Contents 1 Route description 2 History 2.1 Early planning 2.2 Design and local opposition 2.3 Keith v. Volpe 2.4 Century Freeway Housing Program 2.4.1 Notable demolished homes and buildings 2.5 Post-construction 2.6 Interstate 105 (1964-68) 3 Exit list 4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


Route description[edit] The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange with the Harbor Freeway (I-110). The California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 105 as "from Pershing Drive near El Segundo to Route 605," but Caltrans never constructed the segment from Sepulveda Boulevard to Pershing Drive. Motorists can continue west via Imperial Highway over conventional roadway to Pershing Drive, but it is not part of Route 105 nor is it under state maintenance. I-105 begins at Sepulveda Boulevard (State Route 1) on the southern edge of Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), adjacent to the city of El Segundo. It proceeds generally eastward from there on, crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers before terminating just east of the San Gabriel River Freeway (Interstate 605) in western Norwalk. The freeway stops short of intersecting with the Santa Ana Freeway (Interstate 5), its parent interstate. Instead, the primary lanes of I-105 terminate at an at-grade intersection with Studebaker Road. Much of the length of the Century Freeway runs parallel to Imperial Highway. It also runs parallel to (and a mile south of) Century Boulevard, from which its original name is derived. Century Boulevard, in turn, is named for its position equivalent to 100th Street in the Los Angeles grid. The Los Angeles Metro Rail Green Line runs in the median of nearly the entire length of I-105. The Green Line's eastern terminus is at Norwalk, at the interchange between I-105 and I-605; two miles from the western end of the freeway, the Green Line separates onto its own right-of-way at Aviation Boulevard, splitting into two branches: one turning south towards Redondo Beach and one (currently under construction, scheduled to open in 2019) heading north towards LAX. I-105 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System,[7] and is part of the National Highway System,[8] a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.[9]


