azióne). The grave accent is used over word-final ⟨e⟩ to indicate a front open-mid vowel, as in tè "tea". The grave accent is used over any vowel to indicate word-final stress, as in gioventù "youth". Unlike ⟨é⟩, a stressed final ⟨o⟩ is always a back open-mid vowel (andrò), making ⟨ó⟩ unnecessary outside of dictionaries. Most of the time, the penultimate syllable is stressed. But if the stressed vowel is the final letter of the word, the accent is mandatory, otherwise it is virtually always omitted. Exceptions are typically either in dictionaries, where all or most stressed vowels are commonly marked. Accents can optionally be used disambiguate words that differ only by stress, as for prìncipi "princes" and princìpi "principles", or àncora "anchor" and ancóra "still/yet". For monosyllabic words, the rule is different: when two identical monosyllabic words with different meanings exist, one is accented and the other is not (example: è "is", e "and"). The letter ⟨h⟩ distinguishes ho, hai, ha, hanno (present indicative of avere "to have") from o ("or"), ai ("to the"), a ("to"), anno ("year"). In the spoken language, the letter is always silent. The ⟨h⟩ in ho additionally marks the contrasting open pronunciation of the ⟨o⟩. The letter ⟨h⟩ is also used in combinations with other letters. No phoneme [h] exists in Italian. In nativized foreign words, the ⟨h⟩ is silent. For example, hotel and hovercraft are pronounced /oˈtɛl/ and /ˈɔverkraft/ respectively. (Where ⟨h⟩ existed in Latin, it either disappeared or, in a few cases before a back vowel, changed to [ɡ]: traggo "I pull" ← Lat. trahō.) The letters ⟨s⟩ and ⟨z⟩ can symbolize voiced or voiceless consonants. ⟨z⟩ symbolizes /dz/ or /ts/ depending on context, with few minimal pairs. For example: zanzara /dzanˈdzaːra/ "mosquito" and nazione /natˈtsjoːne/ "nation". ⟨s⟩ symbolizes /s/ word-initially before a vowel, when clustered with a voiceless consonant (⟨p, f, c, ch⟩), and when doubled; it symbolizes /z/ when between vowels and when clustered with voiced consonants. Intervocalic ⟨s⟩ varies regionally between /s/ and /z/, with /z/ being more dominant in northern Italy and /s/ in the south. The letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ vary in pronunciation between plosives and affricates depending on following vowels. The letter ⟨c⟩ symbolizes /k/ when word-final and before the back vowels ⟨a, o, u⟩. It symbolizes /tʃ/ as in chair before the front vowels ⟨e, i⟩. The letter ⟨g⟩ symbolizes /ɡ/ when word-final and before the back vowels ⟨a, o, u⟩. It symbolizes /dʒ/ as in gem before the front vowels ⟨e, i⟩. Other Romance languages and, to an extent, English have similar variations for ⟨c, g⟩. Compare hard and soft C, hard and soft G. (See also palatalization.) The digraphs ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨gh⟩ indicate or preserve hardness (/k/ and /ɡ/) before ⟨i, e⟩. The digraphs ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ indicate or preserve softness (/tʃ/ and /dʒ/) before ⟨a, o, u⟩. For example: Before back vowel (A, O, U) Before front vowel (I, E) Plosive C caramella /karaˈmɛlla/ candy CH china /ˈkiːna/ India ink G gallo /ˈɡallo/ rooster GH ghiro /ˈɡiːro/ edible dormouse Affricate CI ciambella /tʃambɛlla/ donut C Cina /ˈtʃiːna/ China GI giallo /ˈdʒallo/ yellow G giro /ˈdʒiːro/ round, tour Note: ⟨h⟩ is silent in the digraphs ⟨ch⟩, ⟨gh⟩; and ⟨i⟩ is silent in the digraphs ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ before ⟨a, o, u⟩ unless the ⟨i⟩ is stressed. For example, it is silent in ciao /ˈtʃaː.o/ and cielo /ˈtʃɛː.lo/, but it is pronounced in farmacia /ˌfar.maˈtʃiː.a/ and farmacie /ˌfar.maˈtʃiː.e/. Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length and intensity. Length is distinctive for all consonants except for /ʃ/, /dz/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/, which are always geminate, and /z/, which is always single. Geminate plosives and affricates are realized as lengthened closures. Geminate fricatives, nasals, and /l/ are realized as lengthened continuants. There is only one vibrant phoneme /r/ but the actual pronunciation depends on context and regional accent. Generally one can find a flap consonant [ɾ] in unstressed position whereas [r] is more common in stressed syllables, but there may be exceptions. Especially people from the Northern part of Italy (Parma, Aosta Valley, South Tyrol) may pronounce /r/ as [ʀ], [ʁ], or [ʋ].[73] Of special interest to the linguistic study of Italian is the gorgia toscana, or "Tuscan Throat", the weakening or lenition of certain intervocalic consonants in the Tuscan language. The voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ is only present in loanwords: for example, garage [ɡaˈraːʒ].

Grammar[edit] Main article: Italian grammar See also: Italian verbs Italian grammar is typical of the grammar of Romance languages in general. Cases exist for personal pronouns (nominative, oblique, accusative, dative), but not for nouns. There are two genders (masculine and feminine). Masculine nouns end in -o, which changes to -i in the plural, and feminine nouns ends in -a, which changes to -e in the plural. With few exceptions, masculine nouns refer to male people or animals, and feminine nouns refer to female people or animals. A last class of nouns end in -e in the singular and -i in the plural, and are arbitrarily assigned masculine or feminine. These nouns often denote inanimate objects. This is fixed by the grammar of Italian, and a dictionary would need to be consulted to figure out the gender.[74] There is a number of nouns that change their gender from the singular to plural, having a masculine singular and a feminine plural, and thus are sometimes considered neuter (those are derived from neuter Latin nouns). An instance of neuter gender also exists in pronouns of the third person singular. Examples:[75] Definition Gender Singular Form Plural Form Son Masculine Figlio Figli House Feminine Casa Case Love Masculine Amore Amori Art Feminine Arte Arti Nouns, adjectives, and articles inflect for gender and number (singular and plural). Like in English, common nouns are capitalized when occurring at the beginning of a sentence. Unlike English, nouns referring to languages (e.g. Italian), speakers of languages, or inhabitants of an area (e.g. Italians) are not capitalized.[74] There are three types of adjectives: descriptive, invariable and form-changing. Descriptive adjectives are the most common, and their endings change to match the number and gender of the noun they modify. Invariable adjectives are adjectives whose endings do not change. The form changing adjectives "buono (good), bello (beautiful), grande (big), and santo (saint)" change in form when placed before different types of nouns. Italian has three degrees for comparison of adjectives: positive, comparative, and superlative.[74] The order of words in the phrase is relatively free compared to most European languages.[72] The position of the verb in the phrase is highly mobile. Word order often has a lesser grammatical function in Italian than in English. Adjectives are sometimes placed before their noun and sometimes after. Subject nouns generally come before the verb. Italian is a null-subject language, so that nominative pronouns are usually absent, with subject indicated by verbal inflections (e.g. amo 'I love', ama 's/he loves', amano 'they love'). Noun objects normally come after the verb, as do pronoun objects after imperative verbs, infinitives and gerunds, but otherwise pronoun objects come before the verb. There are both indefinite and definite articles in Italian. There are four indefinite articles, which vary based on the gender and first letter of the noun they modify. Uno is used before a masculine singular noun beginning with z, s+consonant, gn, or ps. Un is used before masculine singular nouns beginning with any other letters. Una is used before a feminine singular noun beginning with any consonant. Un' is used before a feminine singular noun beginning with any vowel. There are seven definite articles, both singular and plural. In the singular: lo, which corresponds to the uses of uno; il, which corresponds to the uses of un, la, which corresponds to the uses of una; l', used before both masculine and feminine nouns and corresponds to un' in the feminine and un in the masculine. In the plural: gli, the plural of lo and l'; i, the plural of il; and le, the plural of la and l'. If an adjective also precedes the noun, the article used corresponds with the adjective.[74] There are numerous contractions of prepositions with subsequent articles. There are numerous productive suffixes for diminutive, augmentative, pejorative, attenuating etc., which are also used to create neologisms. There are 27 pronouns, grouped in clitic and tonic pronouns. Personal pronouns are separated into three groups: subject, object (which take the place of both direct and indirect objects), and reflexive. Second person subject pronouns have both a polite and a familiar form. These two different types of address are very important in Italian social distinctions. All object pronouns have two forms: stressed and unstressed. Unstressed object pronouns are much more frequently used, and come before the verb. Stressed object pronouns come after the verb, and are used when emphasis is required or to avoid ambiguity. Aside from personal pronouns, Italian also has demonstrative, interrogative, possessive, and relative pronouns. There are two types of demonstrative pronouns: relatively near (this) and relatively far (that). Demonstratives in Italian are repeated before each noun, unlike in English.[74] There are three regular sets of verbal conjugations, and various verbs are irregularly conjugated. Within each of these sets of conjugations, there are four simple (one-word) verbal conjugations by person/number in the indicative mood (present tense; past tense with imperfective aspect, past tense with perfective aspect, and future tense), two simple conjugations in the subjunctive mood (present tense and past tense), one simple conjugation in the conditional mood, and one simple conjugation in the imperative mood. Corresponding to each of the simple conjugations, there is a compound conjugation involving a simple conjugation of "to be" or "to have" followed by a past participle. "To have" is used to form compound conjugation when the verb is transitive ("Ha detto", "ha fatto": he/she has said, he/she has made/done), while "to be" is used in the case of verbs of motion and some other intransitive verbs ("È andato", "è stato": he/she has gone, he/she has been). "To be" may be used with transitive verbs, but in such a case it makes the verb passive ("Ê detto", "è fatto": it is said, it is made/done). This rule is not absolute, and some exceptions do exist.

