Contents 1 Coverage 1.1 Modern languages with complete coverage 1.2 Languages with incomplete coverage 1.3 Quotation marks 2 History 3 Code page layout 4 Similar character sets 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


Coverage[edit] See also: Latin-script alphabet Each character is encoded as a single eight-bit code value. These code values can be used in almost any data interchange system to communicate in the following languages (with a few exceptions due to missing characters, as noted): Modern languages with complete coverage[edit] Afrikaans Albanian Basque Breton Corsican Danish[a] English[b] Faroese Galician German Icelandic Irish Indonesian Italian Kurdish[c] Leonese Luxembourgish[d] Malay[e] Manx Norwegian[f] Occitan Portuguese[g] Rhaeto-Romanic Scottish Gaelic Scots Spanish Swahili Swedish Tagalog Walloon Notes ^ Complete support except for Ǿ/ǿ which are missing. Ǿ/ǿ can be replaced with Ø/ø or øe at the cost of increased ambiguity. ^ US and modern British. ^ Kurdish Unified Alphabet, based on the Latin character set. ^ Basic classical orthography. ^ Rumi script. ^ Bokmål and Nynorsk. ^ European and Brazilian. Languages with incomplete coverage[edit] ISO-8859-1 is commonly used[citation needed] for certain languages, even though it lacks characters used by these languages. In most cases, only a few letters are missing, and they can be replaced with characters that are in ISO-8859-1 using some form of typographic approximation. The following table lists such languages. Language Missing characters Typical workaround Supported by Catalan Ŀ, ŀ (deprecated) L·, l· Czech Č, č, Ď, ď, Ě, ě, Ň, ň, Ř, ř, Š, š, Ť, ť, Ů, ů, Ž, ž C~, c~, D~, d~, E~, e~, N~, n~, R~, r~, S~, s~, T~, t~, U~, u~, Z~, z~ ISO-8859-2, Windows-1250 Dutch IJ, ij (but with debatable status); j́ in emphasized words like "blíj́f" digraphs IJ, ij; blíjf Estonian Š, š, Ž, ž (only present in loanwords) Sh, sh, Zh, zh ISO-8859-15, Windows-1252 Finnish Š, š, Ž, ž (only present in loanwords) Sh, sh, Zh, zh ISO-8859-15, Windows-1252 French Œ, œ, and the very rare Ÿ digraphs OE, oe, and Y without the diaeresis (or Ý) ISO-8859-15, ISO-8859-16, Windows-1252 Guarani Ẽ, ẽ, Ĩ, ĩ, Ũ, ũ, Ỹ, ỹ, G̃, g̃ E~, e~, I~, i~, U~, u~, Y~, y~, G~, g~ or Ê, ê, Î, î, Û, û, Ý, ÿ Hungarian Ő, ő, Ű, ű Õ, õ (or Ô, ô; sometimes Ö, ö), Û, û (sometimes Ü, ü) ISO-8859-2, Windows-1250 Irish (traditional orthography) Ḃ, ḃ, Ċ, ċ, Ḋ, ḋ, Ḟ, ḟ, Ġ, ġ, Ṁ, ṁ, Ṡ, ṡ, Ṫ, ṫ Bh, bh, Ch, ch, Dh, dh, Fh, fh, Gh, gh, Mh, mh, Sh, sh, Th, th ISO-8859-14 Latin with macrons Ā, ā, Ē, ē, Ī, ī, Ō, ō, Ū, ū ISO-8859-13, Windows-1257 Māori Ā, ā, Ē, ē, Ī, ī, Ō, ō, Ū, ū Ä, ä, Ë, ë, Ï, ï, Ö, ö, Ü, ü (sometimes Aa, aa, Ee, ee, Ii, ii, Oo, oo, Uu, uu) ISO-8859-13, Windows-1257 Romanian Ă, ă, Ș, ș, Ț, ț and older Ţ, ţ with cedilla A, a (or Ã, ã), S, s, T, t ISO-8859-2, Windows-1250 (Ţ, ţ with cedilla) Turkish İ, ı, Ğ, ğ, Ş, ş I, ï, G, g, S, s ISO-8859-3, ISO-8859-9, Windows-1254 Welsh Ẁ, ẁ, Ẃ, ẃ, Ŵ, ŵ, Ŷ, ŷ Ý, ÿ ISO-8859-14 The letter ÿ, which appears in French only very rarely, and never at the beginning of words, is included only in lowercase form. The slot corresponding to its uppercase form is occupied by the lowercase letter ß from the German language, which itself is rarely used in its uppercase form. In rare cases older publishing systems still use ISO-8859-1 encoding with substituted national typeface. Such nonstandard configuration is not noticeable in printed material but leads to serious implications, like impossibility of direct text search, when the material is distributed in electronic form. The most notable are scientific publications in Russian, like those from the publisher Nauka. Quotation marks[edit] For some languages listed above, the correct typographical quotation marks are missing, as only « », " ", and ' ' are included. Also, this scheme does not provide for oriented (6- or 9-shaped) single or double quotation marks. Some fonts will display the spacing grave accent (0x60) and the apostrophe (0x27) as a matching pair of oriented single quotation marks, but this is not considered part of the modern standard.


