Contents 1 Professional definitions 2 Terminology 3 Examples 4 Notable investigative reporters 5 Awards 6 Bureaus, centers, and institutes for investigations 7 Television programs 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links


Professional definitions[edit] University of Missouri journalism professor Steve Weinberg defined investigative journalism as: "Reporting, through one's own initiative and work product, matters of importance to readers, viewers, or listeners."[1] In many cases, the subjects of the reporting wish the matters under scrutiny to remain undisclosed. There are currently university departments for teaching investigative journalism. Conferences are conducted presenting peer reviewed research into investigative journalism. British media theorist Hugo de Burgh (2000) states that: "An investigative journalist is a man or woman whose profession is to discover the truth and to identify lapses from it in whatever media may be available. The act of doing this generally is called investigative journalism and is distinct from apparently similar work done by police, lawyers, auditors, and regulatory bodies in that it is not limited as to target, not legally founded and closely connected to publicity."[2]


Terminology[edit] Main article: Muckraker American journalism textbooks point out that muckraking standards promoted by McClure's Magazine around 1902, "Have become integral to the character of modern investigative journalism."[3] Furthermore, the successes of the early muckrakers continued to inspire journalists.[4][5]


Examples[edit] Julius Chambers of the New-York Tribune had himself committed to the Bloomingdale Asylum in 1872, and his account led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration, and eventually to a change in the lunacy laws;[6]this later led to the publication of the book A Mad World and Its Inhabitants (1876). Nellie Bly is known for her record-breaking trip around the world in 72 days, in emulation of Jules Verne's fictional character Phileas Fogg, and an exposé for the New York World in which she faked insanity to study a mental institution from within. Bill Dedman's 1988 investigation, The Color of Money,[7] for The Atlanta Journal-Constitution on racial discrimination by mortgage lenders in middle-income neighborhoods, received the 1989 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting and was an influential early example of computer-assisted reporting or database journalism. Brian Deer's British press award-winning investigation for The Sunday Times of London into the worldwide MMR vaccine controversy which revealed that research, published by The Lancet, associating the children's vaccine with autism was fraudulent.[8][9][10] The Daily Telegraph investigated claims that various British Members of Parliament had been filing dubious and frivalous expenses claims, and had done for many years in secret. The House of Commons Authority initially tried to block the release of the information, but the expenses were leaked to the Telegraph. The newspaper then released pieces of information which dominated the news for weeks and caused considerable anger in the UK. John M. Crewdson of the Chicago Tribune wrote a 1996 article[11] proposing the installment of defibrillators on American airliners. Crewdson argued that based on his research and analysis, "Medical kits and defibrillators would be economically justified if they saved just 3 lives each year." Soon after the article's publication, airlines began installing defibrillators on planes, and the devices began to show up in airports and other public spaces. Ten years after installing defibrillators, American Airlines reported that 80 lives had been saved by the machines.[12] One of the largest teams of investigative journalists is the Washington-based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) launched in 1997 by the Center for Public Integrity[13] which includes 165 investigative reporters in over 65 countries[14] working collaboratively on crime, corruption, and abuse of power at a global level,[15][16] under Gerard Ryle as Director.[17] Working with major media outlets globally, they have exposed organised crime, international tobacco companies, private military cartels, asbestos companies, climate change lobbyists, details of Iraq and Afghanistan war contracts, and most recently the Panama Papers[15][16] and Paradise Papers.[18][19][20]


Notable investigative reporters[edit] Anas Aremeyaw Anas James Ball Donald Barlett and James B. Steele David Barstow Lowell Bergman Carl Bernstein Nellie Bly Walt Bogdanich John Campbell Sarah Cohen John M. Crewdson Bill Dedman Barbara Ehrenreich Daphne Caruana Galizia Sara Ganim Glenn Greenwald Veronica Guerin Seymour Hersh Eliot Higgins Naomi Klein Jorge Lanata Chris Masters S. S. McClure Kate McClymont Carey McWilliams Jane Mayer Michael Moore Greg Palast John Pilger Laura Poitras Nina Teicholz James Risen Gerard Ryle Roberto Saviano Jeremy Scahill Dele Giwa Shane Smith Chitra Subramaniam Ida Tarbell Gary Webb Rodolfo Walsh Bob Woodward Ida B. Wells Shane Dowling


