Contents 1 Status 2 Agencies 3 History 3.1 Developments 2004–2012 3.2 Developments since 2012 3.2.1 Establishment and expansion of the blacklist 3.2.2 Increase in Internet censorship 3.2.3 Ban on VPN and anonymizer providers 3.2.4 Proposals for further controls 4 Monitoring 4.1 SORM system 4.2 Data retention 5 Mass media 6 Internet blacklist 6.1 Legislation 6.2 Implementation 6.3 Reaction 7 Instances of censorship 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Status[edit] Russia was found to engage in selective Internet filtering in the political and social areas and no evidence of filtering was found in the conflict/security and Internet tools areas by the OpenNet Initiative in December 2010.[4] Russia was on Reporters Without Borders list of countries under surveillance from 2010 to 2013[5] and was moved to the Internet Enemies list in 2014.[6] Freedom House deems Russia "not free" with a score of 65/100 (100 being less free) in its 2016 Freedom on the Net report.[3] Since at least 2015, Russia collaborates with Chinese Great Firewall security officials in implementing its data retention and filtering infrastructure.[7]

Agencies[edit] Emblem of Roskomnadzor Media in the Russian Federation, including the internet, is regulated by Roskomnadzor (Federal Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Telecom, Information Technologies and Mass Communications), a branch of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications. Roskomnadzor, along with several other agencies such as the Federal Drug Control Service, the Federal Consumer Protection Service, and the office of the Prosecutor General, can block certain classes of content without a court order: Calls for unsanctioned public actions, content deemed extremist, materials that violate copyright, information about juvenile victims of crime, child abuse imagery, information encouraging the use of drugs, and descriptions of suicide.[8] Other content can be blocked with a court order.[8] Internet service providers (ISPs) are held legally responsible for any illegal content that is accessible to their users (intermediary liability).[8]

History[edit] Developments 2004–2012[edit] In 2004 only a minority of Russians (8% of the population) had Internet access.[9] In May 2008, some 32.7 million users in Russia had access to the Internet (almost 30% of the population).[10] In 2012, 75.9 million Russians (53% of the population) had access.[11] In December 2015, most of the country, 92.8 million Russians (70% of the population) have Internet access.[12] Following his visit to Russia in 2004, Álvaro Gil-Robles, then Commissioner for Human Rights of Council of Europe, noted the high quality of news and reaction speed of Russia's Internet media. Virtually all the main newspapers were available online, some even opting for Web as a sole information outlet. Russia's press agencies (including the most important Ria-Novosti and Itar-Tass) were also well represented in the Web.[9] In April 2008 Agence France-Presse noted that, "The Internet is the freest area of the media in Russia, where almost all television and many newspapers are under formal or unofficial government control".[13] As reported by Kirill Pankratov in April 2009 in The Moscow Times: Even discounting the chaotic nature of the web, there is plenty of Russian-language material on political and social issues that is well-written and represents a wide range of views. This does not mean, though, that most Russians are well-informed of the important political and social issues of today. But this is largely a matter of personal choice, not government restrictions. If somebody is too lazy to make just a few clicks to read and become aware of various issues and points of view, maybe he deserves to be fed bland, one-sided government propaganda.[14] In a November 2009 address to the Federal Assembly, then President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev acknowledged that Russia was ranked only as the world's 63rd country based on estimates of the level of communications infrastructure development. He stressed the necessity to provide broadband Internet access to the whole Russian territory in five years, and to manage the transition to digital TV, as well as the 4G of cellular wireless standards.[15] In 2010 OpenNet Initiative noted, that while "the absence of overt state-mandated Internet filtering in Russia has led some observers to conclude that the Russian Internet represents an open and uncontested space", the government had a consistent, strategic approach to taking control over the information in electronic media. 