History[edit] Metro Green Line platform at Willowbrook/Rosa Parks Station, which lies between the east and westbound lanes of I-105. Early planning[edit] Interstate 105 was an integral part of a Caltrans 1960s master plan for the Southern California freeway system, but did not open until 1993. The right-of-way was included on several early highway plans since at least 1947, although it was not named the "Century Freeway" until 1956, and was numbered Route 42. In 1965, the Century Freeway was added to the state system originated at State Route 1 (Sepulveda Boulevard) east to Central Avenue in the City of Los Angeles along an alignment very near to the current right-of-way.[10] The current route was added to the Interstate system in 1968. Design and local opposition[edit] The route was designed between 1968 and 1972, but opposition from some of the communities through which the right-of-way would pass slowed the process and led to some reroutings. Many factors contributed to the delay. The growth of the environmental movement in the 1960s created resistance to new freeway construction. Fiscal difficulties brought about by the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the California tax revolt of the late 1970s further hampered Caltrans' construction efforts.[11] However, the major source of resistance to the freeway's construction was community opposition and the side effects of these demands. By the early 1970s, most of the areas in the freeway's path (and thus slated to be demolished) were predominantly African-American. Resentment over previous freeway projects' effects on other black communities resulted in significant modifications to the original route. Most cities along the way, weary of the noise and visual blight created by elevated freeways, demanded that the route be built far below grade in a "trench." Also another source for resistance to the freeway's construction was that much of the areas along the I-105 path was going to be built in low income, high crime neighborhoods, which also delayed the freeway's construction until the crime in the areas went down. Norwalk, opposed to the freeway's proposed route through the center of the city, blocked the route from reaching its intended terminus at the Santa Ana Freeway; however, Caltrans had already decided to abandon that section due to the inability of the severely congested Santa Ana to accommodate any more traffic. The freeway eventually replaced Imperial Highway and Firestone Boulevard (State Route 42), both of which roughly paralleled the freeway. Keith v. Volpe[edit] In 1972, community opposition resulted in a federal lawsuit, Keith v. Volpe, being filed, charging violation of various civil rights protections and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). An important figure in the freeway's history was Harry Pregerson, a United States federal judge who presided over the lawsuit concerning the freeway's construction and chose to continue presiding over the case despite being promoted to a higher level court.[12] The interchange with Interstate 110 is named the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange in his honor.[13] In 1972, Judge Pregerson enjoined the further development of the freeway until it has complied with the requirements of NEPA, the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the Federal-Aid Highway Act, and the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Act of 1970. In 1979, this lawsuit resulted in a Consent Decree, amended in 1981, which imposed several conditions on development of the freeway, including additional public hearings, preparation of an environmental report, alterations to the design to reduce lanes and intersections, improve carpooling and provide for a transit way, which became the Los Angeles Metro Rail Green Line. A portion of the right-of-way was also to be constructed below grade to buffer adjacent areas from the effects of traffic noise. After construction began in the 1980s, failure to perform a full survey of the area's groundwater deposits, combined with the 20–30 foot below-grade trench through the city of Downey, resulted in buckling and cracking along the eastern portions of the route. At one point a large sinkhole opened in the Bellflower Boulevard on-ramp. This resulted in construction of an elaborate pump system along the freeway between the interchanges with I-710 and I-605. Century Freeway Housing Program[edit] A significant aspect of the Keith v. Volpe Consent Decree was the requirement that the housing removed to construct the freeway be replaced, leading to the creation of the Century Freeway Housing Program within the California Department of Housing and Community Development. Notable demolished homes and buildings[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The childhood home of Brian, Carl and Dennis Wilson of The Beach Boys was demolished in the mid-1980s to make way for the freeway, as was the house across the street where their bandmate David Marks grew up. In 2005, the Beach Boys Historic Landmark was built on the former site of the Wilson brothers' home and declared a California Historic Landmark. The birthplace of Metallica,former bassist Ron McGovney's house, stood directly in the path of the route nearby to the 605 in Downey. Another home in Downey, California, where siblings Richard and Karen Carpenter grew up before forming the musical duo The Carpenters, was also razed for the 105. Post-construction[edit] Westbound view along Interstate 105 heading towards Vermont Ave, through the Interstate 110 interchange Throughout the difficulties, Congressman Glenn M. Anderson (D-San Pedro) tirelessly advocated for the route's construction, touting its possibilities for congestion relief along Century, Manchester, and Firestone Boulevards and the Imperial Highway; it succeeded in these tasks, as well as relieving pressure on the Santa Monica (I-10) and San Diego (I-405) Freeways for travelers between Downtown Los Angeles and LAX. After Anderson's death in 1994, Caltrans honored him by renaming the freeway in his honor. However, the route's original name, "Century Freeway", is still used on a number of maps.[14] The freeway was originally signed with El Segundo as its westbound control city; however, in recent years, many of the El Segundo signs have been replaced and/or covered with "LAX Airport" signage due to the western terminus' proximity to Los Angeles International Airport. Shortly before opening, filmmakers had access to use the empty freeway for a number of weeks to film the 1994 motion picture Speed. Interstate 105 (1964-68)[edit] Previously, the I-105 designation was used for U.S. Route 101 (the Santa Ana Freeway) from I-5 (the Golden State Freeway) at the East Los Angeles Interchange to the connection to I-10 (the San Bernardino Freeway; this connection had been I-110); it went back to U.S. 101 in 1968.[15]


