Contents 1 Languages 2 History 2.1 Precontact 2.2 Contact with Europeans 2.3 Mission era 2.4 19th century 2.4.1 California Gold Rush (1848–1855) 3 21st Century 4 Culture 4.1 Foods 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Languages[edit] Before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of approximately 100 distinct languages. The large number of languages has been related to the ecological diversity of California,[4] and to a sociopolitical organization into small tribelets (usually 100 individuals or fewer) with a shared "ideology that defined language boundaries as unalterable natural features inherent in the land".[5] "The majority of California Indian languages belong either to highly localized language families with two or three members (e.g. Yukian, Maiduan) or are language isolates (e.g. Karuk, Esselen)."[6] Of the remainder, most are Uto-Aztecan or Athapaskan languages. Larger groupings have been proposed. The Hokan superstock has the greatest time depth and has been most difficult to demonstrate; Penutian is somewhat less controversial. There is evidence suggestive that speakers of the Chumashan languages and Yukian languages, and possibly languages of southern Baja California such as Waikuri, were in California prior to the arrival of Penutian languages from the north and Uto-Aztecan from the east, perhaps predating even the Hokan languages.[7] Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic. The several Athapaskan languages are relatively recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago.

History[edit] Further information: History of the west coast of North America Precontact[edit] Evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago.[8] Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, each consisting of 50 to 500 individual members.[3] The size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico.[3] Because of the temperate climate and easy access to food sources, approximately one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in the area of California.[9] Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BC.[3] Due to the local abundance of food, tribes never developed agriculture or tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex and the Pauma Complex, both dating from ca. 6050—1000 BC. From 3000 to 2000 BC, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by approximately 500 BC.[10] The indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, grasslands, mixed woodlands, and wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants. They controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology; this prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density "wild" agriculture in loose rotation.[11][12][13][14] By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land and provided fresh shoots to attract food animals. A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle; a permaculture.[13] Contact with Europeans[edit] Main article: Spanish colonization of the Americas Balthazar, Inhabitant of Northern California, painting by Mikhail Tikhanov. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at widely different times. The southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California and southwest Arizona first encountered Spanish explorers in the 1760s and 1770s. Tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok, Yurok, and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century.[citation needed][15] In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century.[16] Mission era[edit] Further information: Mission Indians The Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California.[17] Their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native populations. 19th century[edit] The population of Native California was reduced by 90% during the 19th century—from more than 200,000 in the early 19th century to approximately 15,000 at the end of the century, mostly due to disease.[10] Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic.[16] In 1834 Mexico secularized the Church's missions and confiscated their properties. But the new government did not return their lands to tribes but made land grants to settlers of at least partial European ancestry. Many landless Indians found wage labor on ranches. Following the United States victory in the Mexican-American War, it took control of California in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Its administrators worked to honor Mexican land grant title but did not honor aboriginal land title.[16] California Gold Rush (1848–1855)[edit] Further information: California Gold Rush

21st Century[edit] California has the largest population of Native Americans out of any state in the United States, with 723,000 identifying an "American Indian or Alaska Native" tribe as a component of their race (14% of the nation-wide total). This population grew by 15% between 2000 and 2010, much less than the nation-wide growth rate of 27%, but higher than the population growth rate for all races, which was about 10% in California over that decade. Over 50,000 indigenous people live in Los Angeles alone.[18][19]

Culture[edit] Foods[edit] Acorns are a primary traditional food throughout much of California. Corn was very important to them as well. Their diet includes fish, shellfish, deer, elk, and antelope, and plants such as buckeye, sage seed, and yampah (Perideridia gairdneri).[3]

See also[edit] Indigenous peoples of North America portal Aboriginal title in California California State Indian Museum List of federally recognized tribes by state#California Mission Indians Population of Native California Survey of California and Other Indian Languages

Notes[edit] ^ author unknown. "American Indians". SDSU Library and Information Access - Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 2010-06-13. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Historic Tribes of the Great Basin - Great Basin National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved 2018-02-04.  ^ a b c d e Pritzker 112 ^ Codding, B. F.; Jones, T. L. (2013). "Environmental productivity predicts migration, demographic, and linguistic patterns in prehistoric California". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (36): 14569. doi:10.1073/pnas.1302008110. PMC 3767520 . PMID 23959871.  ^ Golla (2011:1) ^ Golla (2011:8). ^ Golla (2011) ^ Klein, Barry T. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. 7th ed. West Nyack, NY: Todd Publications, 1995 ^ Starr, Kevin. California: A History, New York, Modern Library (2005), p. 13 ^ a b Pritzker 113 ^ Neil G. Sugihara; Jan W. Van Wagtendonk; Kevin E. Shaffer; Joann Fites-Kaufman; Andrea E. Thode, eds. (2006). "17". Fire in California's Ecosystems. University of California Press. p. 417. ISBN 978-0-520-24605-8.  ^ Blackburn, Thomas C. and Kat Anderson, ed. (1993). Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, California: Ballena Press. ISBN 0879191260.  ^ a b Cunningham, Laura (2010). State of Change: Forgotten Landscapes of California. Berkeley, California: Heyday. pp. 135, 173–202. ISBN 1597141364.  ^ Anderson, M. Kat (2006). Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge And the Management of California's Natural Resources. University of California Press. ISBN 0520248511.  ^ "Alaska and California in the Eighteenth Century - Jonathan's Guide to US History". Retrieved 2018-02-02.  ^ a b c Pritzker 114 ^ Castillo, Edward D. "California Indian History." California Native American Heritage Association. (retrieved 10 Sept 2010) ^ Tina Norris; Paula L. Vines; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel. The American Indian an Alaska Native Population: 2010 (PDF). U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2018-03-04.  ^ "Top 5 Cities With The Most Native Americans - Indian Country Media Network". Retrieved 2018-02-04. 