2007 cyberattacks on Estonia and cyberattacks during the Russo-Georgian War (2008) may have been "an indication of the government’s active interest in mobilizing and shaping activities in Russian cyberspace". Developments since 2012[edit] Establishment and expansion of the blacklist[edit] First countywide judicial censorship measures were taken by the government in the wake of the 2011–13 Russian protests. This included the Internet blacklist law, implemented in November 2012. The criteria for inclusion in the blacklist initially included child pornography, advocating suicide and illegal drugs. In 2013, the blacklist law was amended with content "suspected in extremism", "calling for illegal meetings", "inciting hatred" and "violating the established order".[16] The law allowed for flexible interpretation and inclusion of a wide array of content. Popular opposition websites encouraging protests against the court rulings in Bolotnaya Square case were for example blocked for "calling for illegal action"; Dumb Ways to Die, a public transport safety video, was blocked as "suicide propaganda"; websites discussing federalization of Siberia—as "attack on the foundations of the constitution"; an article on a gay activist being fired from job as well as LGBT support communities—as "propaganda of non-traditional sex relations"; publishing Pussy Riot logo—as "insult of the feelings of believers"; criticism of overspending of local governor—"insult of the authorities"; publishing a poem in support of Ukraine—"inciting hatred" etc.[2][3] A separate class of materials blocked due to "extremism" are several religious publications, mostly Muslim and Jehovah's Witnesses. Bans can be challenged in courts, and in some cases these appeals are successful.[17][18] Increase in Internet censorship[edit] According to data published by the Russian Society for Internet Users founded by members of the Presidential Council for Human Rights, instances of censorship increased by a factor of 1,5 from 2013 to 2014. The incidents documented include not only instances of Internet blocking but also the use of force to shut down Internet users, such as beatings of bloggers or police raids.[19] Human rights NGO Agora reported that instances of internet censorship increased ninefold from 2014 to 2015, rising from 1,019 to 9,022.[20] Ban on VPN and anonymizer providers[edit] A ban on all software and websites related to circumventing internet filtering in Russia, including VPN software, anonymizers, and instructions on how to circumvent government website blocking, was passed in 2017.[21] Proposals for further controls[edit] In 2015, Russia's Security Council proposed a number of further Internet controls to prevent hostile "influence on the population of the country, especially young people, intended to weaken cultural and spiritual values". Prevention of this "influence" also includes active countermeasures such as actions targeted at the population and young people of the states attempting to weaken Russia's cultural values.[22] Another initiative proposes giving Roskomnadzor right to block any domain within the .ru TLD without a court order.[23] In February 2016, the business daily Vedomosti reported on a draft law by the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications titled "On an Autonomous Internet System". The bill calls for placing the domains .ru and .рф under government control and would make installation of the Russian state surveillance system SORM mandatory.[3]

Monitoring[edit] Main article: Mass surveillance in Russia SORM system[edit] Main article: SORM Russia's System of Operational-Investigatory Measures (SORM) requires telecommunications operators to install hardware provided by the Federal Security Service (FSB). It allow the agency to unilaterally monitor users' communications metadata and content, including phone calls, email traffic and web browsing activity.[8] Metadata can be obtained without a warrant.[8] In 2014, the system was expanded to include social media platforms, and the Ministry of Communications ordered companies to install new equipment with Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) capability.[24] Data retention[edit] See also: Yarovaya law The "Bloggers law" (passed July 2014) is an amendment to existing anti-terrorism legislation which includes data localization and data retention provisions. Among other changes, it requires all web services to store the user data of Russian citizens on servers within the country. Sites which did not comply with this requirement by September 2016 may be added to the internet blacklist.[25][26] Since August 2014, the law requires operators of free Wi-Fi hotspots (e.g. in restaurants, libraries, cafes etc.) to collect personal details of all users, identify them using passports, and store the data.[27] The "Yarovaya law" (passed July 2016) is a package of several legislative amendments which include extensions to data retention. Among other changes, it requires telecom operators to store recordings of phone conversations, text messages and users' internet traffic for up to 6 months, as well as metadata for up to 3 years. This data as well as "all other information necessary" is available to authorities on request and without a court order.[28] As of January 2018, companies registered in Russia as "organizers of information dissemination", such as online messaging applications, will not be permitted to allow unidentified users.[29]