History[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008) ISO 8859-1 was based on the Multinational Character Set used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the popular VT220 terminal in 1983. It was developed within ECMA, the European Computer Manufacturers Association, and published in March 1985 as ECMA-94,[5] by which name it is still sometimes known. The second edition of ECMA-94 (June 1986)[6] also included ISO 8859-2, ISO 8859-3, and ISO 8859-4 as part of the specification. In 1985, Commodore adopted ECMA-94 for its new AmigaOS operating system.[7] The Seikosha MP-1300AI impact dot-matrix printer, used with the Amiga 1000, included this encoding.[citation needed] In 1992, the IANA registered the character map ISO_8859-1:1987, more commonly known by its preferred MIME name of ISO-8859-1 (note the extra hyphen over ISO 8859-1), a superset of ISO 8859-1, for use on the Internet. This map assigns the C0 and C1 control characters to the unassigned code values thus provides for 256 characters via every possible 8-bit value. ISO-8859-1 is (according to the standards at least) the default encoding of documents delivered via HTTP with a MIME type beginning with "text/" (however the HTML5 specification requires that documents advertised as ISO-8859-1 actually be parsed with the Windows-1252 encoding).[8][9] It is the default encoding of the values of certain descriptive HTTP headers, and defines the repertoire of characters allowed in HTML 3.2 documents (HTML 4.0, however, is based on Unicode). This and Windows-1252 are often assumed to be the encoding of text on Unix and Microsoft Windows in the absence of locale or other information, this is only gradually being replaced with Unicode encoding such as UTF-8 or UTF-16.


Code page layout[edit] The two boxed codepoints 215 (0xD7) and 247 (0xF7) were still undefined in the first release of ECMA-94 (1985).[5] Legend:   Alphabetic   Control character   Numeric digit   Punctuation   Extended punctuation   Graphic character   International   Undefined ISO/IEC 8859-1 _0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F   0_                                     1_                                     2_   SP 0020 32 ! 0021 33 " 0022 34 # 0023 35 $ 0024 36 % 0025 37 & 0026 38 ' 0027 39 ( 0028 40 ) 0029 41 * 002A 42 + 002B 43 , 002C 44 - 002D 45 . 002E 46 / 002F 47   3_   0 0030 48 1 0031 49 2 0032 50 3 0033 51 4 0034 52 5 0035 53 6 0036 54 7 0037 55 8 0038 56 9 0039 57 : 003A 58 ; 003B 59 < 003C 60 = 003D 61 > 003E 62 ? 003F 63   4_   @ 0040 64 A 0041 65 B 0042 66 C 0043 67 D 0044 68 E 0045 69 F 0046 70 G 0047 71 H 0048 72 I 0049 73 J 004A 74 K 004B 75 L 004C 76 M 004D 77 N 004E 78 O 004F 79   5_   P 0050 80 Q 0051 81 R 0052 82 S 0053 83 T 0054 84 U 0055 85 V 0056 86 W 0057 87 X 0058 88 Y 0059 89 Z 005A 90 [ 005B 91 \ 005C 92 ] 005D 93 ^ 005E 94 _ 005F 95   6_   ` 0060 96 a 0061 97 b 0062 98 c 0063 99 d 0064 100 e 0065 101 f 0066 102 g 0067 103 h 0068 104 i 0069 105 j 006A 106 k 006B 107 l 006C 108 m 006D 109 n 006E 110 o 006F 111   7_   p 0070 112 q 0071 113 r 0072 114 s 0073 115 t 0074 116 u 0075 117 v 0076 118 w 0077 119 x 0078 120 y 0079 121 z 007A 122 { 007B 123 | 007C 124 } 007D 125 ~ 007E 126     8_                                     9_                                     A_   NBSP 00A0 160 ¡ 00A1 161 ¢ 00A2 162 £ 00A3 163 ¤ 00A4 164 ¥ 00A5 