Examples[edit] Conversation[edit] English (inglese) Italian (italiano) Pronunciation Yes Sì (listen) /ˈsi/ No No (listen) /ˈnɔ/ Of course! Certo! / Certamente! / Naturalmente! /ˈtʃɛrto/ /ˌtʃertaˈmente/ /naturalˈmente/ Hello! Ciao! (informal) / Salve! (formal); /ˈtʃaːo/ Cheers! Salute! /saˈluːte/ How are you? Come stai? (informal) / Come sta? (formal) / Come state? (plural) / Come va? (general, informal) /ˌkomeˈstai/; /ˌkomeˈsta/ /ˌkome ˈstaːte/ /ˌkome va/ Good morning! Buongiorno! (= Good day!) /ˌbwɔnˈdʒorno/ Good evening! Buonasera! /ˌbwɔnaˈseːra/ Good night! Buonanotte! (for a good night sleeping) / Buona serata! (for a good night awake) /ˌbwɔnaˈnɔtte/ /ˌbwɔna seˈraːta/ Have a nice day! Buona giornata! (formal) /ˌbwɔna dʒorˈnaːta/ Enjoy the meal! Buon appetito! /ˌbwɔn‿appeˈtiːto/ Goodbye! Arrivederci (general) / ArrivederLa (formal) / Ciao! (informal) (listen) /arriveˈdertʃi/ Good luck! Buona fortuna! (general) /ˌbwɔna forˈtuːna/ I love you Ti amo (between lovers only) / Ti voglio bene (in the sense of "I am fond of you", between lovers, friends, relatives etc.) /ti ˌvɔʎʎo ˈbɛːne/; /ti ˈaːmo/ Welcome [to...] Benvenuto/-i (for male/males or mixed) / Benvenuta/-e (for female/females) [a / in...] /beɱveˈnuːto/ Please Per favore / Per piacere / Per cortesia (listen) /per faˈvoːre/ /per pjaˈtʃeːre/ /per korteˈziːa/ Thank you! Grazie! (general) / Ti ringrazio! (informal) / La ringrazio! (formal) / Vi ringrazio! (plural) (listen) /ˈɡrattsje/ /ti riŋˈɡrattsjo/ You are welcome! Prego! /ˈprɛːɡo/ Excuse me / I am sorry Mi dispiace (only "I am sorry") / Scusa(mi) (informal) / Mi scusi (formal) / Scusatemi (plural) / Sono desolato ("I am sorry", if male) / Sono desolata ("I am sorry", if female) (listen) /ˈskuːzi/; /ˈskuːza/; /mi disˈpjaːtʃe/ Who? Chi? /ki/ What? Che cosa? / Cosa? / Che? /kekˈkɔːsa/ /ˈkɔːsa/ /ˈke/ When? Quando? /ˈkwando/ Where? Dove? /ˈdoːve/ How? Come? /ˈkoːme/ Why / Because perché /perˈke/ Again di nuovo / ancora /di ˈnwɔːvo/; /aŋˈkoːra/ How much? / How many? Quanto? / Quanta? / Quanti? / Quante? /ˈkwanto/ What is your name? Come ti chiami? (informal) / Qual è il suo nome? (formal) / Come si chiama? (formal) /ˌkome tiˈkjaːmi/ /kwal ˈɛ il ˌsu.o ˈnoːme/ My name is ... Mi chiamo ... /mi ˈkjaːmo/ This is ... Questo è ... (masculine) / Questa è ... (feminine) /ˌkwesto ˈɛ/ /ˌkwesta ˈɛ/ Yes, I understand. Sì, capisco. / Ho capito. /si kaˈpisko/ /ɔkkaˈpiːto/ I do not understand. Non capisco. / Non ho capito. (listen) /noŋ kaˈpisko/ /nonˌɔkkaˈpiːto/ Do you speak English? Parli inglese? (informal) / Parla inglese? (formal) / Parlate inglese? (plural) (listen) /parˌlate iŋˈɡleːse/ (listen) /ˌparla iŋˈɡleːse/ I do not understand Italian. Non capisco l'italiano. /noŋ kaˌpisko litaˈljaːno/ Help me! Aiutami! (informal) / Mi aiuti! (formal) / Aiutatemi! (plural) / Aiuto! (general) /aˈjuːtami/ /ajuˈtaːtemi/ /aˈjuːto/ You are right/wrong! (Tu) hai ragione/torto! (informal) / (Lei) ha ragione/torto! (formal) / (Voi) avete ragione/torto! (plural) What time is it? Che ora è? / Che ore sono? /ke ˌora ˈɛ/ /ke ˌore ˈsono/ Where is the bathroom? Dov'è il bagno? (listen) /doˌvɛ il ˈbaɲɲo/ How much is it? Quanto costa? /ˌkwanto ˈkɔsta/ The bill, please. Il conto, per favore. /il ˌkonto per faˈvoːre/ The study of Italian sharpens the mind. Lo studio dell'italiano aguzza l'ingegno. /loˈstuːdjo dellitaˈljaːno aˈɡuttsa linˈdʒeɲɲo/ Question Words[74][75][edit] English Italian IPA what (adj.) che ke what (standalone) cosa ˈkɔza who chi ki how come ˈkome where dove ˈdove why, because perché perˈke which quale ˈkwale when quando ˈkwando how much quanto ˈkwanto Time[74][75][edit] English Italian IPA today oggi ˈɔddʒi yesterday ieri ˈjɛri tomorrow domani doˈmani second secondo (-a) /seˈkondo/ minute minuto (miˈnuto hour ora ˈora day giorno ˈdʒorno week settimana settiˈmana month mese ˈmese year anno ˈanno Numbers[edit] English Italian IPA one uno /ˈuːno/ two due /ˈduːe/ three tre /ˈtre/ four quattro /ˈkwattro/ five cinque /ˈtʃiŋkwe/ six sei /ˈsɛi/ seven sette /ˈsɛtte/ eight otto /ˈɔtto/ nine nove /ˈnɔve/ ten dieci /ˈdjɛːtʃi/ English Italian IPA eleven undici /ˈunditʃi/ twelve dodici /ˈdoːditʃi/ thirteen tredici /ˈtreːditʃi/ fourteen quattordici /kwatˈtorditʃi/ fifteen quindici /ˈkwinditʃi/ sixteen sedici /ˈseːditʃi/ seventeen diciassette /ditʃasˈsɛtte/ eighteen diciotto /diˈtʃɔtto/ nineteen diciannove /ditʃanˈnɔːve/ twenty venti /ˈventi/ English Italian IPA twenty-one ventuno /venˈtuːno/ twenty-two ventidue /ˌventiˈduːe/ twenty-three ventitré /ˌventiˈtre/ twenty-four ventiquattro /ˌventiˈkwattro/ twenty-five venticinque /ˌventiˈtʃiŋkwe/ twenty-six ventisei /ˌventiˈsɛi/ twenty-seven ventisette /ˌventiˈsɛtte/ twenty-eight ventotto /venˈtɔtto/ twenty-nine ventinove /ˌventiˈnɔːve/ thirty trenta /ˈtrenta/ English Italian IPA one hundred cento /ˈtʃɛnto/ one thousand mille /ˈmille/ two thousand duemila /ˌdueˈmiːla/ two thousand and eighteen (2018) duemiladiciasotto /dueˌmilaˈditʃasˈɔtto/ one million milione /miˈljone/ one billion miliardo /miˈljardo/ Days of the week[edit] English Italian IPA Monday lunedì /luneˈdi/ Tuesday martedì /marteˈdi/ Wednesday mercoledì /ˌmerkoleˈdi/ Thursday giovedì /dʒoveˈdi/ Friday venerdì /venerˈdi/ Saturday sabato /ˈsaːbato/ Sunday domenica /doˈmeːnika/ Months of the year[edit] English Italian IPA January gennaio /dʒenˈnaːjo/ February febbraio /febˈbraːjo/ March marzo /ˈmartso/ April aprile /aˈpriːle/ May maggio /ˈmaddʒo/ June giugno /ˈdʒuɲɲo/ July luglio /ˈluʎʎo/ August agosto /aˈɡosto/ September settembre /setˈtɛmbre/ October ottobre /otˈtoːbre/ November novembre /noˈvɛmbre/ December dicembre /diˈtʃɛmbre/[76] Sample texts[edit] There is a recording of Dante's Divine Comedy read by Lino Pertile available online.[77]

See also[edit] Italy portal Switzerland portal Vatican City portal Language portal Italian edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Languages of Italy Accademia della Crusca CELI CILS (Qualification) Enciclopedia Italiana Guide to phonetic transliteration of Italian Italian alphabet Italian dialects Italian exonyms Italian grammar Italian honorifics The Italian Language Foundation (in the United States) Italian language in Croatia Italian language in Slovenia Italian language in the United States Italian language in Venezuela Italian literature Italian musical terms Italian phonology Italian profanity Italian Sign Language Italian Studies Italian Wikipedia Italian-language international radio stations Lessico etimologico italiano Sicilian School Veronese Riddle Languages of the Vatican City Talian List of English words of Italian origin

Notes[edit] ^ It is debated, that the Sicilian language is the oldest and direct descendant of Vulgar Latin.[25]