Mass media[edit] On Mass Media Federal Law No. 2121-1, "On Mass Media" Citation 2121-1 Date passed 27 December 1991 The federal telecommunications regulator Roskomnadzor can issue warnings to the editorial board of mass media and websites registered as mass media concerning "abuse of mass media freedom."[3] According to the "Law on Mass Media", such abuse can include "extremist" content, information on recreational drug use, the propagation of cruelty and violence, as well as obscene language.[3][30] If a media outlet receives two warnings within a year, Roskomnadzor can request a court order shutting down the media outlet entirely.[3]

Internet blacklist[edit] On Amending Federal Law "On the Protection of Children from Information Harmful to Their Health and Development and Other Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation" Citation 139-FZ Date passed 11 July 2012 Date commenced 1 November 2012 Summary Implements a central Internet blacklist ("single register") Legislation[edit] In July 2012, Russia's State Duma passed a law requiring the establishment of an Internet blacklist. The law took effect on 1 November 2012.[31] The blacklist Is administered by the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Roskomnadzor) and the Federal Drug Control Service of Russia.[32] On Amending Federal Law "On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection" Citation 398-FZ Date passed 20 December 2013 Summary Allows additional categories of content to be blocked without a court order At the time of introduction the list was described as a means for the protection of children from harmful content; particularly content which glorifies drug usage, advocates suicide or describes suicide methods, or contains child pornography.[33] In 2013 legislative amendments allowed the blocking of content "suspected in extremism", "calling for illegal meetings", "inciting hatred" and any other actions "violating the established order".[16] This content can be blocked without a court order by the office of the Prosecutor General.[34] On Amending Federal Law "On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection" Citation 276-FZ Date passed 21 July 2017 Date enacted 29 July 2017 Date commenced 1 November 2017 Bill citation 195446-7 Summary Bans all software and websites related to circumventing internet filtering in Russia In July 2017, Vladimir Putin signed a bill, which took effect 1 November 2017, which bans all software and websites related to circumventing internet filtering in Russia, including anonymizers and VPN services which do not implement the blacklist, and instructional material on how to do so.[21][35] Implementation[edit] The implementation of the blacklist is outlined in a government decree issued in October 2012.[36] Roskomnadzor offers a website where users can check to see whether a given URL or IP address is in the blacklist, and can also report websites which contain prohibited materials authorities. After a submission is verified, Roskomnadzor will inform the website's owner and hosting provider.[37] If the material is not removed within three days, the website will be added to the blacklist, and all Russian ISPs must block it.[38] The full content of the blacklist initially was not available to the general public,[37] although soon after it was implemented, a leaked list of blacklisted websites was published by a LiveJournal user on 12 November 2012.[39] The searchable blacklist interface was made available as a full list by activists. As of July 2017 it includes over 70,000 entries.[40] Reaction[edit] Russian Wikipedia during its 2012 protest against the blacklist Reporters Without Borders criticized the procedure by which entries are added to the blacklist as "extremely opaque", and viewed it as part of an attack on the freedom of information in Russia.[41] In 2012, when the banned content only included child pornography, drugs and suicide, the human rights activists have expressed fear that the blacklist may be used to censor democracy-oriented websites[33] (which indeed happened the next year).