165 ¦ 00A6 166 § 00A7 167 ¨ 00A8 168 © 00A9 169 ª 00AA 170 « 00AB 171 ¬ 00AC 172 SHY 00AD 173 ® 00AE 174 ¯ 00AF 175   B_   ° 00B0 176 ± 00B1 177 ² 00B2 178 ³ 00B3 179 ´ 00B4 180 µ 00B5 181 ¶ 00B6 182 · 00B7 183 ¸ 00B8 184 ¹ 00B9 185 º 00BA 186 » 00BB 187 ¼ 00BC 188 ½ 00BD 189 ¾ 00BE 190 ¿ 00BF 191   C_   À 00C0 192 Á 00C1 193 Â 00C2 194 Ã 00C3 195 Ä 00C4 196 Å 00C5 197 Æ 00C6 198 Ç 00C7 199 È 00C8 200 É 00C9 201 Ê 00CA 202 Ë 00CB 203 Ì 00CC 204 Í 00CD 205 Î 00CE 206 Ï 00CF 207   D_   Ð 00D0 208 Ñ 00D1 209 Ò 00D2 210 Ó 00D3 211 Ô 00D4 212 Õ 00D5 213 Ö 00D6 214 × 00D7 215 Ø 00D8 216 Ù 00D9 217 Ú 00DA 218 Û 00DB 219 Ü 00DC 220 Ý 00DD 221 Þ 00DE 222 ß 00DF 223   E_   à 00E0 224 á 00E1 225 â 00E2 226 ã 00E3 227 ä 00E4 228 å 00E5 229 æ 00E6 230 ç 00E7 231 è 00E8 232 é 00E9 233 ê 00EA 234 ë 00EB 235 ì 00EC 236 í 00ED 237 î 00EE 238 ï 00EF 239   F_   ð 00F0 240 ñ 00F1 241 ò 00F2 242 ó 00F3 243 ô 00F4 244 õ 00F5 245 ö 00F6 246 ÷ 00F7 247 ø 00F8 248 ù 00F9 249 ú 00FA 250 û 00FB 251 ü 00FC 252 ý 00FD 253 þ 00FE 254 ÿ 00FF 255 _0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F


Similar character sets[edit] Main article: Western Latin character sets (computing) ISO-8859-1 was incorporated as the first 256 code points of ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode. The lower range 32 to 126 (hex 20 to 7E, the G0 subset) maps exactly to the same coded G0 subset of the ISO 646 US variant (commonly known as ASCII), whose ISO 2022 standard switch sequence is "ESC ( B". The higher range 160 to 255 (hex A0 to FF, the G1 subset) maps exactly to the same subset initiated by the ISO 2022 standard switch sequence "ESC . A". ISO/IEC 8859-1 is missing some characters for French and Finnish text and the euro sign. In order to provide some of these characters, ISO/IEC 8859-15 was developed in 1999 as an update of ISO/IEC 8859-1. Ironically, three of these characters (Œ, œ, and Ÿ) had already been present in the predecessor to ISO/IEC 8859-1 (1987) and ECMA-94 (1985), DEC's Multinational Character Set (MCS) in 1983. Since their original codepoints were now reused for other purposes, the characters had to be reintroduced under different, less logical codepoints. This required the removal of some infrequently used characters from ISO/IEC 8859-1, including fraction symbols and letter-free diacritics: ¤, ¦, ¨, ´, ¸, ¼, ½, and ¾. The popular Windows-1252 character set adds all the missing characters provided by ISO/IEC 8859-15, plus a number of typographic symbols, by replacing the rarely used C1 controls in the range 128 to 159 (hex 80 to 9F). It is very common to mislabel text data with the charset label ISO-8859-1, even though the data is really Windows-1252 encoded. Many web browsers and e-mail clients will interpret ISO-8859-1 control codes as Windows-1252 characters, and that behavior was later standardized in HTML5,[10] in order to accommodate such mislabeling and care should be taken to avoid generating these characters in ISO-8859-1 labeled content. The Apple Macintosh computer introduced a character encoding called Mac Roman, or Mac-Roman, in 1984. It was meant to be suitable for Western European desktop publishing. It is a superset of ASCII, like ISO-8859-1, and has most of the characters that are in ISO-8859-1 but in a totally different arrangement. A later version, registered with IANA as "Macintosh", replaced