References[edit] Golla, Victor (2011). California Indian Languages. Berkeley: University of California Press, . ISBN 978-0-520-26667-4. Heizer, Robert F., volume editor (1978). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8: California. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 978-0-16-004574-5. Hinton, Leanne (1994). Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages. Berkeley: Heyday Books. ISBN 0-930588-62-2. Hurtado, Albert L. (1988). Indian Survival on the California Frontier. Yale Western Americana series. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300041470.  Lightfoot, Kent G. and Otis Parrish (2009). California Indians and Their Environment: An Introduction. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24471-9. Pritzker, Barry M. (2000). A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Native Americans of California. "Information About California Tribes" Northern California Indian Development Council Advocates for Indigenous California Language Survival California Indian Museum and Cultural Center, Santa Rosa "California Indian History," California Native American Heritage Association "California Indians," SDSU Library and Information Access Bibliographies of Northern and Central California Indians "A Glossary of Proper Names in California Prehistory", Society for California Archaeology 27th Annual California Indian Conference, California State University San Marcos, Oct. 5-6, 2012  Shea, John G. (1879). "California, Indians of". The American Cyclopædia.  v t e Indigenous peoples of California Achomawi Atsugewi Bay Miwok (Saklan) Cahuilla Chemehuevi Chimariko Chumash Coast Miwok Cupeño Eel River Athapaskans (Lassik, Nongatl, Sinkyone, Wailaki) Esselen Halchidhoma Hupa (Chilula, Whilkut) Juaneño (Acjachemen) Karuk Cahto Kawaiisu Kitanemuk Kucadikadi Kumeyaay (Diegueño, Ipai, Tipai) Lake Miwok Luiseño Maidu Mattole (Bear River) Modoc (Klamath) Mohave Mono (Monache, Owens Valley Paiute) Nomlaki Northern Paiute Ohlone (Costanoan) Patwin Pomo Quechan (Yuma) Salinan Serrano Shasta (Konomihu, Okwanuchu) Tataviam (Fernandeño) Timbisha Tolowa Tongva (Gabrieliño) Tübatulabal Plains and Sierra Miwok Wappo Washoe Wintu Wiyot Yana Yokut Yuki Yurok v t e Cultural areas of indigenous North Americans Arctic California Eastern Woodlands Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Basin Mexico Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Caribbean Northwest Coast Interior Plains Plateau Southwest Subarctic v t e Native Americans by location Alaska Arizona California Colorado Florida Hawaii Iowa Maryland Baltimore Michigan Nebraska North Carolina Oklahoma Oregon Virginia Wisconsin v t e History of California Before 1900 Native Californian Precontact First explorations Later explorations Spanish colonization Mexican rule California Trail Mexican–American War Californio California Republic United States rule Gold Rush Civil War Since 1900 Labor Engineering Water wars Industrial growth Postwar culture Development Legal revolution Tech boom Present day By topic Highways Maritime Missions Ranchos Slavery Railroads Etymology By region San Fernando Valley By county Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba By city Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim Santa Ana Riverside Stockton Chula Vista Fremont Irvine San Bernardino Modesto Oxnard Fontana Moreno Valley Glendale Huntington Beach Santa Clarita Garden Grove Santa Rosa Oceanside Rancho Cucamonga Ontario Lancaster Elk Grove Palmdale Corona Salinas Pomona Torrance Hayward Escondido Sunnyvale Pasadena Fullerton Orange Thousand Oaks Visalia Simi Valley Concord Roseville Santa Clara Vallejo Victorville El Monte Berkeley Downey Costa Mesa Inglewood Ventura Fairfield Santa Maria Redding Santa Monica Santa Barbara Chico Merced Napa Redwood City Yuba City Madera Santa Cruz San Rafael Woodland Hanford San Luis Obispo El Centro Lompoc Martinez Hollister Eureka Susanville Ukiah Oroville Red Bluff Auburn Marysville Piedmont Placerville Yreka Crescent City Willows Colusa Sonora Lakeport Jackson Nevada City Alturas Retrieved from "" Categories: Indigenous peoples of CaliforniaNative American history of CaliforniaNative American tribes in CaliforniaPre-statehood history of CaliforniaHidden categories: CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2011Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American CyclopaediaWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference

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