Contents 1 Brief history of environmental management systems 2 Development of the ISO 14000 series 3 ISO 14001 standard 3.1 Basic principles and methodology 3.1.1 Plan: Establish objectives and processes required 3.1.2 Do: Implement the processes 3.1.3 Check: Measure and monitor the processes and report results 3.1.4 Act: Take action to improve performance of EMS based on results 3.1.5 Continual Improvement Process (CI) 3.2 Benefits 3.3 Conformity assessment 4 ISO 14001 and EMAS 4.1 Complementarities and differences 4.2 ISO 14001 use in supply chains 5 List of ISO 14000 series standards 6 See also 7 External links 8 References

Brief history of environmental management systems[edit] See also: Environmental management system In March 1992, BSI Group published the world's first environmental management systems standard, BS 7750, as part of a response to growing concerns about protecting the environment.[3] Prior to this, environmental management had been part of larger systems such as Responsible Care. BS 7750 supplied the template for the development of the ISO 14000 series in 1996, which has representation from ISO committees all over the world.[4][5] As of 2017[update], more than 300,000 certifications to ISO 14001 can be found in 171 countries.[6] Prior to the development of the ISO 14000 series, organizations voluntarily constructed their own EMSs, but this made comparisons of environmental effects between companies difficult; therefore, the universal ISO 14000 series was developed. An EMS is defined by ISO as: "part of the overall management system, that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, and maintaining the environmental policy."[7]

Development of the ISO 14000 series[edit] The ISO 14000 family includes most notably the ISO 14001 standard, which represents the core set of standards used by organizations for designing and implementing an effective environmental management system (EMS). Other standards in this series include ISO 14004, which gives additional guidelines for a good EMS, and more specialized standards dealing with specific aspects of environmental management. The major objective of the ISO 14000 series of norms is to provide "practical tools for companies and organizations of all kinds looking to manage their environmental responsibilities."[6] The ISO 14000 series is based on a voluntary approach to environmental regulation.[8] The series includes the ISO 14001 standard, which provides guidelines for the establishment or improvement of an EMS. The standard shares many common traits with its predecessor, ISO 9000, the international standard of quality management[9], which served as a model for its internal structure[7], and both can be implemented side by side. As with ISO 9000, ISO 14000 acts both as an internal management tool and as a way of demonstrating a company’s environmental commitment to its customers and clients.[10]

