Contents 1 Multiple session overview 1.1 Support 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Multiple session overview[edit] ISO 13490 define a rule for operating systems as to how to read a multiple-session ISO 9660 volume from a CD-R. Instead of looking for the volume descriptor at offset 32,768 (sector number 16 on a CD) from the start of the disc (which would be the default behavior in ISO 9660), programs accessing the disc should start reading from the 16th sector in the first track of the latest session. Sector numbers form a contiguous sequence starting at the first session, and continue over added sessions and their gaps. Hence, if a CD mastering program wants to add a single file to a CD-R that has an ISO 9660 volume, it has to append a session containing at least an updated copy of the entire directory tree, plus the new file. The duplicated directory entries can still reference the data files in the previous session(s). In a similar way, file data can be updated or even removed. Removal is, however, only virtual: the removed content does not appear any more in the directory shown to the user, but it is still physically present on the disc. It can therefore be recovered, and it takes up space (such that the CD will become full even though appearing to still have unused space). Support[edit] Though it was originally intended for multisession support only to apply to Mode 2 Form 1 formatted discs, some CD writing software supported multisession writing to Mode 1 format discs. Since only some of the early disc drives supported multisession Mode 1 discs, in many cases the second and following sessions would become unreachable in some drives. Some older CD writing software, such as Nero Burning ROM, would not import previous session data from an inserted disc. It could thus only write a subsequent session to a disc on the same computer that had written all the previous sessions, and then only if the previous session data was saved before the writing software was closed down.

See also[edit] Universal Disk Format (UDF) based on ISO/IEC 13346 (also known as ECMA-167) Write Once Read Many (WORM)

References[edit] ^ "Standard ECMA-168" (PDF). ECMA. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 

External links[edit] ECMA-168 v t e File systems Comparison of file systems distributed Unix filesystem Disk ADFS AdvFS Amiga FFS Amiga OFS APFS AthFS BFS Be File System Boot File System Btrfs CVFS CXFS DFS EFS Encrypting File System Extent File System Episode ext ext2 ext3 ext3cow ext4 FAT exFAT Files-11 Fossil HAMMER HFS HFS+ HPFS HTFS IBM General Parallel File System JFS LFS MFS Macintosh File System TiVo Media File System MINIX NetWare File System Next3 NILFS NILFS2 NSS NTFS OneFS PFS QFS QNX4FS ReFS ReiserFS Reiser4 Reliance Reliance Nitro RFS SFS SNFS Soup (Apple) Tux3 UBIFS UFS VxFS WAFL Xiafs XFS Xsan zFS ZFS Optical disc HSF ISO 9660 ISO 13490 UDF Flash memory and SSD APFS FAT exFAT CHFS TFAT FFS2 F2FS HPFS JFFS JFFS2 JFS LogFS NILFS NILFS2 NVFS YAFFS UBIFS Distributed CXFS GFS2 Google File System OCFS2 OrangeFS PVFS QFS Xsan more... NAS AFS (OpenAFS) AFP Coda DFS GPFS Google File System Lustre NCP NFS POHMELFS Hadoop SMB (CIFS) SSHFS more... Specialized Aufs AXFS Boot File System CDfs Compact Disc File System cramfs Davfs2 FTPFS FUSE GmailFS Lnfs LTFS NOVA MVFS SquashFS UMSDOS OverlayFS UnionFS WBFS Pseudo and virtual configfs devfs debugfs kernfs procfs specfs sysfs tmpfs WinFS Encrypted eCryptfs EncFS EFS Rubberhose SSHFS ZFS Types Clustered Global Grid Self-certifying Flash Journaling Log-structured Object Record-oriented Semantic Steganographic Synthetic Versioning Features Case preservation Copy-on-write Data deduplication Data scrubbing Execute in place Extent File attribute Extended file attributes File change log Fork Links Hard Symbolic Access control Access control list Filesystem-level encryption Permissions Modes Sticky bit Interfaces File manager File system API Installable File System Virtual file system Lists Cryptographic Default Log-structured v t e Standards of Ecma International Application interfaces ANSI escape code Common Language Infrastructure Office Open XML OpenXPS File systems (tape) Advanced Intelligent Tape DDS DLT Super DLT Holographic Versatile Disc Linear Tape-Open (Ultrium-1) VXA File systems (disk) CD-ROM CD File System (CDFS) FAT FAT12 FAT16 FAT16B FD UDF Ultra Density Optical Universal Media Disc Graphics Universal 3D Programming languages C++/CLI C# Eiffel JavaScript (E4X, ECMAScript) Radio link interfaces NFC UWB Other ECMA-35 List of Ecma standards (1961 - Present) v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "" Categories: Disk file systemsISO 9660 extensionsISO standardsEcma standardsHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from July 2017All articles needing additional references

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