References[edit] ^ a b c "Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languages" (PDF).  (485 KB), February 2006 ^ Italian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) ^ a b "Italian — University of Leicester". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "Centro documentazione per l'integrazione". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "Centro documentazione per l'integrazione". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Italian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Romance languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 February 2017. ... if the Romance languages are compared with Latin, it is seen that by most measures Sardinian and Italian are least differentiated and French most  ^ a b c d Ethnologue report for language code:ita (Italy) – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version ^ "Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 – European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "Italy". Ethnologue. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ a b "Becoming Italian Word by Word: Italian Becomes the Fourth Most Studied Language in the World". 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "German is world's fourth most popular language – The Local". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ [1] Archived 3 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ See Italica 1950: 46 (cf. [2] and [3]): "Pei, Mario A. "A New Methodology for Romance Classification." Word, v, 2 (Aug. 1949), 135–146. Demonstrates a comparative statistical method for determining the extent of change from the Latin for the free and checked accented vowels of French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Rumanian, Old Provençal, and Logudorese Sardinian. By assigning 3½ change points per vowel (with 2 points for diphthongization, 1 point for modification in vowel quantity, ½ point for changes due to nasalization, palatalization or umlaut, and −½ point for failure to effect a normal change), there is a maximum of 77 change points for free and checked stressed vowel sounds (11×2×3½=77). According to this system (illustrated by seven charts at the end of the article), the percentage of change is greatest in French (44%) and least in Italian (12%) and Sardinian (8%). Prof. Pei suggests that this statistical method be extended not only to all other phonological, but also to all morphological and syntactical, phenomena.". ^ See Koutna et al. (1990: 294): "In the late forties and in the fifties some new proposals for classification of the Romance languages appeared. A statistical method attempting to evaluate the evidence quantitatively was developed in order to provide not only a classification but at the same time a measure of the divergence among the languages. The earliest attempt was made in 1949 by Mario Pei (1901–1978), who measured the divergence of seven modern Romance languages from Classical Latin, taking as his criterion the evolution of stressed vowels. Pei's results do not show the degree of contemporary divergence among the languages from each other but only the divergence of each one from Classical Latin. The closest language turned out to be Sardinian with 8% of change. Then followed Italian — 12%; Spanish — 20%; Romanian — 23,5%; Provençal — 25%; Portuguese — 31%; French — 44%." ^ "Portland State Multicultural Topics in Communications Sciences & Disorders | Italian". Retrieved 2017-02-05.  ^ a b c d e f Laura., Lepschy, Anna (1988). The Italian language today. Lepschy, Giulio C. (2nd ed.). New York: New Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-941533-22-5. OCLC 17650220.  ^ Vittorio Coletti. Storia della lingua. Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana. ISBN 9788812000487. Retrieved 10 October 2015. L’italiano di oggi ha ancora in gran parte la stessa grammatica e usa ancora lo stesso lessico del fiorentino letterario del Trecento.  ^ "History of the Italian language". Retrieved 2006-09-24.  ^ a b P., McKay, John (2006). A history of Western society. Hill, Bennett D., Buckler, John. (8th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-52273-6. OCLC 58837884.  ^ Zucker, Steven; Harris, Beth. "An Introduction to the Protestant Reformation". khanacademy. khanacademy. Retrieved 8 July 2017.  ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Renaissance". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved 16 July 2017.  ^ Dittmar, Jeremiah (2011). "Information Technology and Economic Change: The Impact of the Printing Press". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 126 (3): 1133–1172. doi:10.1093/qje/qjr035.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ "Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition". Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ Ghetti, Noemi, ed. (14 June 2013). "Dante perde la paternità: la lingua italiana è nata in Sicilia". Babylon Post. Retrieved 15 October 2016.  ^ Grimes, Barbara F. (October 1996). Barbara F. Grimes, ed. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Consulting Editors: Richard S. Pittman & Joseph E. Grimes (thirteenth ed.). Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, Academic Pub. ISBN 1-55671-026-7.  ^ Brincat (2005) ^ "Most similar languages to Italian".  ^ Pei, Mario (1949). Story of Language. ISBN 0-397-00400-1.  ^ Lüdi, Georges; Werlen, Iwar (April 2005). "Recensement Fédéral de la Population 2000 — Le Paysage Linguistique en Suisse" (PDF) (in French, German, and Italian). Neuchâtel: Office fédéral de la statistique. Retrieved 5 January 2006.  ^ The Vatican City State appendix to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis is entirely in Italian. ^ "Europeans and their Languages" (PDF). Europeans and their Languages. European Commission: Directorate General for Education and Culture and Directorate General Press and Communication. February 2006. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ Hull, Geoffrey, The Malta Language Question: A Case Study in Cultural Imperialism, Valletta: Said International, 1993. ^ "Central Bureau of Statistics". Retrieved 2016-10-09.  ^ "POPULATION BY ETHNICITY, 1971–2011 CENSUSES".  ^ Pradelli, A. (2004). l silenzio di una minoranza: gli italiani in Istria dall'esodo al post-comunismo 1945–2004. Bologna: Lo Scarebeo. p. 38.  ^ "Italians looking for work in Albania – 19,000, says minister – Economy –".  ^ "Albanian government makes Italian an obligatory language in professional schools".  ^ "Society". Monaco-IQ Business Intelligence. Lydia Porter. 2007–2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ "France". Ethnologue. SIL International. 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ [4] Archived 17 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Scuola Italiana di Asmara (in Italian)". Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ Diana Briton Putman, Mohamood Cabdi Noor, The Somalis: their history and culture, (Center for Applied Linguistics: 1993), p. 15.: "Somalis speak Somali. Many people also speak Arabic, and educated Somalis usually speak English. Swahili may also be spoken in coastal areas near Kenya." ^ "Language Spoken at Home: 2000". United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ "Newsletter". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ Ryan, Camille (August 2013). "Language Use in the United States: 2011" (PDF). American Community Survey Reports 2013, ACS-22: 1–16. Retrieved July 23, 2017.  ^ "Statistics Canada 2006". 8 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ "2011 Census QuickStats: Australia". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "Los segundos idiomas más hablados de Sudamérica | AméricaEconomía – El sitio de los negocios globales de América Latina". 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "Welsh". Ethnologue. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ Bernasconi, Giulia (2012). "L'ITALIANO IN VENEZUELA". Italiano LinguaDue (in Italian). Università degli Studi di Milano (2): 20. doi:10.13130/2037-3597/1921. Retrieved 22 January 2017. L'italiano come lingua acquisita o riacquisita è largamente diffuso in Venezuela: recenti studi stimano circa 200.000 studenti di italiano nel Paese  ^ Sansonetti V. (1995) Quemé mis naves en esta montaña: La colonización de la altiplanicie de Coto Brus y la fundación de San Vito de Java. Jiménez y Tanzi. San José, Costa Rica (in Spanish) ^ "Lingua italiana, la quarta più studiata nel mondo – La Stampa". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "9". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "duolingo". duolingo. Retrieved 18 July 2017.  ^ a b "Dati e statistiche". 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "Languages Spoken and Learned in the United States". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "Parte prima – Quadro generale". Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ "Eurobarometer pool (2006), page 152" (PDF). Retrieved 2 June 2012.  ^ "Italian". Ethnologue. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ Longo, Maurizio (2007). "La lingua italiana in Albania" (PDF). Education et Sociétés Plurilingues (in Italian) (22): 51–56. Retrieved 28 July 2014. Today, even though for political reasons English is the most widely taught foreign language in Albanian schools, Italian is anyway the most widespread foreign language.  ^ Longo, Maurizio; Ademi, Esmeralda; Bulija, Mirjana (June 2010). "Una quantificazione della penetrazione della lingua italiana in Albania tramite la televisione (III)" [A quantification of the diffusion of the Italian language in Albania via television] (PDF). Education et Sociétés Plurilingues (in Italian) (28): 53–63. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "Italian Language". Retrieved 2016-10-07.  ^ "Major Dialects of Italian". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ Hall (1944:77–78) ^ Hall (1944:78) ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117) ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:132) ^ Luciano Canepari, A Handbook of Pronunciation, chapter 3: «Italian». ^ "Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ "Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia". Retrieved 2015-10-22.  ^ a b Clivio, Gianrenzo; Danesi, Marcel (2000). The Sounds, Forms, and Uses of Italian: An Introduction to Italian Linguistics. University of Toronto Press. pp. 21, 66.  ^ Canepari, Luciano (January 1999). Il MªPI – Manuale di pronuncia italiana (second ed.). Bologna: Zanichelli. ISBN 88-08-24624-8.  ^ a b c d e f g Danesi, Marcel (2008). Practice Makes Perfect: Complete Italian Grammar, Premium Second Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-1-259-58772-6.  ^ a b c "Collins Italian Dictionary | Translations, Definitions and Pronunciations". Retrieved 2017-07-28.  ^ Kellogg, Michael. "Dizionario italiano-inglese WordReference". (in Italian and English). Retrieved 7 August 2015.  ^ "Princeton Dante Project (2.0)". Retrieved 2015-10-22. 

Bibliography[edit] Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004). "Italian". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 34 (1): 117–121. doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628.  M. Vitale, Studi di Storia della Lingua Italiana, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 1992, ISBN 88-7916-015-X S. Morgana, Capitoli di Storia Linguistica Italiana, LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano, 2003, ISBN 88-7916-211-X J. Kinder, CLIC: Cultura e Lingua d'Italia in CD-ROM / Culture and Language of Italy on CD-ROM, Interlinea, Novara, 2008, ISBN 978-88-8212-637-7

External links[edit] Italian edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Find more aboutItalian languageat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata Il Nuovo De Mauro (in Italian) Italian language at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Swadesh list in English and Italian Italian proverbs "Learn Italian," BBC Online English-Italian Translation Portal of the Italian Language (in Italian) Translation of Italian expressions (in Italian) Articles related to the Italian language v t e Italy articles History Chronology Prehistory Italic peoples Ancient Italian peoples Pre-Nuragic Sardinia Nuragic peoples Etruscan Civilization Nuragic Civilization Phoenician / Carthaginian colonies Magna Graecia Ancient Rome Kingdom Republic Empire Middle Ages Italy under Odoacer Ostrogoths Byzantine Italy Lombards Regnum Italiae Sardinian Judgedoms Arabs Normans Guelphs and Ghibellines Italian city-states Maritime republics Renaissance Italian Wars Early Modern period Unification Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848 Sicilian revolution of 1848 First War of Independence Crimean War Second War of Independence Expedition of the Thousand Third War of Independence Capture of Rome Monarchy and the World Wars Kingdom of Italy Colonial Empire World War I Fascist Italy World War II Resistance Civil War Republic Economic Boom Years of Lead Years of Mud Mani pulite By topic Citizenship Currency Economy Fashion Flags Genetic Historic states Military Music Postal Railways Geography Peninsula Northern Northwest Northeast Central Southern South Insular Climate Fauna Flora Mountains Prealps Alps Apennines Volcanology Volcanoes Beaches Canals Caves Earthquakes Islands Lakes National parks Rivers Valleys Politics Constitution Elections Referendums Foreign relations Missions Judiciary Law enforcement Military Parliament Chamber of Deputies Senate Political parties President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Regions Provinces Metropolitan cities Comune Municipalities Cities Economy Economic history Milan Naples Rome Turin Regions by GDP Automotive industry Banking Central Bank Companies Energy Government debt Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Internet Tourism Trade unions Transportation Welfare Society Abortion Adoption Billionaires Capital punishment Corruption Crime Demographics Education Secondary Higher Universities Emigration Fathers' rights movement Feminism Gambling Health Healthcare Immigration LGBT rights Nobility Prostitution Racism Religion Smoking Social class Terrorism Women Culture Duecento Trecento Quattrocento Cinquecento Seicento Settecento Architecture Art Castles Cinema Cuisine Beer Wine Decorations Design Fashion Festivals Folklore Italian language Regional Italian Italian literature Italophilia Italophobia Languages Media Newspapers Radio TV Monuments Music Classical Folk Opera Popular Mythology National symbols Anthem Emblem Flag Regions National monument Personification People Philosophy Public holidays Festa della Repubblica Sculpture Sport Traditions World Heritage Sites Italy portal Category Commons News Quotes Travel WikiProject v t e Italian language in the world Italian languages & dialects Argentina Australia Croatia Eritrea Italy Libya Malta Mexico Slovenia Somalia Switzerland United States Venezuela Pidgin & Mixed Sabir Itanglese Lunfardo Cocoliche Llanito Macarrônico Talian v t e Languages of Italy Italo-Dalmatian Central Italian Italian Italian Sign Language Regional Italian Central Marchigiano Sabino Romanesco Tuscan Florentine Corsican Gallurese Sassarese Southern Italian Neapolitan Barese Irpinian Molisan Cosentino Tarantino Sicilian Salentino Southern Calabrese Cilentan Others Dalmatian Castelmezzano[a] Manduriano Judaeo-Italian Vastese Sardinian Sardinian Sardinian Campidanese Logudorese Occitano-Romance Catalan Algherese Occitan Vivaro-Alpine Mentonasc Niçard Gallo-Romance French Aostan Franco-Provençal Valdôtain Faetar Savoyard Gallo-Italic Ligurian Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque Royasc Lombard Western Lombard Brianzöö dialects Canzés Bustocco and Legnanese Comasco-Lecchese dialects Comasco Laghée Vallassinese Lecchese Milanese Ticinese Ossolano Varesino Southwestern Lombard Pavese Novarese Cremunés Eastern Lombard Bergamasque Emilian-Romagnol Emilian Bolognese Parmigiano Romagnol Forlivese Various Gallo-Italic Piedmontese Judeo-Piedmontese Gallo-Italic of Basilicata Gallo-Italic of Sicily Venetian Venetian Fiuman Triestine Rhaeto-Romance Rhaeto-Romance Fornes Friulian Ladin Cadorino Nones Albanian Arbëresh language Arbëresh Vaccarizzo Albanian South Slavic Croatian Slavomolisano Slovene Brda Gail Valley Inner Carniolan Istrian Karst Natisone Valley Resian Torre Valley Greek Italiot Greek Calabrian Greek Griko German Bavarian Cimbrian Mòcheno Southern Bavarian Other German Austrian German Walser Yiddish Others Romani ^ Castelmezzano may also be defined as an Eastern Romance language, though the Italo-Dalmation group may itself be defined as a subdivision of Eastern Romance languages depending on the source v t e Languages of Slovenia Official language Slovenian Minority languages Croatian German Hungarian Italian Romani