[16] And a editorial noted that the criteria for prohibited content are so broad that even the website of the ruling United Russia party could in theory be blacklisted.[42] However, the idea was at that time generally supported by the Russian public: in a September 2012 Levada Center survey, 63% of respondents had expressed support for "Internet censorship",[43][44] though any kind of censorship is banned under the Constitution of Russia. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has criticized the blacklist, stating: "EFF is profoundly opposed to government censorship of the Internet, which violates its citizens right to freedom of expression... We are especially concerned about the censorship of independent news and opposing political views, which are essential to a thriving civil society. Russians who wish to circumvent government censorship can continue to read these websites via the Tor Browser."[45]

Instances of censorship[edit] A number of websites maintain lists of websites currently blocked in Russia, based on different sources of information.[46][47] Notable instances of censorship: Prior to 2012 Blacklist entries as of June 2017 by agencies responsible for the entry In 2004 Russia pressured Lithuania, and in 2006 Sweden, into shutting down the Kavkaz Center website, a site that supports creation of a Sharia state in North Caucasus and hosts videos of terrorist attacks on Russian forces in the North Caucasus.[48][49][50] During the December 2008 demonstrations in Vladivostok,[51] it was reported by the Kontury news website that FSB officers issued a request that moderators of the ru_auto Internet community remove stories about the protests. The major reason, as reported by a moderator of the resource, was that repeating posts containing information about the protests worsened people's attitudes. The moderator in question requested bloggers to publish only unique posts about protest actions.[52] In December 2009, Internet provider Yota, with over 100,000 subscribers[53] blocked access to some Russian opposition Internet resources for its Moscow-based subscribers for a few days. This occurred after the chief prosecutor of St. Petersburg recommended that the company prevent access to extremist resources. The only Internet resource listed as extremist by the Ministry of Justice of Russia at the time was that of the Caucasian separatists, Since the evening of 6 December 2009, Yota allowed access to all previously blocked resources except[54][55] 2012 On 8 April 2012, it was confirmed by Roskomnadzor that several Russian and English Wikipedia articles had been blacklisted.[56] In July 2012, the Russian State Duma passed the Bill 89417-6, which provided a blacklist of Internet sites.[57][58] The blacklist was officially launched in November 2012, despite criticism by major websites and NGOs.[33] The IP address of (Lurkomorye) was blocked on 11 November 2012 after a decision of the Federal Drug Control Service of Russia; the owner of the site told journalists he did not receive any communication from Roskomnadzor or the Federal Drug Control Service before the IP address was blacklisted.[59][60] was removed from the blacklist on 13 November 2012 after the website administrators deleted two marijuana-related articles.[61] The IP address of the Librusec online library was blacklisted on 11 November 2012.[62] According to a leaked copy of the blacklist, it was blocked for a description of marijuana soup in a Russian translation of The Anarchist Cookbook.[39] The IP address was unblocked on 13 November after The Anarchist Cookbook was removed by Librusec administrators.[63][64] 2013 On 31 March 2013 the New York Times reported that Russia was "Selectively Blocking [the] Internet".[65] On 5 April 2013, a spokesperson for Roskomnadzor confirmed that the Russian Wikipedia had been blacklisted because of the article, "Cannabis smoking".[66][67] 2014 In March 2014, in the midst of the Crimean crisis, the LiveJournal blog of Alexei Navalny, and were blocked by the government. These sites, which opposed the Russian government, were blocked for "making calls for unlawful activity and participation in mass events held with breaches of public order."[68] December 2, 2014 — Supreme Court of the Russian Federation bans In August 2014 a number of websites were blocked as the war in Donbass developed, including the Ukrainian news site,,[69] a survey about the separation of the Caucasus from Russia[70] and numerous announcements and commentaries about the "march for Siberia federalisation".[71] In 2014, a media blackout was launched against a performance art project called Monstration scheduled for 17 August. Roskomnadzor issued warnings to fourteen media outlets for reporting the announcement.