Exit list[edit] Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, and do not necessarily reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since then, M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, and T indicates postmiles classified as temporary (for a full list of prefixes, see the list of postmile definitions).[16] Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted. The entire route is in Los Angeles County. Location Postmile [2][16][17] Exit [18] Destinations Notes El Segundo–Los Angeles line R0.00 Imperial Highway west Continuation beyond SR 1 Los Angeles R0.50 1 SR 1 (Sepulveda Boulevard) / Imperial Highway – LAX Airport Westbound exits signed as 1A (west), 1B (south), and 1C (north); west end of I-105 R1.24 1D Nash Street – LAX Airport Westbound exit and eastbound entrance R1.79 2A La Cienega Boulevard, Aviation Boulevard Westbound exit and eastbound entrance Hawthorne R2.11 2B I-405 (San Diego Freeway) – Santa Monica, Long Beach, Sacramento Signed as exit 2 eastbound; former SR 7; I-105 north exit 45A, south exit 45 R3.05– R3.32 3 Prairie Avenue, Hawthorne Boulevard- The Forum Hawthorne Blvd. not signed eastbound; no exit number westbound Inglewood R4.71 5 Crenshaw Boulevard Los Angeles R6.77 7A Vermont Avenue R7.39 7B I-110 (Harbor Freeway) – Los Angeles, San Pedro I-110 south exit 14A, north exits 14A-B ​ — I-110 north (Express Lanes / Carpools Only) Two-lane left exit; left lane tolled, right lane free HOV access only R8.90 9 Central Avenue Willowbrook R9.78 10 Wilmington Avenue Lynwood R11.51 12 Long Beach Boulevard R13.47 13 I-710 (Long Beach Freeway) – Pasadena, Long Beach I-710 north exit 11, south exit 11A Paramount R14.13 14 Garfield Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance R14.65 15 Paramount Boulevard Westbound exit and eastbound entrance Bellflower R15.76 16 SR 19 (Lakewood Boulevard) Downey R16.64 17 Bellflower Boulevard Norwalk R17.82 18 I-605 (San Gabriel River Freeway) Signed as exits 18A (south) and 18B (north); I-605 exit 9B R17.91 — Hoxie Avenue – Norwalk Metro Station HOV exits only; all traffic allowed on westbound entrance; westbound entrance also includes direct entrance ramp from Imperial Highway R18.15 — Studebaker Road HOV only entrance, and exit from I-105; all traffic allowed on direct ramp from Hoxie Avenue; at-grade intersection 1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi       ETC       HOV only       Incomplete access


In popular culture[edit] The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange with I-110 was used in the 2016 musical film La La Land The highway appears in the 1994 film Speed. The song "Rollin' with My Homies," by the rapper Coolio. The highway appears in the video game Grand Theft Auto V, named the Olympic Freeway. The highway appears in a scene with John Mclane in a box truck whilst an aircraft destroys the highway in Live Free Or Die Hard


See also[edit] California Roads portal Greater Los Angeles portal


References[edit] ^ "SC Los Angeles-Orange County fun facts page". Scvresources.com. Archived from the original on November 15, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ a b California Department of Transportation (July 2007). "Log of Bridges on State Highways". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation.  ^ Jeanne Bonfilio Issue Date: 04/2008. "Inside Seven - Caltrans, District 7 - Monthly Newsletter". Dot.ca.gov. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ "I-105 Glenn Anderson Freeway (Century Freeway)". Roadstothefuture.com. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ "Road: Century Freeway Project". Art-poetry.info. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ "The Finding Aid of the Century Freeway records 0228". Oac.cdlib.org. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ California State Legislature. "Section 250–257". Streets and Highways Code. Sacramento: California State Legislature. Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ Federal Highway Administration (March 25, 2015). National Highway System: Los Angeles, CA (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012.  ^ Faigin, Daniel P. "California Highways: Routes 105 through 112". California Highways: Routes 105 through 112. Retrieved 2015-01-07.  ^ "Photo Exhibit: Constructing Interstate 105". Craftypixel.com. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ Henry Weinstein, "A Concrete Accomplishment : Transit: Long-planned Interstate 105 opens with gala festivities. Amid the tumult, Judge Harry Pregerson takes pride in job-training and housing programs he helped ensure in the freeway corridor." Los Angeles Times, October 15, 1993. ^ Hertzberg. "ACR 142 Assembly Concurrent Resolution". Info.sen.ca.gov. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ Curtiss, Aaron (April 19, 1996). "The Freeway Numbers Game". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 July 2016.  ^ "CA-Highways 105-112". Cahighways.org. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ a b California Department of Transportation. "State Truck Route List". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (XLS file) on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015.  ^ California Department of Transportation, All Traffic Volumes on CSHS, 2005 and 2006 ^ California Department of Transportation, California Numbered Exit Uniform System, I-105 Eastbound and I-105 Westbound, accessed February 2008