Serbian Sign languages Yugoslav Sign Language v t e Languages of Switzerland Official languages French German Italian Romansh Major dialect groups Lombard Romand Sinte Swiss German Sign languages Swiss-German Sign French Sign Italian Sign v t e Romance languages (Classification) Western Ibero-Romance Galician-Portuguese Portuguese dialects European Brazilian Uruguayan African Asian Creoles Galician Eonavian/Galician-Asturian Fala Judaeo-Portuguese Caló Astur-Leonese Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese Spanish Spanish dialects Latin American Philippine Equatoguinean European Creoles Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Caló Others Navarro-Aragonese Aragonese Judaeo-Aragonese Mozarabic Occitano- Romance Catalan dialects Eastern Catalan Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Western Catalan North-Western Valencian Judaeo-Catalan Caló Occitan Auvergnat Gascon Aranese Languedocien Limousin Provençal Niçard Mentonasc Vivaro-Alpine Old Provençal Judaeo-Provençal Caló Gallo-Romance Langues d'oïl Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Picard Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon Moselle Romance British Latin Others Arpitan/Franco-Provençal Valdôtain Savoyard North Italian dialects Gallo-Italic Ligurian Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque Lombard Western Eastern Emilian-Romagnol Emilian Bolognese Parmigiano Romagnol Piedmontese Judaeo-Piedmontese Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata Others Venetian Fiuman Talian Triestine Mediterranean Lingua Franca Rhaeto-Romance Rhaeto-Romance Friulian Ladin Romansh Central, Sardinian and Eastern Italo-Dalmatian Central Italian dialects Central Tuscan Corsican Gallurese Sassarese Judaeo-Italian Southern Neapolitan Northern Calabrese Sicilian Southern Calabrese Others Dalmatian Istriot Sardinian Sardinian Sardinian Campidanese Logudorese Eastern Romanian Romanian Moldovan Vlach Others Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian North African North African African Romance Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left. v t e Languages of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria Dependencies and other entities Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard Other entities European Union Language portal Italy portal Vatican City portal Switzerland portal European Union portal Authority control GND: 4114056-4 NDL: 00564305 Retrieved from "" Categories: Italian languageFusional languagesLanguages attested from the 10th centuryLanguages of ItalyLanguages of San MarinoLanguages of SicilyLanguages of SwitzerlandLanguages of Vatican CityLanguages of SloveniaLanguages of CroatiaSubject–verb–object languagesHidden categories: Language articles citing Ethnologue 18Webarchive template wayback linksPages using citations with accessdate and no URLCS1 French-language sources (fr)CS1 German-language sources (de)CS1 Italian-language sources (it)Use dmy dates from July 2013Languages with ISO 639-2 codeLanguages with ISO 639-1 codeArticles with hAudio microformatsArticles needing additional references from October 2013All articles needing additional referencesWikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2018Articles containing Italian-language textWikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014Articles containing Latin-language textArticles containing Romanian-language textArticles containing Spanish-language textArticles containing French-language textArticles containing Portuguese-language textPages using div col with deprecated parametersArticles with Italian-language external linksArticles with Curlie linksWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikibooksWikiquoteWikiversityWikivoyage Languages АдыгэбзэAfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscАҧсшәаالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐArmãneashtiArpetanAsturianuAvañe'ẽAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهবাংলাBahasa BanjarBân-lâm-gúБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎Bikol CentralБългарскиBoarischབོད་ཡིགBosanskiBrezhonegБуряадCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschދިވެހިބަސްDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskFurlanGaeilgeGaelgGàidhligGalego贛語客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî한국어HawaiʻiՀայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIlokanoবিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরীBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaИронIsiZuluÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa Jawaಕನ್ನಡKapampanganქართულიKaszëbscziҚазақшаKernowekKiswahiliКомиKreyòl ayisyenKurdîКыргызчаLadinoЛезгиລາວلۊری شومالیLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLigureLimburgsLumbaartMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиMalagasyമലയാളംMaltiमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄MirandésМокшеньМонголမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NapulitanoНохчийнNordfriiskNorfuk / PitkernNorskNorsk nynorskNovialOccitanОлык марийOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیPapiamentuPatoisПерем Комиភាសាខ្មែរPicardPiemontèisTok PisinPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaReo tahitiRomânăRumantschRuna SimiРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаGagana Samoaसंस्कृतम्SarduScotsSeelterskSesotho sa LeboaShqipSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaŚlůnskiSoomaaligaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்Татарча/tatarçaไทยТоҷикӣᏣᎳᎩTürkçeTwiУдмуртУкраїнськаاردوئۇيغۇرچە / UyghurcheVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükVõro文言West-VlamsWinarayייִדיש粵語ZazakiŽemaitėška中文Kabɩyɛ Edit links This page was last edited on 23 February 2018, at 16:46. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"1.800","walltime":"2.121","ppvisitednodes":{"value":29840,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":784598,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":199044,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":20,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":29,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 1672.461 1 -total"," 23.83% 398.619 1 Template:Navboxes"," 23.51% 393.222 35 Template:Navbox"," 21.22% 354.963 3 Template:Reflist"," 12.91% 215.842 1 Template:Infobox_language"," 11.38% 190.394 46 Template:Cite_web"," 10.71% 179.201 1 Template:Infobox"," 9.54% 159.528 1 Template:Languages_of_Europe"," 9.46% 158.226 1 Template:Europe_topic"," 8.58% 143.559 13 Template:Lang"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.755","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":27692568,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1327","timestamp":"20180225152748","ttl":86400,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":127,"wgHostname":"mw1322"});});

Italian_language - Photos and All Basic Informations

Italian_language More Links