ISO 14001 standard[edit] ISO 14001 defines criteria for an EMS. It does not state requirements for environmental performance but rather maps out a framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an effective EMS. It can be used by any organization that wants to improve resource efficiency, reduce waste, and reduce costs. Using ISO 14001 can provide assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved.[6] ISO 14001 can also be integrated with other management functions and assists companies in meeting their environmental and economic goals. ISO 14001, like other ISO 14000 standards, is voluntary[11], with its main aim to assist companies in continually improving their environmental performance and complying with any applicable legislation. The organization sets its own targets and performance measures, and the standard highlights what an organization needs to do to meet those goals, and to monitor and measure the situation.[11] The standard does not focus on measures and goals of environmental performance, but of the organization. The standard can be applied to a variety of levels in the business, from the organizational level down to the product and service level. ISO 14001 is known as a generic management system standard, meaning that it is relevant to any organization seeking to improve and manage resources more effectively. This includes: single-site to large multi-national companies high-risk companies to low-risk service organizations the manufacturing, process, and service industries, including local governments all industry sectors, including public and private sectors original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers All standards are periodically reviewed by ISO to ensure they still meet market requirements. The current version is ISO 14001:2015, and certified organizations were given a three-year transition period to adapt their environmental management system to the new edition of the standard. The new version of ISO 14001 focuses on the improvement of environmental performance rather than the improvement of the management system itself.[12] It also includes several new updates all aimed at making environmental management more comprehensive and relevant to the supply chain. One of the main updates asks organizations to consider environmental impact during the entire life cycle, although there is no requirement to actually complete a life cycle analysis. Additionally, the commitments of top management and the methods of evaluating compliance have also been strengthened. Another significant change linked ISO 14001 to the general management system structure, introduced in 2015, called the High Level Structure. Both ISO 9001 and 14001 use this same structure, making implementation and auditing more uniform. The new standard also requires the holder of the certificate to specify risks and opportunities and how to address them. Basic principles and methodology[edit] The PDCA cycle The basic principles of ISO 14001 are based on the well-known Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. Plan: Establish objectives and processes required[edit] Prior to implementing ISO 14001, an initial review or gap analysis of the organization's processes and products is recommended, to assist in identifying all elements of the current operation and, if possible, future operations, that may interact with the environment, termed "environmental aspects."[13] Environmental aspects can include both direct, such as those used during manufacturing, and indirect, such as raw materials. This review assists the organization in establishing their environmental objectives, goals, and targets (which should ideally be measurable); helps with the development of control and management procedures and processes; and serves to highlight any relevant legal requirement, which can then be built into the policy.[13] Do: Implement the processes[edit] During this stage, the organization identifies the resources required and works out those members of the organization responsible for the EMS' implementation and control.[13] This includes establishing procedures and processes, although only one documented procedure is specifically related to operational control. Other procedures are required to foster better management control over elements such as documentation control, emergency preparedness and response, and the education of employees, to ensure that they can competently implement the necessary processes and record results. Communication and participation across all levels of the organization, especially top management, is a vital part of the implementation phase, with the effectiveness of the EMS being dependent on active involvement from all employees.[13] Check: Measure and monitor the processes and report results[edit] During the "check" stage, performance is monitored and periodically measured to ensure that the organization's environmental targets and objectives are being met. In addition, internal audits are conducted at planned intervals to ascertain whether the EMS meets the user's expectations and whether the processes and procedures are being adequately maintained and monitored.[13] Act: Take action to improve performance of EMS based on results[edit] After the checking stage, a management review is conducted to ensure that the objectives of the EMS are being met, the extent to which they are being met, and that communications are being appropriately managed. Additionally, the review evaluates changing circumstances, such as legal requirements, in order to make recommendations for further improvement of the system. These recommendations are incorporated through continual improvement: plans are renewed or new plans are made, and the EMS moves forward.[13] Continual Improvement Process (CI)[edit] ISO 14001 encourages a company to continually improve its environmental performance. Apart from the obvious – the reduction in actual and possible negative environmental impacts – this is achieved in three ways[14]: Expansion: Business areas increasingly get covered by the implemented EMS. Enrichment: Activities, products, processes, emissions, resources, etc. increasingly get managed by the implemented EMS. Upgrading: The structural and organizational framework of the EMS, as well as an accumulation of knowledge in dealing with business-environmental issues, is improved. Overall, the CI concept expects the organization to gradually move away from merely operational environmental measures towards a more strategic approach on how to deal with environmental challenges. Benefits[edit] ISO 14001 was developed primarily to assist companies with a framework for better management control, which can result in reducing their environmental impacts. In addition to improvements in performance, organizations can reap a number of economic benefits, including higher conformance with legislative and regulatory requirements[15] by adopting the ISO standard. By minimizing the risk of regulatory and environmental liability fines and improving an organization’s efficiency[16], benefits can include a reduction in waste, consumption of resources, and operating costs. Secondly, as an internationally recognized standard, businesses operating in multiple locations across the globe can leverage their conformance to ISO 14001, eliminating the need for multiple registrations or certifications.[17] Thirdly, there has been a push in the last decade by consumers for companies to adopt better internal controls, making the incorporation of ISO 14001 a smart approach for the long-term viability of businesses. This can provide them with a competitive advantage against companies that do not adopt the standard (Potoki & Prakash, 2005). This in turn can have a positive impact on a company's asset value (Van der Deldt, 1997). It can lead to improved public perceptions of the business, placing them in a better position to operate in the international marketplace.[18][15] The use of ISO 14001 can demonstrate an innovative and forward-thinking approach to customers and prospective employees. It can increase a business’s access to new customers and business partners. In some markets it can potentially reduce public liability insurance costs. It can also serve to reduce trade barriers between registered businesses.[19] There is growing interest in including certification to ISO 14001 in tenders for public-private partnerships for infrastructure renewal. Evidence of value in terms of environmental quality and benefit to the taxpayer has been shown in highway projects in Canada.[citation needed] Conformity assessment[edit] ISO 14001 can be used in whole or in part to help an organization (for-profit or not-for-profit) better manage its relationship with the environment. If all the elements of ISO 14001 are incorporated into the management process, the organization may opt to prove that it has achieved full alignment or conformity with the international standard, ISO 14001, by using one of four recognized options. These are[13]: make a self-determination and self-declaration, or seek confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or seek confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organization, or seek certification/registration of its EMS by an external organization. ISO does not control conformity assessment; its mandate is to develop and maintain standards. ISO has a neutral policy on conformity assessment in so much that one option is not better than the next. Each option serves different market needs. The adopting organization decides which option is best for them, in conjunction with their market needs. Option one is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "self-certify" or "self-certification". This is not an acceptable reference under ISO terms and definitions, for it can lead to confusion in the market.[13] The user is responsible for making their own determination. Option two is often referred to as a customer or 2nd-party audit, which is an acceptable market term. Option three is an independent third-party process by an organization that is based on an engagement activity and delivered by specially trained practitioners. This option was based on an accounting procedure branded as the EnviroReady Report, which was created to help small- and medium-sized organizations. Its development was originally based on the Canadian Handbook for Accountants; it is now based on an international accounting standard. The fourth option, certification, is another independent third-party process, which has been widely implemented by all types of organizations. Certification is also known in some countries as registration. Service providers of certification or registration are accredited by national accreditation services such as UKAS in the UK.