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Interstate 105 (California). Route map: Google KML file (edit • help) Display on Google Maps Template:Attached KML/Interstate 105 (California) KML is from Wikidata California @ AARoads.com - Interstate 105 California Highways: I-105 Caltrans: Route 105 highway conditions Interstate 105 @ Asphaltplanet.ca v t e Auxiliary routes of Interstate 5 California 105 1051 205 3055 405 505 605 805 9052 Oregon 105 205 3054 405 5054 Washington 205 405 6053 705 1Former 2Future 3Proposed 4Unbuilt 5Unsigned Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Interstate_105_(California)&oldid=825789719" Categories: Interstate Highways in CaliforniaInterstate 5Southern California freewaysAuxiliary Interstate HighwaysRoads in Los Angeles County, CaliforniaInglewood, CaliforniaHawthorne, CaliforniaHidden categories: Use mdy dates from July 2013Articles needing additional references from January 2018All articles needing additional referencesArticles using KML from Wikidata


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages DeutschEspañolFrançaisPolskiPortuguês中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 15 February 2018, at 12:35. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.444","walltime":"0.588","ppvisitednodes":{"value":4641,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":107048,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":5586,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":19,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":17,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":2,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 498.236 1 -total"," 30.73% 153.104 1 Template:Infobox_road"," 27.17% 135.365 1 Template:Reflist"," 26.66% 132.837 1 Template:Infobox"," 16.54% 82.387 13 Template:Cite_web"," 16.03% 79.871 21 Template:CAint"," 7.63% 38.010 13 Template:Jct"," 6.01% 29.944 2 Template:Infobox_road/shieldmain/USA"," 5.65% 28.135 1 Template:For"," 5.51% 27.468 1 Template:Unreferenced_section"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.202","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":7195569,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1261","timestamp":"20180218025010","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":69,"wgHostname":"mw1239"});});