[72] The project was compared to Euromaidan, which led to the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. In October 2014 Roskomnadzor blocked the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine site, well known for its website.[73] A number of websites listing blocked addresses was also blocked, including such as In October and December 2014, a popular source code repository, GitHub, was temporarily blocked for hosting a page containing (mostly) satirical suicide instructions, frequently used to troll the Russian censorship system.[74] In December 2014 a Facebook page protesting an event against the prosecution of Alexey Navalny was blocked in the Russian Federation. A Roskomnadzor representative stated that the page was blocked because it promoted an "unsanctioned mass event".[75] 2015 In January 2015 a number of Bitcoin related websites were blocked (including because "it contributes to shadow economy".[76] In February, Bitstamp was unblocked.[77] In February 2015, Russia blacklisted "Children-404", a website providing Russia's LGBT teens with an outlet to anonymously share their personal experiences with one another, for allegedly violating the country's law against promoting homosexuality.[78] An on-line article by Yulia Latynina in Novaya Gazeta was blocked for unspecified "extremism", most likely a suggestion that "Russian culture only became great when it mixed with European".[79] After a Russian consumer protection watchdog OZPP published a warning for Russian tourists about possibility of being denied EU visas after visiting Crimea,[80] explaining that from the international law point of view Crimea is an occupied territory, Roskomnadzor blocked the OZPP website "for threatenting territorial integrity of Russian federation".[81] In June 2015, some ISPs blocked the Internet Archive entirely following an order to censor a page contained within for containing "extremist" material. These blocks were a side effect of the site's use of HTTPS possibly being incompatible with how ISPs implement their filters.[82] On 21 July 2015 the official website of Jehovah's Witnesses was banned throughout the Russian Federation. Jehovah's Witnesses say that the motion to ban them was originally filed on 7 August 2013[83] but was overturned after they voluntarily removed certain publications from the version of the site presented to Russian IP addresses.[84] However, on December 2, 2014 the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation overturned the Regional Court, stating that the Witnesses might choose to reinstate the materials they had volunteered to remove.[85] On the 12th of August 2015 the whole of Reddit was blocked in Russia by Roskomnadzor because of a post made by a Reddit user on the site. The post is a guide for growing Psilocybe mushrooms. The block was lifted on next day after Reddit complied with Roskomnadzor's demand of blocking access from users in Russia to the specific post.[86][87] As of August 2015[update], 4 Wikipedia articles remain blocked in Russia, and more than 25 were blocked for some time. Most of these articles are related to drugs and suicide.[88] blocked in Russia, 2016 On 25 January 2016, the biggest torrent tracker in Russia and CIS countries, with about 13 million users, was permanently blocked by Roskomnadzor as a result of a decision of the Moscow City Court.[89] 2016 On 28 January 2016, pages related to the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation were blocked on when accessed through non-encrypted traffic. HTTPS traffic to the website was blocked entirely.[90] On 4 August 2016, a Moscow court ruled that LinkedIn must be blocked in Russia because it stores the user data of Russian citizens outside of the country, in violation of the new data retention law. This ban was upheld on 10 November 2016.[91] and the ban was officially issued by Roskomnadzor on 17 November 2016.[92] 2017 In 2017 an image of Putin as a "gay clown" was added as item 4071,[93] as a result of a 2016 legal case against social media activist A. V. Tsvetkov.[94]

See also[edit] Media freedom in Russia Mass surveillance in Russia Internet in Russia Political repression of cyber-dissidents Censorship of GitHub in Russia