Italiano (disambiguation)Languages Of ItalyHelp:IPA/ItalianItalySwitzerlandSan MarinoVatican CityIstria CountyCroatiaSlovene IstriaSloveniaTicinoItalian GraubündenSlovene LittoralIstriaLanguage FamilyIndo-European LanguagesItalic LanguagesRomance LanguagesItalo-Western LanguagesItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesWriting SystemLatin ScriptItalian AlphabetItalian BrailleManually Coded LanguageItaliano SegnatoItaliano Segnato EsattoItalySwitzerlandSan MarinoVatican CitySovereign Military Order Of MaltaIstria CountyCroatiaSloveniaSlovene IstriaSloveniaEuropean UnionBosnia And HerzegovinaCroatiaEritreaLibyaRomaniaSloveniaSomaliaList Of Language RegulatorsAccademia Della CruscaISO 639-1ISO 639-2ISO 639-3GlottologLinguasphere ObservatoryInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetReplacement CharacterUnicodeHelp:IPACategory:Italian LanguageItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesTuscan DialectFlorentine DialectLanguages Of ItalyRegional ItalianAccademia Della CruscaTreccaniItalian LanguageVeronese RiddlePlaciti CassinesiSicilian SchoolDolce Stil NovoDivine ComedyAccademia Degli ArcadiAccademia Della CruscaThe Last Letters Of Jacopo OrtisThe Betrothed (Manzoni Novel)Italian LiteratureItalian LiteratureItalian PoetryMusic Of ItalyItalian ComicsItalian PhilosophyItalian GrammarItalian ConjugationItalian OrthographyItalian OrthographyItalian BrailleItalian PhonologyTemplate:Italian LanguageTemplate Talk:Italian LanguageAbout This SoundWikipedia:Media HelpFile:It-italiano.oggHelp:IPA/ItalianHelp:IPA/ItalianRomance LanguagesSardinian LanguageLatinItalySwitzerlandSan MarinoVatican CityIstriaSlovene IstriaIstria CountyAlbaniaMaltaMonacoItalian East AfricaItalian North AfricaItalian DiasporaThe AmericasAustraliaBosnia And HerzegovinaCroatiaSloveniaRomaniaLanguages Of ItalyOrganisation For Security And Cooperation In EuropeCouncil Of EuropeLanguages Of The EUHoly SeeLingua FrancaSovereign Military Order Of MaltaMusical TerminologyOperaArtsLuxury GoodsUnification Of ItalyTuscan DialectUpper ClassItalian LanguagesGermanic LanguagesMigration PeriodClassical LatinSardinian LanguageGeminationRomance LanguagesStress (linguistics)Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalMiddle AgesVulgar LatinLanguages Of ItalyWikipedia:Citing SourcesTuscanyItalyVulgar LatinPlaciti CassinesiDuchy Of BeneventoVeronese RiddleDante AlighieriFlorentine DialectDivine ComedyGiovanni BoccaccioItaliansWikipedia:Citing SourcesFlorenceKingdom Of NaplesKingdom Of Lombardy-VenetiaAustro-Hungarian EmpireCity-stateVariety (linguistics)RomeMilanConsonant LengthLa Spezia–Rimini LineGallo-Italic LanguagesNorthern ItalyItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesNeapolitan LanguageOccitan LanguageBardMiddle AgesNorman Conquest Of Southern ItalyLate Middle AgesVenetian LanguageLigurian Language (Romance)FlorenceMedici BankHumanismRenaissanceRenaissanceRoman Catholic ChurchHumanistsProtestant ReformationMartin LutherJohann TetzelDiet Of WormsCatholicismLutheranismBibleLatinPrinting PressJohannes GutenbergDante AlighieriPetrarchTuscan DialectItalyLate Middle AgesEnlargePietro BemboItalian PeninsulaDe Vulgari EloquentiaPurism (language)Pietro BemboGli AsolaniPetrarchNiccolò MachiavelliFlorenceCourtierBaldassare CastiglioneGian Giorgio TrissinoAccademia Della CruscaAgnolo MonosiniFloris Italicae Lingue Libri NovemPrinting PressNapoleonLingua FrancaBourgeoisieThe Betrothed (Manzoni Novel)Alessandro ManzoniArno RiverFlorenceCiaoVenetian LanguagePanettoneLombard LanguageRomance LanguageVulgar LatinTuscan LanguageFlorentine DialectItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesSicilian LanguageDalmatian LanguageConsonant LengthRomance LanguagesStress (linguistics)VocabularyLexical SimilarityFrench LanguageCatalan LanguageSardinian LanguageSpanish LanguageLadin LanguageRomanian LanguagePhonologyInflectionDiscourseSyntaxVocabularyIntonation (linguistics)EnlargeEnlargeItalySan MarinoRomansch LanguageSwitzerlandTicinoGraubündenItalian GraubündenVatican CityMaltaIstria CountySlovenian IstriaSovereign Military Order Of MaltaAlbaniaItalyAlbaniaItaliansAlbanian LanguageGreek LanguageMonacoItalian EmpireLibyaItalian LibyaHistory Of Libya Under Muammar GaddafiItalian Settlers In LibyaLiterary ArabicAsmaraSomaliaItalian SomalilandSomali Civil WarSomali LanguageItalian AmericanCanadaVarieties Of ChineseAustraliaSouth AmericaArgentinaUruguayProsody (linguistics)São Paulo (state)Rioplatense SpanishBrazilVenezuelaParaguayEcuadorCosta RicaCentral AmericaEnglish LanguageSan Vito (Costa Rica)PanamaItalyRomaniaFranceSwitzerlandCroatiaAustraliaBrazilSan MarinoMonacoSomaliaSloveniaVatican CityEnlargeDuolingoItalian Ministry Of Foreign AffairsItalian Cultural InstituteAmerican Sign LanguageEuropean UnionMaltaSloveniaCroatiaAustriaFranceLuxembourgWest GermanyGreeceCyprusRomaniaAlbaniaItalian DiasporaLanguages Of ItalyRio Grande Do SulBrazilTalian DialectChipiloMexicoVenetian LanguageCocolichePidginArgentinaBuenos AiresLunfardoRioplatense SpanishLanguages Of ItalyMediterranean Lingua FrancaMedievalRenaissanceRenaissance HumanismThe ArtsGrand TourLatinGreek LanguageJohn MiltonCatholic ChurchLoanwordMusicOperaDesignFashionFootball (association)Regional ItalianLanguages Of ItalyEnlargeRegional ItalianLanguages Of ItalyLanguages Of ItalyRomance LanguagesSardinian LanguageLadin LanguageFriulian LanguageMinority LanguageCorsican LanguageFranceCorsicaTuscan DialectStratum (linguistics)Wikipedia:Citing SourcesVeniceMutually IntelligibleWikipedia:Citing SourcesTullio De MauroWorld War IIItalian DiasporaWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:Citing SourcesItalian PhonologyInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetSpecials (Unicode Block)UnicodeHelp:IPABilabial ConsonantLabiodental ConsonantDental ConsonantAlveolar ConsonantPostalveolar ConsonantPalatal ConsonantVelar ConsonantNasal ConsonantBilabial NasalDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsPalatal NasalStop ConsonantVoiceless Bilabial StopVoiced Bilabial StopVoiceless Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiced Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiceless Velar StopVoiced Velar StopAffricate ConsonantVoiceless Dental AffricateVoiced Dental AffricateVoiceless Palato-alveolar AffricateVoiced Palato-alveolar AffricateFricative ConsonantVoiceless Labiodental FricativeVoiced Labiodental FricativeVoiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiced Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Postalveolar FricativeApproximant ConsonantPalatal ApproximantVoiced Labio-velar ApproximantLateral ConsonantDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsPalatal Lateral ApproximantTrill ConsonantDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsGeminationRelease (phonetics)Flap ConsonantWikipedia:Please ClarifyAssimilation (linguistics)Point Of ArticulationVulgar LatinCatalan LanguagePortuguese LanguageCatalan LanguagePortuguese LanguageCatalan LanguageGermanic LanguagesCatalan LanguageFlorenceTuscanyRegional ItalianGallo-Italian LanguagesLa Spezia–Rimini LineWestern RomancePortuguese LanguageGalician LanguageCatalan LanguageRomanian LanguageLenitionProto-RomanceLanguages Of ItalyLa Spezia–Rimini LineIsoglossMetaphony (Romance Languages)Languages Of ItalyPhonotacticsEpenthetic VowelItalian AlphabetBajardoBojanoJoppoloJerzuJesoloJesiAjaccioIonian SeaPhoneticsDigraph (orthography)Acute AccentClose-mid Front Unrounded VowelClose-mid Back Rounded VowelGrave AccentOpen-mid Front Unrounded VowelOpen-mid Back Rounded VowelPhonemeVoice (phonetics)VoicelessnessPlosivesAffricatesVoiceless Palato-alveolar AffricateVoiced Palato-alveolar AffricateHard And Soft CHard And Soft GPalatalization (sound Change)Digraph (orthography)CandyIndia InkRoosterEdible DormouseDonutYellowSilent LetterCh (digraph)Gh (digraph)CiaoConsonant LengthContinuantParmaAosta ValleySouth TyrolTuscan GorgiaLenitionTuscan LanguageVoiced Postalveolar FricativeItalian GrammarItalian VerbsRomance LanguagesGrammatical CaseNominative CaseOblique CaseAccusative CaseDative CaseGrammatical GenderGrammatical GenderInflectionAdjectiveEnglish LanguageNull-subject LanguageInflectionArticle (grammar)Contraction (grammar)PrepositionArticle (grammar)SuffixItalian DiminutiveAugmentativeNeologismCliticGrammatical ConjugationIndicative MoodPresent TensePast TenseImperfective AspectPerfective AspectFuture TenseSubjunctive MoodConditional MoodImperative MoodPast ParticipleCiaoInternational Phonetic AlphabetDanteDivine ComedyLino PertilePortal:ItalyPortal:SwitzerlandPortal:Vatican CityPortal:LanguageWikipediaLanguages Of ItalyAccademia Della CruscaCELICILS (Qualification)Enciclopedia ItalianaItalian AlphabetItalian Dialects (disambiguation)Italian