the generic currency sign ¤ with the euro sign €. The few printable characters that are in ISO 8859-1 but not in this set are often a source of trouble when editing text on websites using older Macintosh browsers (including the last version of Internet Explorer for Mac). However the extra characters that Windows-1252 has in the C1 codepoint range are all supported in MacRoman. DOS had code page 850, which had all printable characters that ISO-8859-1 had (albeit in a totally different arrangement) plus the most widely used graphic characters from code page 437. Between 1989[11] and 2015 Hewlett-Packard used another superset of ISO-8859-1 on many of their calculators. This proprietary character set was sometimes referred to simply as "ECMA-94" as well.[11]


See also[edit] Latin script in Unicode Unicode Universal Character Set UTF-8 Windows code pages ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2


References[edit] ^ "Encoding". WHATWG. 27 January 2015. sec. 5.2 Names and labels. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.  ^ "Historical trends in the usage of character encodings, October 2016". Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ Baird, Cathy; Chiba, Dan; Chu, Winson; Fan, Jessica; Ho, Claire; Law, Simon; Lee, Geoff; Linsley, Peter; Matsuda, Keni; Oscroft, Tamzin; Takeda, Shige; Tanaka, Linus; Tozawa, Makoto; Trute, Barry; Tsujimoto, Mayumi; Wu, Ying; Yau, Michael; Yu, Tim; Wang, Chao; Wong, Simon; Zhang, Weiran; Zheng, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Moore, Valarie (2002) [1996]. "Appendix A: Locale Data". Oracle9i Database Globalization Support Guide (PDF) (Release 2 (9.2) ed.). Oracle Corporation. Oracle A96529-01. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2017-02-14.  ^ "Code Page Identifiers". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 2010-12-19.  ^ a b Standard ECMA-94: 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Set (PDF) (1 ed.). European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA). March 1985 [1984-12-14]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-01. […] Since 1982 the urgency of the need for an 8-bit single-byte coded character set was recognized in ECMA as well as in ANSI/X3L2 and numerous working papers were exchanged between the two groups. In February 1984 ECMA TC1 submitted to ISO/TC97/SC2 a proposal for such a coded character set. At its meeting of April 1984 SC decided to submit to TC97 a proposal for a new item of work for this topic. Technical discussions during and after this meeting led TC1 to adopt the coding scheme proposed by X3L2. Part 1 of Draft International Standard DTS 8859 is based on this joint ANSI/ECMA proposal. […] Adopted as an ECMA Standard by the General Assembly of Dec. 13–14, 1984. […]  ^ second edition of ECMA-94 (June 1986) ^ Malyshev, Michael (2003-01-10). "Registration of new charset [Amiga-1251]". ATO-RU (Amiga Translation Organization – Russian Department). Archived from the original on 2016-12-05. Retrieved 2016-12-05.  ^ W3C/WHATWG Encoding specification: Names and Labels ^ HTML5 specification: 2.1.6 Character encodings ^ WHATWG, "Names and Labels", Encoding Standard, retrieved 2016-11-15  ^ a b HP 82240B Infrared Printer (1 ed.). Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett Packard. August 1989. HP reorder number 82240-90014. Retrieved 2016-08-01. 