ISO 14001 and EMAS[edit] In 2010, the latest EMAS Regulation (EMAS III) entered into force; the scheme is now globally applicable, and includes key performance indicators and a range of further improvements. As of April 2017[update], more than 3,900 organizations and approximately 9,200 sites are EMAS registered.[20] Complementarities and differences[edit] ISO 14001's EMS requirements are similar to those of EMAS. Additional requirements for EMAS include[1]: stricter requirements on the measurement and evaluation of environmental performance against objectives and targets government supervision of the environmental verifiers strong employee involvement; EMAS organizations acknowledge that active employee involvement is a driving force and a prerequisite for continuous and successful environmental improvements. environmental core indicators creating multi-annual comparability within and between organizations mandatory provision of information to the general public registration by a public authority ISO 14001 use in supply chains[edit] There are many reasons that ISO 14001 should be potentially attractive to supply chain managers, including the use of the voluntary standard to guide the development of integrated systems, its requirement for supply chain members in industries such as automotive and aerospace, the potential of pollution prevention leading to reduced costs of production and higher profits, its alignment with the growing importance of corporate social responsibility, and the possibility that an ISO-registered system may provide firms with a unique environmental resource, capabilities, and benefits that lead to competitive advantage. Research on the supply chain impact of ISO 14001 registration posited that potential positive impacts might include more proactive environmental management, higher levels of communication, higher levels of waste reduction and cost efficiency, better ROI, higher levels of customer relationship management, fewer issues with employee health, and a reduced number of safety incidents. This research concluded that ISO 14001 registration can be leveraged across the supply chain for competitive advantage.[21]

List of ISO 14000 series standards[edit] ISO 14001 Environmental management systems - Requirements with guidance for use ISO 14004 Environmental management systems - General guidelines on implementation ISO 14006 Environmental management systems - Guidelines for incorporating ecodesign ISO 14015 Environmental management - Environmental assessment of sites and organizations (EASO) ISO 14020 to 14025 Environmental labels and declarations ISO/NP 14030 Green bonds -- Environmental performance of nominated projects and assets; discusses post-production environmental assessment ISO 14031 Environmental management - Environmental performance evaluation - Guidelines ISO 14040 to 14049 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment; discusses pre-production planning and environment goal setting ISO 14046 Environmental management - Water footprint - Principles, requirements and guidelines ISO 14050 Environmental management - Vocabulary; terms and definitions ISO/TR 14062 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development ISO 14063 Environmental management - Environmental communication - Guidelines and examples ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases; measuring, quantifying, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions ISO 19011 Guidelines for auditing management systems; specifies one audit protocol for both 14000 and 9000 series standards together

See also[edit] EMAS Environmental economics Environmental management system International Organization for Standardization ISO 26000 Annex SL