ExonymsItalian GrammarItalian HonorificsThe Italian Language FoundationItalian Language In CroatiaItalian Language In SloveniaItalian Language In The United StatesItalian Language In VenezuelaItalian LiteratureItalian Music TerminologyItalian PhonologyItalian ProfanityItalian Sign LanguageItalian StudiesItalian WikipediaItalian-language International Radio StationsLessico Etimologico ItalianoSicilian SchoolVeronese RiddleLanguages Of The Vatican CityTalian DialectList Of English Words Of Italian OriginEthnologueGlottologWayback MachineClassification Of Romance LanguagesClassification Of Romance LanguagesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-941533-22-5OCLCInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9788812000487International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-618-52273-6OCLCDigital Object IdentifierHelp:CS1 ErrorsEthnologueInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-55671-026-7Mario PeiInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-397-00400-1NeuchâtelActa Apostolicae SedisWayback MachineSwahili LanguageUnited States Bureau Of The CensusDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/88-08-24624-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-259-58772-6Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/88-7916-015-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/88-7916-211-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-88-8212-637-7WikipediaWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsDMOZBBCTemplate:Italy TopicsTemplate Talk:Italy TopicsItalyIndex Of Italy-related ArticlesHistory Of ItalyTimeline Of Italian HistoryPrehistoric ItalyItalic PeoplesList Of Ancient Peoples Of ItalyPre-Nuragic SardiniaList Of Ancient Corsican And Sardinian TribesEtruscan CivilizationNuragic CivilizationAncient CarthageMagna GraeciaAncient RomeRoman KingdomRoman RepublicRoman EmpireItaly In The Middle AgesOdoacerOstrogothic KingdomByzantine ItalyKingdom Of The LombardsKingdom Of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)GiudicatiHistory Of Islam In Southern ItalyNorman Conquest Of Southern ItalyGuelphs And GhibellinesItalian City-statesMaritime RepublicsItalian RenaissanceItalian WarsHistory Of Italy (1559–1814)Italian UnificationRevolutions Of 1820Revolutions Of 1830Revolutions Of 1848 In The Italian StatesSicilian Revolution Of 1848First Italian War Of IndependenceCrimean WarSecond Italian War Of IndependenceExpedition Of The ThousandThird Italian War Of IndependenceCapture Of RomeHistory Of The Kingdom Of Italy (1861–1946)Kingdom Of ItalyItalian EmpireMilitary History Of Italy During World War IKingdom Of Italy Under Fascism (1922–1943)Military History Of Italy During World War IIItalian Resistance MovementItalian Civil WarHistory Of The Italian RepublicItalian Economic MiracleYears Of Lead (Italy)Years Of MudMani PuliteHistory Of Italian CitizenshipHistory Of Coins In ItalyEconomic History Of ItalyHistory Of Italian FashionList Of Italian FlagsGenetic History Of ItalyList Of Historic States Of ItalyMilitary History Of ItalyMusic History Of ItalyPostage Stamps And Postal History Of ItalyHistory Of Rail Transport In ItalyItalyGeography Of ItalyItalian PeninsulaNorthern ItalyNorthwest ItalyNortheast ItalyCentral ItalySouthern ItalySouth ItalyInsular ItalyClimate Of ItalyFauna Of ItalyFlora Of ItalyList Of Mountains Of ItalyAlpine FoothillsAlpsApennine MountainsVolcanology Of ItalyList Of Volcanoes In ItalyList Of Beaches In ItalyList Of Canals In ItalyList Of Caves In ItalyList Of Earthquakes In ItalyList Of Islands Of ItalyList Of Lakes Of ItalyList Of National Parks Of ItalyList Of Rivers Of ItalyList Of Valleys Of ItalyPolitics Of ItalyConstitution Of ItalyElections In ItalyReferendums In ItalyForeign Relations Of ItalyList Of Diplomatic Missions Of ItalyJudiciary Of ItalyLaw Enforcement In ItalyItalian Armed ForcesItalian ParliamentChamber Of Deputies (Italy)Senate Of The Republic (Italy)List Of Political Parties In ItalyPresident Of ItalyPrime Minister Of ItalyCouncil Of Ministers (Italy)Regions Of ItalyProvinces Of ItalyMetropolitan Cities Of ItalyComuneList Of Comuni Of ItalyList Of Cities In ItalyEconomy Of ItalyEconomic History Of ItalyEconomy Of MilanEconomy Of NaplesEconomy Of RomeEconomy Of TurinList Of Italian Regions By GDPAutomotive Industry In ItalyBanking In ItalyBank Of ItalyList Of Companies Of ItalyEnergy In ItalyItalian Government DebtScience And Technology In ItalyBorsa ItalianaTaxation In ItalyTelecommunications In ItalyInternet In ItalyTourism In ItalyList Of Trade Unions In ItalyTransport In ItalyItalian Welfare StateCategory:Italian SocietyAbortion In ItalyAdoption In ItalyList Of Italians By Net WorthCapital Punishment In ItalyCorruption In ItalyCrime In ItalyDemographics Of ItalyEducation In ItalySecondary Education In ItalyHigher Education In ItalyList Of Universities In ItalyItalian DiasporaFathers' Rights Movement In ItalyFeminism In ItalyGambling In ItalyHealth In ItalyHealthcare In ItalyImmigration To ItalyLGBT Rights In ItalyNobility Of ItalyProstitution In ItalyRacism In ItalyReligion In ItalySmoking In ItalySocial Class In ItalyTerrorism In Italy Since 1945Women In ItalyCulture Of ItalyDuecentoTrecentoQuattrocentoCinquecentoSeicentoHistory Of Italian Culture (1700s)Architecture Of ItalyItalian ArtList Of Castles In ItalyCinema Of ItalyItalian CuisineBeer In ItalyItalian WineList Of Italian Orders Of ChivalryItalian DesignItalian FashionItalian FestivalsFolklore Of ItalyRegional ItalianItalian LiteratureItalophiliaAnti-ItalianismLanguages Of ItalyMedia Of ItalyList Of Newspapers In ItalyList Of Radio Stations In ItalyTelevision In ItalyList Of Monuments Of ItalyMusic Of ItalyItalian Classical MusicItalian Folk MusicItalian OperaItalian Popular MusicMythology Of ItalyNational Symbols Of ItalyIl Canto Degli ItalianiEmblem Of ItalyFlag Of ItalyFlags Of Regions Of ItalyAltare Della PatriaItalia TurritaItaliansItalian PhilosophyPublic Holidays In ItalyFesta Della RepubblicaSculpture Of ItalySport In ItalyTraditions Of ItalyList Of World Heritage Sites In ItalyPortal:ItalyCategory:ItalyWikipedia:WikiProject ItalyTemplate:Italian Language In The WorldTemplate Talk:Italian Language In The WorldCocolicheItalo-Australian DialectItalian Language In CroatiaEritrean ItalianRegional ItalianLibyan ItalianLanguages Of MaltaChipilo Venetian DialectItalian Language In SloveniaItalian Language In SomaliaSwiss ItalianItalian Language In The United StatesItalian Language In VenezuelaMacaronic LanguageSabir LanguageItangleseLunfardoCocolicheLlanitoMacarrônicoTalian DialectTemplate:Languages Of ItalyTemplate Talk:Languages Of ItalyItalyLanguages Of ItalyItalyItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesItalian Sign LanguageRegional ItalianCentral ItalianMarchigiano DialectSabino DialectRomanesco DialectTuscan LanguageFlorentine DialectCorsican LanguageGallurese DialectSassarese LanguageSouthern ItalyNeapolitan LanguageBari DialectIrpinian DialectMolisanLanguages Of CalabriaTarantino DialectSicilian LanguageSalentino DialectLanguages Of CalabriaCilentan LanguageDalmatian LanguageCastelmezzano DialectMandurianoJudeo-Italian LanguagesVasteseSardinian LanguageSardinian LanguageSardinian LanguageCampidanese DialectLogudorese DialectOccitano-Romance LanguagesCatalan LanguageAlghereseOccitan LanguageVivaro-Alpine DialectMentonasc DialectNiçard DialectGallo-Romance LanguagesFrench LanguageAostan FrenchFranco-Provençal LanguageValdôtain DialectFaetar DialectSavoyard DialectGallo-Italic LanguagesLigurian Language (Romance)Brigasc DialectGenoese DialectIntemelio DialectMonégasque DialectRoyascLombard LanguageWestern Lombard DialectBrianzöö DialectCanzés DialectBustocco And Legnanese DialectComasco-Lecchese DialectsComasco DialectLaghée DialectVallassinese DialectLecchese DialectMilanese DialectTicinese DialectOssolanoVaresino