External links[edit] ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998 ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998 – 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1 (draft dated February 12, 1998, published April 15, 1998) Standard ECMA-94: 8-Bit Single Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets – Latin Alphabets No. 1 to No. 4 2nd edition (June 1986) ISO-IR 100 Right-Hand Part of Latin Alphabet No.1 (February 1, 1986) Differences between ANSI, ISO-8859-1 and MacRoman Character Sets The Letter Database Czyborra, Roman (1998-12-01). "The ISO 8859 Alphabet Soup". Archived from the original on 2016-12-01. Retrieved 2016-12-01.  [1] [2] v t e Character encodings Early telecommunications ASCII ISO/IEC 646 ISO/IEC 6937 T.61 BCDIC Baudot code Morse code Telegraph code Wabun code Special telegraphy codes Non-Latin Chinese Cyrillic Needle telegraph codes ISO/IEC 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 Bibliographic use ANSEL ISO 5426 / 5426-2 / 5427 / 5428 / 6438 / 6861 / 6862 / 10585 / 10586 / 10754 / 11822 MARC-8 National standards ArmSCII BraSCII CNS 11643 ELOT 927 GOST 10859 GB 18030 HKSCS ISCII JIS X 0201 JIS X 0208 JIS X 0212 JIS X 0213 KOI-7 KPS 9566 KS X 1001 PASCII SI 960 TIS-620 TSCII VISCII YUSCII EUC CN JP KR TW ISO/IEC 2022 CN JP KR CCCII MacOS code pages ("scripts") Arabic Celtic CentEuro ChineseSimp / EUC-CN ChineseTrad / Big5 Croatian Cyrillic Devanagari Dingbats Esperanto Farsi (Persian) Gaelic Greek Gujarati Gurmukhi Hebrew Iceland Japanese / ShiftJIS Korean / EUC-KR Latin-1 Roman Romanian Sámi Symbol Thai / TIS-620 Turkish Ukrainian DOS code pages 100 111 112 113 151 152 161 162 163 164 165 166 210 220 301 437 449 489 620 667 668 707 708 709 710 711 714 715 720 721 737 768 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 790 850 851 852 853 854 855/872 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864/17248 865 866/808 867 868 869 874/1161/1162 876 877 878 881 882 883 884 885 891 895 896 897 898 899 900 903 904 906 907 909 910 911 926 927 928 929 932 934 936 938 941 942 943 944 946 947 948 949 950/1370 951 966 991 1034 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1046 1086 1088 1092 1093 1098 1108 1109 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1125/848 1126 1127 1131/849 1139 1167 1168 1300 1351 1361 1362 1363 1372 1373 1374 1375 1380 1381 1385 1386 1391 1392 1393 1394 Kamenický Mazovia CWI-2 KOI8 MIK Iran System IBM AIX code pages 367 371 806 813 819 895 896 912 913 914 915 916 919 920 921/901 922/902 923 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 963 964 965 970 971 1004 1006 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1029 1036 1089 1111 1124 1129/1163 1133 1350 1382 1383 IBM Apple MacIntosh emulations 1275 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 IBM Adobe emulations 1038 1276 1277 IBM DEC emulations 1020 1021 1023 1090 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1287 1288 IBM HP emulations 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 Windows code pages CER-GS 874/1162 (TIS-620) 932/943 (Shift JIS) 936/1386 (GBK) 950/1370 (Big5) 949/1363 (EUC-KR) 1169 1174 Extended Latin-8 1200 (UTF-16LE) 1201 (UTF-16BE) 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1261 1270 54936 (GB18030) EBCDIC code pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37/1140 38 39 40 251 252 254 256 257 258 259 260 264 273/1141 274 275 276 277/1142 278/1143 279 280/1144 281 282 283 284/1145 