References[edit] ^ Paul Goble (2015-03-29). "FSB Increasingly Involved in Misuse of 'Anti-Extremism' Laws, SOVA Says". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 2015-04-01.  ^ a b "Examples of forbidden content". 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Russia | Country report | Freedom on the Net | 2016". Retrieved 2017-07-04.  ^ "ONI Country Profiles", Research section at the OpenNet Initiative web site, a collaborative partnership of the Citizen Lab at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto; the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University; and the SecDev Group, Ottawa ^ Internet Enemies Archived 2012-03-23 at the Wayback Machine., Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 12 March 2012 ^ "Internet Enemies", Enemies of the Internet 2014: Entities at the heart of censorship and surveillance, Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 11 March 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014. ^ Soldatov, Andrei; Borogan, Irina (2016-11-29). "Putin brings China's Great Firewall to Russia in cybersecurity pact". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-07-04.  ^ a b c d e Maréchal, Nathalie (2017-03-22). "Networked Authoritarianism and the Geopolitics of Information: Understanding Russian Internet Policy". Media and Communication. 5 (1): 29. doi:10.17645/mac.v5i1.808. ISSN 2183-2439. Retrieved 2017-07-03.  ^ a b "Report by Mr. Alvaro Gil-Robles on his Visits to the Russian Federation". Council of Europe, Commissioner for Human Rights. 2005-04-20. Retrieved 2008-03-16.  ^ 33m internet users in Russia, IT & Telecoms in Russia ^ "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000–2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013 ^ "Statistics". ITU. 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The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-03-02.  ^ a b "Putin bans VPNs in web browsing crackdown". BBC News. 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2017-07-31.  ^ "Совбез РФ будет бороться с "размыванием духовных ценностей" в интернете". Новая Газета. Retrieved 2015-10-19.  ^ "ДНИ.РУ / Эксперты оценили полномочия Роскомнадзора". ДНИ.РУ. Retrieved 2015-11-15.  ^ Maréchal, Nathalie (2017-03-22). "Networked Authoritarianism and the Geopolitics of Information: Understanding Russian Internet Policy". Media and Communication. 5 (1): 29. doi:10.17645/mac.v5i1.808. ISSN 2183-2439. Retrieved 2017-07-03.  ^ "Facebook, Gmail, Skype face Russia ban under 'anti-terror' plan". CNET. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ "Russian MPs back law on internet data storage". BBC News. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ "Passport now required to use public Wi-Fi in Russia". RAPSI. 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2014-09-22.  ^ "Russia: 'Big Brother' Law Harms Security, Rights". Human Rights Watch. 2016-07-12. Retrieved 2017-07-02.  ^ "Russia: New Legislation Attacks Internet Anonymity". Human Rights Watch. 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2017-08-01.  ^ ^ In Russian, the blacklist is officially called the Единый реестр доменных имён, указателей страниц сайтов в сети «Интернет» и сетевых адресов, позволяющих идентифицировать сайты в сети «Интернет», содержащие информацию, распространение которой в Российской Федерации запрещено, which translates to Common register of domain names, Internet website page locators, and network addresses that allow identifying Internet websites which contain information that is prohibited for distribution in the Russian Federation. Russian sources generally refer to it under the shortened name "Common register of prohibited websites" (Единый реестр запрещённых сайтов) or Common register of websites with prohibited information (Единый реестр сайтов с запрещённой информацией). 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(English translation)). ^ "Абоненты Yota несколько дней не имели доступа к оппозиционным сайтам" ("Yota blocked access to opposition sites for several days"), Lenta.Ru, 7 December 2009 (in Russian). (English translation). ^ "Стал известен полный список статей, на данный момент внесённый в реестр Роскомнадзора (ru, en)" Archived 2013-04-10 at the Wayback Machine. ("He became known for a complete list of articles, currently entered in the register Roskomnadzora (ru, en)"), Wikimedia RU. Retrieved 18 July 2013. ^ Internet Restriction Bill Passes First Reading, The Moscow Times, 8 July 2012, retrieved 9 July 2012 ^ "Law concerning the illegal websites register has come into force" Archived 2013-11-05 at the Wayback Machine., Lyudmila Ternovaya, Кызыл тан, 30 July 2012, accessed 7 August 2012 ^ Интернет-энциклопедию "Луркоморье" внесли в реестр запрещенных сайтов [The "Lurkomorye" Internet encyclopedia has been added to the register of prohibited websites] (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 11 November 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ ""Закрыть можно что угодно по произвольному набору критериев" Владелец Lurkmore о блокировке сайта" ["Anything can be banned using an arbitrary set of criteria." The owner of Lurkmore talks about the website being blocked] (in Russian). Afisha. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2012.  ^ "Луркоморье" исключили из реестра запрещенных сайтов [Lurkomorye has been removed from the register of prohibited websites] (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.  ^ "Заблокирован IP Либрусека. Госорганы добрались до библиотек" [The Librusec IP is blocked. The authorities have started targeting libraries.] (in Russian). RuBlackList. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ ""Либрусек" и Rutracker исключили из реестра сайтов с запрещенной информацией" (in Russian). 13 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ Библиотека "Либрусек" удалила "Поваренную книгу анархиста" (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ "Russians Selectively Blocking Internet". New York Times. 31 March 2013.  ^ "Russia May Block Wikipedia Access Over Narcotics Article", RIA Novosti, 5 April 2013 ^ "Russian media regulator confirms Wikipedia blacklisted", Interfax News, 5 April 2013 ^ "Russia censors media by blocking websites and popular blog". Agence France-Presse. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ "Информация из реестра по". Antizapret. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ "Информация из списка минюста по". Antizapret. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ "Информация из реестра по". Antizapret. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ "Authorities in Novosibirsk ban march to press for changing Siberia's status in Russia". The Siberian Times. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.  ^ "". 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ "GitHub снова оказался в реестре запрещенных в РФ сайтов (судя по всему надолго)". OpenNet. 2014-12-02. Retrieved 2014-12-03.  ^ Andrew Roth, David M. Herszenhorn (2014-12-22). "Facebook Page Goes Dark, Angering Russia Dissidents". Retrieved 2014-12-24.  ^ "Russia blocks bitcoin websites over "shadow economy" fears". GigaOm. 2015-01-13. Retrieved 2015-01-13.  ^ Bitstamp [@Bitstamp] (12 February 2016). "Effective immediately, @Bitstamp is again accessible from Russia" (Tweet) – via Twitter.  ^ "Russia Blacklists LGBT Teen Online Support Group". The Moscow Times. 2015-02-02. Retrieved 2017-07-05. [citation needed] ^ "Novaya Gazeta Loses Court Challenge to Russian State Censor". The Interpreter Magazine. 2015-02-02. Retrieved 2015-02-03.  ^ "Правозащитники рассказали об отказах в выдаче виз после поездок в Крым". Retrieved 2015-06-23.  ^ "Роскомнадзор распорядился заблокировать сайт Общества защиты прав потребителей". Retrieved 2015-06-23.  ^ "Wayback Machine's 485 billion web pages blocked by Russian government order". Ars Technica. Retrieved 28 June 2015.  ^ by the Central District Court of the city of Tver, located 100 miles (160 km) north of Moscow ^ On 22 January 2014 the Regional Court of Tver reversed the earlier ruling by the lower court. The Regional Court conducted a new trial, which concluded that the decision of the Central District Court was unjustified."Russian Court Overturns Attempt to Ban Bible-Education", Jehovah's Witnesses, 21 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.[better source needed][better source needed] ^ Russia bans, Jehovah's Witnesses July 2015[better source needed] ^ Роскомнадзор (2015-08-12). "Wall | VK". VKontakte. Retrieved 2017-07-30.  ^ rsocfan (2015-08-12). "TIFU by getting Reddit banned in Russia". Reddit. Retrieved 2017-07-30.  ^ ru:Википедия:Страницы Википедии, внесённые в Единый реестр запрещённых сайтов, Retrieved 2015-08-21[better source needed] ^ "Russian Movie-Sharing Websites Face Block as Netflix Looms". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-03-07.  ^ ^ "Moscow Court Upholds Decision to Ban LinkedIn in Russia". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 10 November 2016.  ^ "LinkedIn blocked by Russian government". PC World. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ page 453, item 4071 "Плакат с изображением человека, похожего на президента РФ В.В. Путина, на лице которого макияж – накрашены ресницы и губы, что, по замыслу автора/авторов плаката, должно служить намеком на якобы нестандартную сексуальную ориентацию президента РФ. Текст под изображением (воспроизводится с сохранением особенностей орфографии и пунктуации, с сокрытием нецензурной лексики): «Избиратели Путина, как ... вроде бы их много, но среди моих знакомых их нет», размещенный 07 мая 2014 года в социальной сети «Вконтакте» на аккаунте с ник-неймом «Александр Цветков» (решение Центрального районного суда г. Твери от 11.05.2016);" ^ Robins-Early, Nick (6 April 2017). "Russia Bans 'Extremist' Image Of Putin In Makeup". Retrieved 15 June 2017 – via Huff Post. 

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