Awards[edit] George Polk Awards Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting Investigative Reporters and Editors Award Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting Worth Bingham Prize for investigative reporting


Bureaus, centers, and institutes for investigations[edit] Bureau of Investigative Journalism California Watch Centre for Investigative Journalism Center for Investigative Reporting – Berkeley, California, USA Center for Investigative Reporting (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Center for Public Integrity through their International Consortium of Investigative Journalists Global Investigative Journalism Network Global South Development Magazine Investigative News Network Investigative Reporting Workshop Investigative Reporters and Editors Italian Association on Investigative Journalism (it)[21] New England Center for Investigative Reporting Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism ProPublica


Television programs[edit] Exposé: America's Investigative Reports (PBS documentary series) The growth of media conglomerates in the U.S. since the 1980s has been accompanied by massive cuts in the budgets for investigative journalism. A 2002 study concluded "that investigative journalism has all but disappeared from the nation's commercial airwaves".[22] The empirical evidence for this is consistent with the conflicts of interest between the revenue sources for the media conglomerates and the mythology of an unbiased, dispassionate media: advertisers have reduced their spending with media that reported too many unfavorable details. The major media conglomerates have found ways to retain their audience without the risks of offending advertisers inherent in investigative journalism.


See also[edit] Freedom of information legislation Muckraker Preventive journalism Rodolfo Walsh Watchdog journalism Whistleblower


References[edit] ^ Steve Weinberg, The Reporter's Handbook: An Investigator's Guide to Documents and Techniques, St. Martin's Press, 1996 ^ Investigative Journalism: Context and Practice, Hugo de Burgh (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2000 ^ W. David Sloan; Lisa Mullikin Parcell (2002). American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices. McFarland. pp. 211–213. . ^ Cecelia Tichi. Exposés and Excess: Muckraking in America, 1900/2000 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013). ^ Stephen Hess (2012). Whatever Happened to the Washington Reporters, 1978-2012. ^ "A New Hospital for the Insane" (Dec., 1876). Brooklyn Daily Eagle. ^ "The Color of Money". Powerreporting.com. Retrieved 7 May 2013.  ^ Godlee F, Smith J, Marcovitch H (2011). "Wakefield's article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent". BMJ. 342: c7452. doi:10.1136/bmj.c7452. PMID 21209060.  ^ Ziv, Stav (10 February 2015). "Andrew Wakefield, Father of the Anti-Vaccine Movement, Responds to the Current Measles Outbreak for the First Time". Newsweek. New York. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ Boseley, Sarah (2 February 2010). "Lancet retracts 'utterly false' MMR paper". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 January 2015.  ^ Crewdson, John (1996-06-30). "Cardiac Arrest at 37,000 Feet". chicagotribune.com.  ^ Kovach, Bill, and Tom Rosenstiel. Blur: How to Know What's True in the Age of Information Overload. New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2010. p. 58-60. Print. ^ Vasilyeva, Natalya; Anderson, Mae (3 April 2016). "News Group Claims Huge Trove of Data on Offshore Accounts". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ "About the ICIJ". The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved 10 February 2015.  ^ a b "About". ICIJ. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ a b ICIJ, About the ICIJ ^ "Gerard Ryle". Center for Public Integrity.  ^ Fitzgibbon, Will; et al. (5 November 2017). "The 1 Percent- Offshore Trove Exposes Trump-Russia Links And Piggy Banks Of The Wealthiest 1 Percent - A new leak of confidential records reveals the financial hideaways of iconic brands and power brokers across the political spectrum". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved 6 November 2017. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Grandoni, Dino (2017-11-06). "Analysis | The Energy 202: What you need to know about Wilbur Ross and the Paradise Papers". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-11-06.  ^ Disis, Jackie Wattles and Jill. "Paradise Papers: What you need to know". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2017-11-06.  ^ "giornalismoinvestigativo.eu". www.giornalismoinvestigativo.eu.  ^ McChesney, Robert W. (2004). The Problem of the Media: U.S. Communication Politics in the 21st century. Monthly Review Press. p. 81. ISBN 1-58367-105-6. , citing Just, Marion; Levine, Rosalind; Regan, Kathleen (Nov–Dec 2002), "Investigative Journalism Despite the Odds", Columbia Journalism Review: 103ff 