285/1146 286 287 288 289 290 293 297/1147 298 300 310 320 321 322 330 351 352 353 355 357 358 359 360 361 363 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 410 420/16804 421 423 424/8616/12712 425 435 500/1148 803 829 833 834 835 836 837 838/838 839 870/1110/1153 871/1149 875/4971/9067 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 892 893 905 918 924 930/1390 931 933/1364 935/1388 937/1371 939/1399 1001 1002 1003 1005 1007 1024 1025/1154 1026/1155 1027 1028 1030 1031 1032 1033 1037 1047 1068 1069 1070 1071 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1087 1091 1097 1112/1156 1113 1122/1157 1123/1158 1130/1164 1132 1136 1137 1150 1151 1152 1159 1165 1166 1278 1279 1303 1364 1376 1377 JEF KEIS Platform specific Acorn Adobe Standard Apple II ATASCII Atari ST BICS Casio calculators CDC CPC DEC Radix-50 DEC MCS/NRCS DG International ELWRO-Junior FIELDATA GEM GEOS GSM 03.38 HP Roman Extension HP Roman-8 HP Roman-9 HP FOCAL HP RPL LICS LMBCS MSX NEC APC NeXT PCW PETSCII Sharp calculators TI calculators TRS-80 Ventura International Ventura Symbol WISCII XCCS ZX80 ZX81 ZX Spectrum Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646 UTF-1 UTF-7 UTF-8 UTF-16 (UTF-16LE/UTF-16BE) / UCS-2 UTF-32 (UTF-32LE/UTF-32BE) / UCS-4 UTF-EBCDIC GB 18030 BOCU-1 CESU-8 SCSU Miscellaneous code pages ABICOMP APL ARIB STD-B24 Cork HZ INIS INIS-8 Johab LY1 OML OMS OT1 SEASCII TACE16 TRON UTF-5 UTF-6 WTF-8 Related topics Code page Control character (C0 C1) CCSID Character encodings in HTML Charset detection Han unification Hardware ISO 6429/IEC 6429/ANSI X3.64 Mojibake Character sets Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ISO/IEC_8859-1&oldid=820822662" Categories: ISO/IEC 8859Computer-related introductions in 1987Hidden categories: Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018All articles containing potentially dated statementsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2017Articles to be expanded from May 2008All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesArticles with unsourced statements from April 2012


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ISO/IEC_8859-1 - Photos and All Basic Informations

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Latin-1 Supplement (Unicode Block)Windows-1252ISO/IEC 8859Template:Infobox Character Encoding8-bitByteCharacter (computing)ISO/IEC 8859ASCIICharacter EncodingCharacter (computing)Latin ScriptAmericasWestern EuropeOceaniaAfricaWindows-1252UnicodeWindows-1252Media TypeHTML5 In Mobile DevicesWindows-1252UTF-8Internet Assigned Numbers AuthorityC0 And C1 Control CodesISO/IEC 6429HTML5Oracle DatabaseHexadecimalCharacter (computing)ISO-8859-15Latin-script AlphabetAfrikaans LanguageAlbanian LanguageBasque LanguageBreton LanguageCorsican LanguageDanish LanguageEnglish LanguageFaroese LanguageGalician LanguageGerman LanguageIcelandic LanguageIrish LanguageIndonesian LanguageItalian LanguageKurdish AlphabetLeonese DialectLuxembourgish LanguageMalay LanguageManx LanguageNorwegian LanguageOccitan LanguagePortuguese LanguageRomansh LanguageScottish GaelicScots LanguageSpanish LanguageSwahili LanguageSwedish LanguageTagalog LanguageWalloon LanguageKurdish Unified AlphabetRumi ScriptWikipedia:Citation NeededTypographic ApproximationCatalan LanguageĿCzech LanguageČĎĚŇŘŠŤŮŽISO/IEC 8859-2Windows-1250Dutch LanguageIJ (digraph)IJ (digraph)Digraph (orthography)Estonian LanguageŠŽISO/IEC 8859-15Windows-1252Finnish LanguageŠŽISO/IEC 8859-15Windows-1252French