DialectSouthwestern LombardPavese DialectNovarese LombardCremunés DialectEastern Lombard DialectBergamasqueEmilian-Romagnol LanguageEmilian DialectBolognese DialectParmigiano DialectRomagnol DialectForlivese DialectPiedmontese LanguageJudeo-PiedmonteseGallo-Italic Of BasilicataGallo-Italic Of SicilyVenetian LanguageFiuman DialectTriestine DialectRhaeto-Romance LanguagesRhaeto-Romance LanguagesFornes DialectsFriulian LanguageLadin LanguageCadorino DialectNones DialectAlbanian LanguageArbëresh LanguageArbëresh LanguageVaccarizzo AlbanianSouth Slavic LanguageCroatian LanguageSlavomolisano DialectSlovene LanguageBrda DialectGail Valley DialectInner Carniolan DialectIstrian DialectKarst DialectNatisone Valley DialectResian DialectTorre Valley DialectGreek LanguageCalabrian GreekGriko DialectGerman LanguageBavarian LanguageCimbrian LanguageMòcheno LanguageSouthern BavarianAustrian GermanWalser GermanYiddishRomani LanguageEastern Romance LanguageTemplate:Languages Of SloveniaTemplate Talk:Languages Of SloveniaSloveniaLanguages Of SloveniaSloveniaSlovene LanguageCroatian LanguageGerman LanguageHungarian LanguageRomani LanguageSerbian LanguageYugoslav Sign LanguageTemplate:Languages Of SwitzerlandTemplate Talk:Languages Of SwitzerlandSwitzerlandLanguages Of SwitzerlandSwitzerlandSwiss FrenchSwiss Standard GermanSwiss ItalianRomansh LanguageLombard LanguageFranco-ProvençalSinte RomaniSwiss GermanSwiss-German Sign LanguageFrench Sign LanguageItalian Sign LanguageTemplate:Romance LanguagesTemplate Talk:Romance LanguagesRomance LanguagesClassification Of Romance LanguagesWestern Romance LanguagesIberian Romance LanguagesGalician-PortuguesePortuguese LanguagePortuguese DialectsEuropean PortugueseBrazilian PortugueseUruguayan PortuguesePortuguese Language In AfricaPortuguese Language In AsiaPortuguese-based Creole LanguagesGalician LanguageGalician-AsturianFala LanguageJudaeo-PortugueseCaló LanguageAstur-Leonese LanguagesAsturian LanguageCantabrian DialectExtremaduran LanguageLeonese DialectMirandese LanguageSpanish LanguageSpanish LanguageSpanish DialectsSpanish Language In The AmericasPhilippine SpanishEquatoguinean SpanishPeninsular SpanishSpanish-based Creole LanguagesOld Spanish LanguageJudaeo-SpanishCaló LanguageNavarro-AragoneseAragonese LanguageJudaeo-AragoneseMozarabic LanguageOccitano-Romance LanguagesCatalan LanguageCatalan DialectsEastern CatalanAlgherese DialectBalearic DialectCentral CatalanNorthern CatalanWestern CatalanNorth-Western CatalanValencianJudaeo-CatalanCaló LanguageOccitan LanguageAuvergnat DialectGascon LanguageAranese DialectLanguedocien DialectLimousin DialectProvençal DialectNiçard DialectMentonasc DialectVivaro-Alpine DialectOld ProvençalShuaditCaló LanguageGallo-Romance LanguagesLangues D'oïlBurgundian Language (Oïl)Champenois LanguageFrainc-Comtou DialectFrench LanguageFrench DialectsStandard FrenchAfrican FrenchAostan FrenchBelgian FrenchFrench Language In CambodiaCanadian FrenchIndian FrenchFrench Language In LaosSwiss FrenchFrench Language In VietnamOld FrenchMiddle FrenchZarphatic LanguageFrench-based Creole LanguagesGallo LanguageLorrain LanguageNorman LanguageAnglo-Norman LanguagePicard LanguagePoitevin DialectSaintongeais DialectWalloon LanguageMoselle RomanceBritish LatinFranco-Provençal LanguageValdôtain DialectSavoyard DialectGallo-Italic LanguagesGallo-Italic LanguagesLigurian (Romance Language)Brigasc DialectGenoese DialectIntemelio DialectMonégasque DialectLombard LanguageWestern Lombard DialectEastern Lombard DialectEmilian-Romagnol LanguageEmilian DialectBolognese DialectParmigiano DialectRomagnol DialectPiedmontese LanguageJudaeo-PiedmonteseGallo-Italic Of SicilyGallo-Italic Of BasilicataVenetian LanguageFiuman DialectTalian DialectTriestine DialectMediterranean Lingua FrancaRhaeto-Romance LanguagesRhaeto-Romance LanguagesFriulian LanguageLadin LanguageRomansh LanguageItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesSardinian LanguageEastern Romance LanguagesItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesRegional ItalianCentral ItalianTuscan DialectCorsican LanguageGallurese DialectSassarese LanguageJudeo-Italian LanguagesNeapolitan LanguageLanguages Of CalabriaSicilian LanguageLanguages Of CalabriaDalmatian LanguageIstriot LanguageSardinian LanguageSardinian LanguageSardinian LanguageCampidanese DialectLogudorese DialectEastern Romance LanguagesRomanian LanguageRomanian LanguageMoldovan LanguageVlach Language In SerbiaAromanian LanguageIstro-Romanian LanguageMegleno-Romanian LanguageAfrican RomanceLanguage DeathList Of Languages By Number Of Native SpeakersVariety (linguistics)Template:Languages Of EuropeTemplate Talk:Languages Of EuropeLanguages Of EuropeLanguages Of AlbaniaLanguages Of AndorraLanguages Of ArmeniaLanguages Of AustriaLanguages Of AzerbaijanLanguages Of BelarusLanguages Of BelgiumLanguages Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaLanguages Of BulgariaLanguages Of CroatiaLanguages Of CyprusLanguages Of The Czech RepublicLanguages Of DenmarkLanguages Of EstoniaLanguages Of FinlandLanguages Of FranceLanguages Of Georgia (country)Languages Of GermanyLanguages Of GreeceLanguages Of HungaryLanguages Of IcelandLanguages Of IrelandLanguages Of ItalyLanguages Of KazakhstanLanguages Of LatviaLanguages Of LiechtensteinLanguages Of LithuaniaLanguages Of LuxembourgLanguages Of The Republic Of MacedoniaLanguages Of MaltaLanguages Of MoldovaLanguages Of MonacoLanguages Of MontenegroLanguages Of The NetherlandsLanguages Of NorwayLanguages Of PolandLanguages Of PortugalLanguages Of RomaniaLanguages Of RussiaLanguages Of San MarinoLanguages Of SerbiaLanguages Of SlovakiaLanguages Of SloveniaLanguages Of SpainLanguages Of SwedenLanguages Of SwitzerlandLanguages Of TurkeyLanguages Of UkraineLanguages Of The United KingdomLanguages Of Vatican CityLanguages Of AbkhaziaLanguages Of Nagorno-KarabakhLanguages Of KosovoLanguages Of Northern CyprusLanguages Of South OssetiaLanguages Of TransnistriaLanguages Of ÅlandLanguages Of The Faroe IslandsLanguages Of GibraltarLanguages Of The Bailiwick Of GuernseyLanguages Of The Isle Of ManLanguages Of JerseyLanguages Of SvalbardLanguages Of The European UnionPortal:LanguagePortal:ItalyPortal:Vatican CityPortal:SwitzerlandPortal:European UnionHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:Italian LanguageCategory:Fusional LanguagesCategory:Languages Attested From The 10th CenturyCategory:Languages Of ItalyCategory:Languages Of San MarinoCategory:Languages Of SicilyCategory:Languages Of SwitzerlandCategory:Languages Of Vatican CityCategory:Languages Of SloveniaCategory:Languages Of CroatiaCategory:Subject–verb–object LanguagesCategory:Language Articles Citing Ethnologue 18Category:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Pages Using Citations With Accessdate And No URLCategory:CS1 French-language Sources (fr)Category:CS1 German-language Sources (de)Category:CS1 Italian-language Sources (it)Category:Use Dmy Dates From July 2013Category:Languages With ISO 639-2 CodeCategory:Languages With ISO 639-1 CodeCategory:Articles With HAudio MicroformatsCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From October 2013Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Page Number Citations From February 2018Category:Articles Containing Italian-language TextCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From October 2014Category:Articles Containing Latin-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Romanian-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Spanish-language TextCategory:Articles Containing French-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Portuguese-language TextCategory:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Articles With Italian-language External LinksCategory:Articles With Curlie LinksCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link