Further reading[edit] Web "Current State of Investigative Reporting"[permanent dead link], talk by Seymour Hersh at Boston University, 19 May 2009 Video of the 2010 Logan Symposium at University of California Berkeley's "Consequences of Investigative Reporting" panel, in which reporters from the Sahara Reporters, the Medill Innocence Project at Northwestern, The Washington Post, The Las Vegas Review-Journal, and The El Paso Times talk about the dangers investigative reporters face; their experiences range from threat to life and limb for reporting on corruption in Africa, to subpoenas aimed at a journalism professor and his students for attempting to bring to light a miscarriage of justice; a Pulitzer Prize winner describes reporting on national security as her sources face internal inquisitions; a veteran reporter in Las Vegas talks about taking on casino moguls and organized crime; while a reporter covering the Mexican border explains how she has survived the violent reality of the undeclared war on our border, April 2010 Books Typewriter Guerillas: Closeups of 20 Top Investigative Reporters, by J.C. Behrens (paperback) 1977. Raising Hell: Straight Talk with Investigative Journalists, by Ron Chepesiuk, Haney Howell, and Edward Lee (paperback) 1997 Investigative Reporting: A Study in Technique (Journalism Media Manual), by David Spark, (paperback) 1999. Tell Me No Lies: Investigative Journalism That Changed the World, John Pilger, ed. (paperback) 2005. Harber, Anton; Renn, Margaret, eds. (2010). Troublemakers: The Best of South Africa’s Investigative Journalism. Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana Media. ISBN 9781770098930. OCLC 794905854. 


External links[edit] Wikiversity has learning resources about Video journalism Wikimedia Commons has media related to Investigative journalism. Listen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Investigative journalism" dated 2010-03-12, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Global South Development Magazine a magazine of development reporting and investigative journalism Global Investigative Journalism (U.K., created 2003) International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (U.S., founded 1997) Investigative Reporters & Editors (IRE, since 1975) Forum for African Investigative Reporters (FAIR) was established in 2003 in South Africa. Nepal Khoj Patrakarita Kendra, or Centre for Investigative Journalism (CIJ, Lalitpur, established 1996) Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ, founded 1989) Centre for Investigative Journalism (London, launched 2003) Bureau of Investigative Journalism (London, launched 2010) Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (Jordan) Center for Investigative Reporting (CIR, U.S., since 1977) Center for Public Integrity's iWatch (U.S., since 1989) Investigative News Network (INN, U.S. created 2009) ProPublica (established 2007) Brazilian Association for Investigative Journalism (ABRAJI, established 2002) Investigative Reporting Workshop (American University, created 2008) Chart – Real and Fake News (2016)/Vanessa Otero (basis) (Mark Frauenfelder) Chart – Real and Fake News (2014) (2016)/Pew Research Center v t e Journalism Roles Journalist Reporter Editor Columnist Copy editor Meteorologist News presenter Photographer Political commentator Blogger Profession News News writing style Ethics Objectivity Values Attribution Defamation Editorial independence Journalism school Areas Arts Business Data-driven Entertainment Environment Fashion Global Medicine Politics Science Sports Technical Trade Traffic Video games Weather World Genres Advocacy Analytic Blogging Broadcast Churnalism Citizen Civic Collaborative Community Data Database Embedded Gonzo Interpretive Investigative Literary Muckraking Narrative New Journalism Non-profit journalism Online Opinion Peace Photojournalism Presstitute Scientific Visual Watchdog Social impact Fake news Fourth Estate Freedom of the press Infotainment Media bias Public relations Yellow journalism News media Newspapers Magazines TV and radio Internet News agencies Alternative media List of journalism articles Journalism portal Authority control NDL: 001098478 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Investigative_journalism&oldid=826239949" Categories: Investigative journalismJournalism genresHidden categories: CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.Use dmy dates from May 2012Pages using div col with deprecated parametersInterlanguage link template link numberAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from November 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksSpoken articlesArticles with hAudio microformats


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