Contents 1 Consonants 2 Vowels 3 Other combining marks 4 Punctuation and Digits 5 Character Sequencing 6 Variations 6.1 Causes 6.2 ICU (CLDR 1.4.1) 7 See also 8 External links

Consonants[edit] Thai ก ข ฃ ค ฅ ฆ ง จ ฉ ช ซ ฌ ญ ISO k k̄h ḳ̄h kh k̛h ḳh ng c c̄h ch s c̣h ỵ   Thai ฎ ฏ ฐ ฑ ฒ ณ ด ต ถ ท ธ น   ISO ḍ ṭ ṭ̄h ṯh t̛h ṇ d t t̄h th ṭh n   Thai บ ป ผ ฝ พ ฟ ภ ม   ISO b p p̄h f̄ ph f p̣h m   Thai ย ร ฤ ล ฦ ว ศ ษ ส ห ฬ อ ฮ ISO y r v l ł w ṣ̄ s̛̄ s̄ h̄ ḷ x ḥ The transliteration of the pure consonants is derived from their usual pronunciation as an initial consonant. An unmarked h is used to form digraphs denoting aspirated consonants. High and low pairs of consonants are systematically differentiated by applying a macron to the high class consonant. Further differentiation of consonants with identical phonetic function is obtained by leaving the most frequent unmarked, marking the second commonest by a dot below, marking the third commonest by a horn, and marking the fourth commonest by underlining. The use of a dot below has a similar effect to the Indological practice of distinguishing retroflex consonants by a dot below, but there are subtle differences – it is the transliterations of ธ tho thong and ศ so sala that are dotted below, not those of the corresponding retroflex consonants. The transliterations of consonants should be entered in the order base letter, macron if any, and then dot below, horn or "macron below". Only three consonants have the horn in their transliteration, ฅ kho khon, ฒ tho phuthao and ษ so ruesi, and only one consonant has an underline, ฑ tho nang montho.

Vowels[edit] Thai ะ –ั า  ำ –ิ –ี –ึ –ื –ุ –ู เ แ โ ใ ไ ฤ ฤๅ ฦ ฦๅ ย ว อ ISO a ạ ā å i ī ụ ụ̄ u ū e æ o ı ị v vɨ ł łɨ y w x The letter å is the only precomposed character specified in the output of transliteration. Lakkhangyao (ๅ) has been shown only in combination with the vowel letters ฤ and ฦ. The standard simply lists ฤ and ฦ with the consonants and lakkhangyao with the vowels. An isolated lakkhangyao would also be transliterated by a small letter "i" with stroke (ɨ), but such should not occur in Thai, Pāli, or Sanskrit. The transliterations of ว wo waen and อ o ang have been included here because of their use as complete vowel symbols, but their transliteration does not depend on how they are being used and the standard simply lists them with the consonants. Compound vowel symbols are transliterated in accordance with their constituents.

Other combining marks[edit] Thai –่ –้ –๊ –๋ –็ –์ –๎ –ํ –ฺ ISO –̀ –̂ –́ –̌ –̆ –̒ ~ –̊ –̥ Note that yamakkan (–๎) is represented by a spacing tilde, not a superscript tilde.

Punctuation and Digits[edit] Thai ๆ ฯ ๏ ฯ ๚ ๛ ๐ ๑ ๒ ๓ ๔ ๕ ๖ ๗ ๘ ๙ ISO « ǂ § ǀ ǁ » 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ISO 11940:1998 distinguishes the abbreviation symbol paiyannoi (ฯ) from the sentence terminator angkhandiao (ฯ), even though neither the national character standard TIS 620-2533 nor Unicode Version 5.0 distinguishes them. Paiyannoi is transliterated as ǂ and angkhandiao is transliterated as ǀ. Note that paiyannoi, angkhandiao and angkhankhu (๚) are transliterated by the letters used for click consonants, not by double dagger, vertical bars or dandas.