External links[edit] ISO 14000 family at

References[edit] ^ a b "From ISO 14001 to EMAS: Mind the gap" (PDF). Office of the German EMAS Advisory Board. August 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Naden, C. (15 September 2015). "The newly revised ISO 14001 is here". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Smith, C. (1993). "BS 7750 and environmental management". Coloration Technology. 109 (9): 278–279. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.1993.tb01574.x.  ^ Clements, R.B. Complete Guide to ISO 14000. Prentice Hall. p. 316. ISBN 9780132429757.  ^ Brorson, T. Environmental Management: How to Implement an Environmental Management System Within a Company Or Other Organisation. EMS AB. p. 300. ISBN 9789163076619.  ^ a b c "ISO 14000 family - Environmental management". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 22 May 2017.  ^ a b National Research Council (1999). Environmental Management Systems and ISO 14001 Federal Facilities Council Report No. 138. National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/6481. ISBN 9780309184342.  ^ Szymanski, M.; Tiwari, P. (2004). "ISO 14001 and the Reduction of Toxic Emissions". The Journal of Policy Reform. 7 (1): 31–42. doi:10.1080/1384128042000219717. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Jackson, S.L. (1997). "Monitoring and measurement systems for implementing ISO 14001". Environmental Quality Management. 6 (3): 33–41. doi:10.1002/tqem.3310060306.  ^ Boiral, O. (2007). "Corporate Greening Through ISO 14001: A Rational Myth?". Organization Science. 18 (1): 127–46. doi:10.1287/orsc.1060.0224.  ^ a b "ISO 14001". International Institute for Sustainable Development. 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems - Revision". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h Martin, R. (10 March 1998). "ISO 14001 Guidance Manual" (PDF). National Center for Environmental Decision-Making Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Gastl, R. (2009). Kontinuierliche Verbesserung im Umweltmanagement: Die KVP-Forderung der ISO 14001 in Theorie und Unternehmenspraxis. vdf Hochschulverlag AG. p. 336. doi:10.3218/3231-4. ISBN 9783728132314.  ^ a b Sheldon, C. (1997). ISO 14001 and Beyond: Environmental Management Systems in the Real World. Greenleaf Publishing. p. 410. ISBN 9781874719014.  ^ Delmas, M. (2004). "Erratum to "Stakeholders and Competitive Advantage: The Case of ISO 14001"". Production and Operations Management. 13 (4): 398. doi:10.1111/j.1937-5956.2004.tb00226.x.  ^ Hutchens Jr., S. "Using ISO 9001 or ISO 14001 to Gain a Competitive Advantage". Intertek. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Potoski, M.; Prakash, A. (2005). "Green Clubs and Voluntary Governance: ISO 14001 and Firms' Regulatory Compliance". American Journal of Political Science. 49 (2): 235–248. doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2005.00120.x. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Van der Veldt, D. (1997). "Case studies of ISO 14001: A new business guide for global environmental protection". Environmental Quality Management. 7 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1002/tqem.3310070102.  ^ "Statistics & graphs". European Commission. April 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Curkovic, S.; Sroufe, R. (2011). "Using ISO 14001 to promote a sustainable supply chain strategy". Business Strategy and the Environment. 20 (2): 71–93. doi:10.1002/bse.671. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category v t e Social and environmental accountability Ethics and principles Aarhus Convention Corporate accountability / behaviour / social responsibility Ethical banking Ethical code Extended producer responsibility Organizational ethics Organizational justice Principles for Responsible Investment Social responsibility Stakeholder theory Sullivan principles Transparency (behavioral social) UN Global Compact Social accounting Double bottom line Ethical Positioning Index Higg Index Impact assessment (environmental equality social) ISO 26000 Genuine progress indicator OHSAS 18001 Performance indicator SA8000 Social return on investment Whole-life cost Environmental accounting Carbon accounting Eco-Management and Audit Scheme Emission inventory Environmental full-cost accounting / impact assessment / management system / profit-and-loss account ISO 14000 ISO 14031:1999 Life-cycle assessment Pollutant release and transfer register Sustainability accounting / measurement / metrics and indices / standards and certification / supply chain Toxics Release Inventory Triple bottom line Reporting Global Reporting Initiative GxP guidelines Sustainability reporting Auditing Community-based monitoring Environmental (certification) Fair trade (certification) ISO 19011 Related Bangladesh Accord Benefit corporation Child labour Community interest company Conflict of interest Disasters Disinvestment Eco-labeling Environmental pricing reform Environmental, social and corporate governance Ethical consumerism Euthenics Health impact assessment Market governance mechanism Product certification Public participation Social enterprise Socially responsible investing Stakeholder (engagement) Supply chain management Environment portal Category Commons Organizations Retrieved from "" Categories: ISO standardsEnvironmental standardsEnvironmental certificationHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2017All articles containing potentially dated statementsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2017Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2017

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