Interstate_105_(California) - Photos and All Basic Informations

Interstate_105_(California) More Links

Interstate 105 (California 1958–65)Wikisource:California Streets And Highways Code/Section 301-635California Department Of TransportationEast Los Angeles InterchangeU.S. Route 101 In CaliforniaSanta Ana FreewayCalifornia State Route 1El Segundo, CaliforniaInterstate 405 (California)Lennox, CaliforniaHawthorne, CaliforniaInterstate 110 (California)Los Angeles, CaliforniaInterstate 710Lynwood, CaliforniaInterstate 605Norwalk, CaliforniaLos Angeles County, CaliforniaInterstate Highway SystemList Of Interstate HighwaysList Of Auxiliary Interstate HighwaysList Of Suffixed Interstate HighwaysList Of Business Routes Of The Interstate Highway SystemFuture Interstate HighwaysState Highways In CaliforniaList Of Interstate Highways In CaliforniaList Of U.S. Routes In CaliforniaList Of State Highways In CaliforniaList Of State Highways In California (pre-1964)History Of California's State Highway SystemUnconstructed State Highways In CaliforniaDeleted State Highways In CaliforniaCalifornia Freeway And Expressway SystemState Scenic Highway System (California)California State Route 104California State Route 107Interstate Highway SystemLos Angeles County, CaliforniaLos Angeles International AirportNorwalk, CaliforniaGlenn M. AndersonEnlargeJudge Harry Pregerson InterchangeHarbor FreewaySepulveda BoulevardCalifornia State Route 1Los Angeles International AirportEl Segundo, CaliforniaLos Angeles RiverSan Gabriel River (California)San Gabriel River FreewayNorwalk, CaliforniaSanta Ana FreewayInterstate 5 In CaliforniaAt-grade IntersectionImperial HighwayCentury BoulevardLos Angeles Streets, 41-250Los Angeles Metro RailGreen Line (Los Angeles Metro)Norwalk Station (Los Angeles Metro)Aviation BoulevardRedondo Beach StationAviation/96th Street (Los Angeles Metro Station)California Freeway And Expressway SystemNational Highway System (United States)Federal Highway AdministrationEnlargeGreen Line (Los Angeles Metro)CaltransSouthern California FreewaysSepulveda BoulevardCentral Avenue (Los Angeles)EnvironmentalismSylmar EarthquakeTax RevoltGrassrootsAfrican-AmericanNorwalk, CaliforniaInterstate 5 In CaliforniaImperial HighwayFirestone BoulevardState Route 42 (California)National Environmental Protection ActHarry PregersonUnited States Federal JudgeJudge Harry Pregerson InterchangeCalifornia Environmental Quality ActFederal-Aid Highway Act Of 1968Uniform Relocation Assistance And Real Property Acquisition Act (1970)Metro Rail (Los Angeles County)Green Line (Los Angeles Metro)Roadway NoiseGroundwaterDowney, CaliforniaInterstate 710 (California)Interstate 605 (California)Century Housing CorporationCalifornia Department Of Housing And Community DevelopmentWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalBrian WilsonCarl WilsonDennis WilsonThe Beach BoysDavid Marks (musician)Beach Boys Historic LandmarkMetallicaRon McGovneyDowney, CaliforniaDowney, CaliforniaRichard Carpenter (musician)Karen CarpenterThe CarpentersEnlargeGlenn M. AndersonDemocratic Party (United States)San Pedro, CaliforniaCentury BoulevardImperial HighwaySanta Monica FreewayInterstate 10 In CaliforniaInterstate 405 (California)Interstate 405 (California)Downtown Los AngelesLAXControl CityLos Angeles International AirportSpeed (1994 Film)U.S. Route 101 (California)Santa Ana FreewayInterstate 5 (California)Golden State FreewayEast Los Angeles InterchangeInterstate 10 (California)San Bernardino FreewayInterstate 110 (California)California Postmile1964 State Highway Renumbering (California)California PostmileLos Angeles County, CaliforniaEl Segundo, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CaliforniaImperial HighwayLos Angeles, CaliforniaCalifornia State Route 1Sepulveda BoulevardImperial HighwayLAX Airport, CaliforniaLAX AirportLa Cienega BoulevardAviation BoulevardHawthorne, CaliforniaInterstate 405 (California)Interstate 405 (California)Santa Monica, CaliforniaLong Beach, CaliforniaSacramento, CaliforniaCalifornia State Route 7 (1934-1964)Hawthorne Boulevard (Los Angeles County)The Forum (Inglewood, California)Inglewood, CaliforniaCrenshaw BoulevardLos Angeles, CaliforniaVermont AvenueInterstate 110 (California)Harbor FreewayLos Angeles, CaliforniaSan Pedro, CaliforniaInterstate 110 (California)High-occupancy Vehicle LaneCentral Avenue (Los Angeles)Willowbrook, CaliforniaLynwood, CaliforniaLong Beach BoulevardInterstate 710Long Beach FreewayPasadena, CaliforniaLong Beach, CaliforniaParamount, CaliforniaGarfield Avenue (Los Angeles County)Bellflower, CaliforniaCalifornia State Route 19Lakewood BoulevardDowney, CaliforniaNorwalk, CaliforniaInterstate 605San Gabriel River FreewayNorwalk Station (Los Angeles Metro)High-occupancy Vehicle LaneAt-grade IntersectionElectronic Toll CollectionHOVInterchange (road)Judge Harry Pregerson InterchangeInterstate 110 And State Route 110 (California)La La Land (film)Speed (1994 Film)CoolioGrand Theft Auto VLive Free Or Die HardPortal:California RoadsPortal:Greater Los AngelesLos Angeles TimesLos Angeles TimesMicrosoft ExcelCalifornia Department Of TransportationCalifornia Department Of TransportationCalifornia Numbered Exit Uniform SystemHelp:Attached KMLTemplate:Attached KML/Interstate 105 (California)Template:I-5 AuxTemplate Talk:I-5 AuxList Of Auxiliary Interstate HighwaysInterstate 5Interstate 5 In CaliforniaSanta Ana FreewayInterstate 205 (California)Interstate 80 Business (Sacramento, California)Interstate 405 (California)Interstate 505Interstate 605Interstate 805California State Route 905Interstate 5 In OregonOregon Route 126Interstate 205 (Oregon–Washington)Oregon Route 99E BusinessInterstate 405 (Oregon)U.S. Route 30 In OregonInterstate 5 In WashingtonInterstate 205 (Oregon–Washington)Interstate 405 (Washington)Interstate 605 (Washington)Interstate 705Help:CategoryCategory:Interstate Highways In CaliforniaCategory:Interstate 5Category:Southern California FreewaysCategory:Auxiliary Interstate HighwaysCategory:Roads In Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Inglewood, CaliforniaCategory:Hawthorne, CaliforniaCategory:Use Mdy Dates From July 2013Category:Articles Needing Additional References From January 2018Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Articles Using KML From WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link