LanguageŒŸDigraph (orthography)Diaeresis (diacritic)ISO/IEC 8859-15ISO/IEC 8859-16Windows-1252Guarani LanguageĨŨÊÎÛÝŸHungarian LanguageŐŰÕÔÖÛÜISO/IEC 8859-2Windows-1250Irish LanguageIrish OrthographyISO/IEC 8859-14LatinMacron (diacritic)ĀĒĪŌŪISO/IEC 8859-13Windows-1257Māori LanguageĀĒĪŌŪÄËÏÖÜISO/IEC 8859-13Windows-1257Romanian LanguageĂȘȚŢCedillaAÃSTISO/IEC 8859-2Windows-1250Turkish LanguageİĞŞIGSISO/IEC 8859-3ISO/IEC 8859-9Windows-1254Welsh LanguageŴŶISO/IEC 8859-14ßCapital ẞTypefaceNauka (publisher)Quotation MarkMultinational Character SetDigital Equipment CorporationVT220European Computer Manufacturers AssociationISO 8859-2ISO 8859-3ISO 8859-4Commodore InternationalAmigaOSWikipedia:Citation NeededInternet Assigned Numbers AuthorityMIMEInternetC0 And C1 Control CharacterHTTPMIME TypeHTML5HTMLUnicodeUnixMicrosoft WindowsUTF-8UTF-16Space CharacterExclamation MarkQuotation MarkNumber SignDollar SignPercent SignAmpersandApostropheBracketBracketAsteriskPlus And Minus SignsComma (punctuation)Hyphen-minusFull StopSlash (punctuation)0 (number)1 (number)2 (number)3 (number)4 (number)5 (number)6 (number)7 (number)8 (number)9 (number)Colon (punctuation)SemicolonLess-than SignEqual SignGreater-than SignQuestion Mark@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZSquare BracketsBackslashSquare BracketsCircumflexUnderscoreGrave AccentABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZBraces (punctuation)Vertical BarBraces (punctuation)TildeNon-breaking SpaceInverted Question And Exclamation MarksCent (currency)Pound SignCurrency (typography)¥Vertical BarSection Sign¨Copyright SymbolOrdinal IndicatorGuillemetNegationSoft HyphenRegistered Trademark SymbolMacron (diacritic)Degree SymbolPlus-minus SignSquare (algebra)Cube (algebra)Acute AccentMicro SignPilcrowInterpunctCedillaUnicode Subscripts And SuperscriptsOrdinal IndicatorGuillemet1/4 (disambiguation)1/2 (disambiguation)3/4 (disambiguation)Inverted Question MarkÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏEthÑÒÓÔÕÖMultiplication SignØÙÚÛÜÝThorn (letter)ßÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏEthÑÒÓÔÕÖObelusØÙÚÛÜÝThorn (letter)ŸWestern Latin Character Sets (computing)ISO/IEC 10646UnicodeHexadecimalASCIIISO 2022HexadecimalEuro SignISO/IEC 8859-15DEC (company)Multinational Character SetWindows-1252HexadecimalWindows-1252HTML5Apple MacintoshMac-RomanDesktop PublishingASCIICurrency (typography)Euro SignInternet Explorer For MacCode Page 850Graphic CharacterCode Page 437Hewlett-PackardRPL Character SetLatin Script In UnicodeUnicodeUniversal Character SetUTF-8Windows Code PageISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2WHATWGOracle CorporationEuropean Computer Manufacturers AssociationWHATWGHewlett PackardTemplate:Character EncodingsTemplate Talk:Character EncodingsCharacter EncodingASCIIISO/IEC 646ISO/IEC 6937ITU T.61BCD (character Encoding)Baudot CodeMorse CodeTelegraph CodeWabun CodeMorse Code For Non-Latin AlphabetsChinese Telegraph CodeRussian Morse CodeCooke And Wheatstone TelegraphISO/IEC 8859ISO/IEC 8859-2ISO/IEC 8859-3ISO/IEC 8859-4ISO/IEC 8859-5ISO/IEC 8859-6ISO/IEC 8859-7ISO/IEC 8859-8ISO/IEC 8859-9ISO/IEC 8859-10ISO/IEC 8859-11ISO/IEC 8859-12ISO/IEC 8859-13ISO/IEC 8859-14ISO/IEC 8859-15ISO/IEC 8859-16ANSELISO 5426ISO 5428ISO 6438ISO 6862ArmSCIIMARC-8ArmSCIIBraSCIICNS 11643ELOT 927GOST 10859GB 18030Hong Kong Supplementary Character SetIndian Script Code For Information InterchangeJIS X 0201JIS X 0208JIS X 0212JIS X 