Character Sequencing[edit] In general characters are transliterated from left to right and, where characters have the same horizontal position, from top to bottom. The vertical sequencing is in fact simply specified as tone marks and thanthakhat (–์) preceding any other marks above or below the consonant. The standard denies at the end of Section 4.2 that the combination of sara u (◌ุ, ◌ู) and nikkhahit (◌ํ) can occur and then gives an example of it when specifying the transliteration of nikkhahit, but does not show the transliteration of the combination. The effect of these rules is that, except for nikkhahit, all the non-vowel marks attached to a consonant in Thai are attached to the consonant in the Roman transliteration. The standard concedes that attempting to transpose preposed vowels and consonants may be comforting to those used to the Roman alphabet, but recommends that preposed vowels not be transposed. For example, ภาษาไทย (RTGS: Phasa Thai) should be transliterated to p̣hās̛̄āịthy and เชียงใหม่ (RTGS: Chiang Mai) to echīyngıh̄m̀.

Variations[edit] Causes[edit] The standard specifies the order in which the accents should be typed, but not all input systems will record accents in the order in which they are typed. Unicode specifies two normalised forms for letters with multiple accents, and transliterated text is highly likely to be stored in one of these forms. This complicates automatic back-transliteration. As Unicode-compliant processes must handle such variations correctly, the transliterations on this page have been chosen for ease of display – present day rendering systems may display equivalent forms differently. Many fonts display novel combinations of consonants and accents badly. For example, the Institute of the Estonian Language publishes on the web an explanation of the application of the standard to Thai, and with one exception this seems to be a comply with the standard. The exception is that, except for the macron, accents over consonants are actually offset to the right, giving the impression that they have been entered as the corresponding non-combining characters. The standard specifies the transliterations in codepoints, but someone working from this free explanation could easily deduce that the spacing forms of the tone accents should be used. ICU (CLDR 1.4.1)[edit] The ICU implementation, recorded in Version 1.4.1 of the Common Local Data Repository sponsored by Unicode, uses a prime instead of a horn in the transliteration of consonants. This affects the transliteration of ฅ kho khon, ฒ tho phuthao and ษ so bo ruesi. ฏ to patak is also transliterated differently, as t̩ rather than ṭ. This implementation transliterates ำ as  ả instead of å to avoid ambiguity with the hypothetical Thai script sequence ะํ (sara a, nikkhahit). The ICU implementation transliterates ฺ phinthu as ˌ instead of  ̥  to avoid problems with Unicode normalisation. This has the side effect of improving legibility when applied to an underdotted consonant. The ICU implementation transliterates ฯ paiyannoi as ‡ (double dagger) and angkhankhu as || (two ASCII vertical bars). As the ICU implementation uses Unicode, it cannot reliably distinguish angkhandiao from paiyannoi without a semantic analysis, and makes no such attempt. The character sequencing of the ICU implementation is different. It transposes preposed vowels with the following consonant, and processes the marks on a consonant in the order in which they are stored in memory. (Most Thai input methods ensure that the marks are stored in bottom to top order.) It does not transpose preposed vowels with complete consonant clusters; consonant clusters cannot be identified with complete accuracy, and transposing vowels with clusters would require an additional symbol to permit reliable conversion back to the Thai script. For example, under this implementation ภาษาไทย transliterates to p̣hās̄ʹāthịy and เชียงใหม่ to cheīyngh̄ım̀. Finally, this implementation generates transliterations in Unicode Normalisation Form C (NFC).

See also[edit] List of ISO transliterations Romanization of Lao Romanization of Thai Royal Thai General System of Transcription

External links[edit] Official ISO site Transliteration rules on Romanisation of Thai placenames in the KNAB Database of the Institute of the Estonian Language v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "" Categories: ISO standardsISO romanizationRomanization of ThaiHidden categories: Articles containing Thai-language text

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