Contents 1 History 2 Aims and Scope 2.1 ISO 25964 Part 1 2.2 ISO 25964 Part 2 3 Related standards 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


History[edit] The first international standard for thesauri was ISO 2788, Guidelines for the establishment and development of monolingual thesauri, originally published in 1974 and updated in 1986. In 1985 it was joined by the complementary standard ISO 5964, Guidelines for the establishment and development of multilingual thesauri. Over the years ISO 2788 and ISO 5964 were adopted as national standards in several countries, for example Canada, France and UK. In the UK they were given alias numbers BS 5723 and BS 6723 respectively. And it was in the UK around the turn of the century that work began to revise them for the networking needs of the new millennium. This resulted during 2005 - 2008 in publication of the 5-part British Standard BS 8723, as follows: BS 8723 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval - Guide Part 1: Definitions, symbols and abbreviations Part 2: Thesauri Part 3: Vocabularies other than thesauri Part 4: Interoperability between vocabularies Part 5: Exchange formats and protocols for interoperability Even before the last part of BS 8723 was published, work began to adopt and adapt it as an international standard to replace ISO 2788 and ISO 5964. The project was led by a Working Group of ISO’s Technical Committee 46 (Information and documentation) Subcommittee 9 (Identification and description) known as “ISO TC46/SC9/WG8 Structured Vocabularies”. ISO 2788 and ISO 5964 were withdrawn in 2011, when they were replaced by the first part of ISO 25964. The second part of ISO 25964 was issued in March 2013, completing the project.


Aims and Scope[edit] ISO 25964 is for thesauri intended to support information retrieval, and specifically to guide the choice of terms used in indexing, tagging and search queries. The primary objective is thus summarised in the introduction to the standard as: "If both the indexer and the searcher are guided to choose the same term for the same concept, then relevant documents will be retrieved." Whereas most of the applications envisaged for ISO 2788 and ISO 5964 were databases in a single domain, often in-house or for paper-based systems, ISO 25964 provides additional guidance for the new context of networked applications, including the Semantic Web. A thesaurus is one among several types of controlled vocabulary used in this context. ISO 25964 Part 1[edit] A thesaurus compliant with ISO 25964-1 (as Part 1 is known) lists all the concepts available for indexing in a given context, and labels each of them with a preferred term, as well as any synonyms that apply. Relationships between the concepts and between the terms are shown, making it easy to navigate around the field while building up a search query. The main types of relationship include: equivalence (between synonyms and near-synonyms e.g. motor-bikes, motor-cycles and motorcycles) hierarchical (between broader and narrower concepts e.g. flowers and roses) associative (between concepts that are closely related in some non-hierarchical way, e.g. between a disease and the virus that causes that disease) In multilingual thesauri equivalence also applies between corresponding terms in different natural languages. Establishing correspondence is not always easy, and the standard provides recommendations for handling the difficulties that commonly arise. ISO 25964-1 explains how to build a monolingual or a multilingual thesaurus, how to display it, and how to manage its development. There is a data model to use for handling thesaurus data (especially when exchanging data between systems) and an XML schema for encoding the data. Both the model and the schema can be accessed 24/7, free of charge, on the official website hosted by NISO. The standard also sets out the features you should look for when choosing software to manage the thesaurus. ISO 25964 Part 2[edit] ISO 25964-2 deals with the challenges of using one thesaurus in combination with another, and/or with some other type of controlled vocabulary or knowledge organization system (KOS). The types covered include classification schemes, taxonomies, subject heading schemes, ontologies, name authority lists, terminologies and synonym rings. Within a single organization it is common to find several different such KOSs used in contexts such as the records management system, the library catalogue, the corporate intranet, the research lab, etc. To help users with the challenge of running a single search across all the available collections, ISO 25964-2 provides guidance on mapping between the terms and concepts of one thesaurus and those of the other KOSs. Where mapping is not a sensible option, the standard recommends other forms of complementary vocabulary use. Similarly on the Internet there is an opportunity to make a simultaneous search of repositories and databases that have been indexed with different KOSs, on an even wider scale. Interoperability between the different networks, platforms, software applications, and languages (both natural and artificial) is reliant on the adoption of numerous protocols and standards. ISO 25964-2 is the one to address interoperability between structured vocabularies, especially where a thesaurus is involved.


Related standards[edit] Since Part 1 of ISO 25964 was published it has been adopted by the national standards bodies in a number of countries. For example, The British Standards Institution (BSI) in the UK has adopted it and labelled it unchanged as BS ISO 25964-1. At the time of writing similar consideration is under way for Part 2. The American standard ANSI/NISO Z39.19 - Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies covers some of the same ground as ISO 25964-1. It deals with monolingual lists, synonym rings and taxonomies as well as thesauri, but does not provide a data model, nor address multilingual vocabularies or other aspects of interoperability, such as mapping between KOSs. Where the two standards overlap, they are broadly compatible with each other. NISO is actively involved in both standards, having participated in the work of developing ISO 25964 as well as running its Secretariat. The W3C Recommendation SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) has a close relationship with ISO 25964 in the context of the Semantic Web. SKOS applies to all sorts of “simple KOSs” that can be found on the Web, including thesauri and others. Whereas ISO 25964-1 advises on the selection and fitting together of concepts, terms and relationships to make a good thesaurus, SKOS addresses the next step - porting the thesaurus to the Web. And whereas ISO 25964-2 recommends the sort of mappings that can be established between one KOS and another, SKOS presents a way of expressing the mappings when published to the Web.


See also[edit] SKOS ISO 2788 ISO 5964 Thesaurus (information retrieval)


References[edit] ^ ISO 25964 – the international standard for thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies


External links[edit] ISO 25964-1 Glossary of thesaurus terms Discussion of BS 8723 data model the ISO TC46/SC9/WG8 page an XML-schema for exchange of ISO 25964 thesauri the ISO 25964 based ontology, a SKOS and SKOS-XL extension v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ISO_25964&oldid=734744875" Categories: Library scienceThesauriISO standards


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