0213KOI-7KPS 9566KS X 1001Perso-Arabic Script Code For Information InterchangeSI 960Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533Tamil Script Code For Information InterchangeVietnamese Standard Code For Information InterchangeYUSCIIExtended Unix CodeExtended Unix CodeExtended Unix CodeExtended Unix CodeExtended Unix CodeISO/IEC 2022ISO/IEC 2022ISO/IEC 2022ISO/IEC 2022Chinese Character Code For Information InterchangeCategory:Mac OS Character EncodingsMacArabic EncodingMac OS CelticMacintosh Central European EncodingEUC-CNBig5MacCroatian EncodingMacintosh Cyrillic EncodingMac Devanagari EncodingMacEsperanto EncodingMacFarsi EncodingMac OS GaelicMacGreek EncodingMac Icelandic EncodingShift JISEUC-KRMacintosh Latin EncodingMac OS RomanMacRomanian EncodingMac OS SámiThai Industrial Standard 620-2533MacTurkish EncodingMacintosh Ukrainian EncodingCategory:DOS Code PagesCode Page 301Code Page 437Code Page 449Code Page 667Code Page 668Code Page 708Code Page 720Code Page 737Code Page 770Code Page 771Code Page 772Code Page 773Code Page 774Code Page 775Code Page 790Code Page 850Code Page 851Code Page 852Code Page 853Code Page 855Code Page 855Code Page 856Code Page 857Code Page 858Code Page 859Code Page 860Code Page 861Code Page 862Code Page 863Code Page 864Code Page 17248Code Page 865Code Page 866Code Page 866Code Page 867Code Page 868Code Page 869Code Page 874Code Page 1161Code Page 1162Code Page 878Kamenicky EncodingMazovia EncodingCode Page 897Code Page 866Code Page 907Code Page 932 (IBM)Code Page 936 (IBM)Code Page 941Code Page 942Code Page 943Code Page 949 (IBM)Code Page 950Code Page 951Code Page 991Code Page 1041Code Page 1117Code Page 1118Code Page 1119Code Page 1167Code Page 1168Code Page 1363Code Page 1386Code Page 1392Kamenický EncodingMazovia EncodingCWI-2KOI Character EncodingsMIK Code PageIran System EncodingIBM AIXCode Page 367Code Page 806Code Page 813Code Page 819Code Page 895Code Page 896Code Page 912Code Page 913Code Page 914Code Page 915Code Page 916Code Page 919Code Page 920Code Page 923Code Page 954Code Page 1009Code Page 1010Code Page 1011Code Page 1012Code Page 1013Code Page 1014Code Page 1015Code Page 1016Code Page 1017Code Page 1018Code Page 1019Code Page 1036Code Page 1089Code Page 1111Code Page 1124Code Page 1133Category:Mac OS Character EncodingsMac OS RomanMacGreek EncodingMacTurkish EncodingMacintosh Central European EncodingMacintosh Cyrillic EncodingMacCroatian EncodingMacRomanian EncodingMac Icelandic EncodingCode Page 1038Code Page 1276Digital Equipment CorporationCode Page 1020Code Page 1021Code Page 1023Code Page 1090Multinational Character SetCode Page 1101Code Page 1102Code Page 1103Code Page 1104Code Page 1105Code Page 1106Code Page 1107Code Page 1287Code Page 1288Hewlett-PackardCode Page 1050Code Page 1051Code Page 1057Windows Code PageCER-GSCode Page 1162Code Page 1162Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533Code Page 932 (Microsoft Windows)Code Page 943Shift JISCode Page 1386Code Page 1386GBK (character Encoding)Code Page 950Code Page 950Big5Unified Hangul CodeCode Page 1363EUC-KRExtended Latin-8Windows-1200UTF-16LEWindows-1201UTF-16BEWindows-1250Windows-1251Windows-1252Windows-1253Windows-1254Windows-1255Windows-1256Windows-1257Windows-1258Windows-1270Windows-54936EBCDICEBCDIC Code PagesEBCDIC 037EBCDIC 1140EBCDIC 038EBCDIC 252EBCDIC 273EBCDIC 1141EBCDIC 277EBCDIC 1142EBCDIC 278EBCDIC 1143EBCDIC 280EBCDIC 1144EBCDIC 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