Contents 1 History 2 Overview 2.1 How ISBNs are issued 2.2 Registration group identifier 2.3 Registrant element 2.3.1 Pattern for English language ISBNs 3 Check digits 3.1 ISBN-10 check digits 3.2 ISBN-10 check digit calculation 3.3 ISBN-13 check digit calculation 3.4 ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 conversion 3.5 Errors in usage 3.6 eISBN 4 EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

History The Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin,[3] for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965.[4] The ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker[5] (regarded as the "Father of the ISBN"[6]) and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay[5] (who later became director of the U.S. ISBN agency R.R. Bowker).[6][7][8] The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108.[4][5] The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.[9] An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, and 8 being the check digit. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8; the check digit does not need to be re-calculated. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s.[10]

Overview An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN.[11] The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts (if it is a 10 digit ISBN) or 5 parts (for a 13 digit ISBN): The parts of a 10-digit ISBN and the corresponding EAN‑13 and barcode. Note the different check digits in each. The part of the EAN‑13 labeled "EAN" is the Bookland country code. for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1,[12] the registration group element (language-sharing country group, individual country or territory),[13] the registrant element, the publication element,[12] and a checksum character or check digit.[12] A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts (prefix element, registration group, registrant, publication and check digit), and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts (registration group, registrant, publication and check digit) of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits.[14] How ISBNs are issued ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language. The ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, and so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number, type, and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the stated purpose of encouraging Canadian culture.[15] In the United Kingdom, United States, and some other countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations, the issuing of ISBNs requires payment of a fee. Australia: ISBNs are issued by the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker,[16] and prices range from $42 for a single ISBN (plus a$55 registration fee for new publishers) to $2,890 for a block of 1,000 ISBNs. Access is immediate when requested via their website.[17] Brazil: National Library of Brazil, a government agency, is responsible for issuing ISBNs, and there is a cost of R$16 [18] Canada: Library and Archives Canada, a government agency, is responsible for issuing ISBNs, and there is no cost. Works in French are issued an ISBN by the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. Colombia: Cámara Colombiana del Libro, a NGO, is responsible for issuing ISBNs. Cost of issuing an ISBN is about USD 20. Hong Kong: The Books Registration Office (BRO), under the Hong Kong Public Libraries, issues ISBNs in Hong Kong. There is no fee.[19] India: The Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN (Book Promotion and Copyright Division), under Department of Higher Education, a constituent of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, is responsible for registration of Indian publishers, authors, universities, institutions, and government departments that are responsible for publishing books.[20] There is no fee associated in getting ISBN in India.[21] Italy: The privately held company EDISER srl, owned by Associazione Italiana Editori (Italian Publishers Association) is responsible for issuing ISBNs.[22] The original national prefix 978-88 is reserved for publishing companies, starting at €49 for a ten-codes block[23] while a new prefix 979-12 is dedicated to self-publishing authors, at a fixed price of €25 for a single code. Maldives: The National Bureau of Classification (NBC) is responsible for ISBN registrations for publishers who are publishing in the Maldives.[citation needed] Malta: The National Book Council (Maltese: Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb) issues ISBN registrations in Malta.[24][25][26] Morocco: The National Library of Morocco is responsible for ISBN registrations for publishing in Morocco and Moroccan-occupied portion of Western Sahara. New Zealand: The National Library of New Zealand is responsible for ISBN registrations for publishers who are publishing in New Zealand.[27] Pakistan: The National Library of Pakistan is responsible for ISBN registrations for Pakistani publishers, authors, universities, institutions, and government departments that are responsible for publishing books. Philippines: The National Library of the Philippines is responsible for ISBN registrations for Philippine publishers, authors, universities, institutions, and government departments that are responsible for publishing books. As of 2017[update], a fee of ₱120.00 per title was charged for the issuance of an ISBN.[28] South Africa: The National Library of South Africa is responsible for ISBN issuance for South African publishing institutions and authors. United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland: The privately held company Nielsen Book Services Ltd, part of Nielsen Holdings N.V., is responsible for issuing ISBNs in blocks of 10, 100 or 1000. Prices start from £120 (plus VAT) for the smallest block on a standard turnaround of ten days.[29] United States: In the United States, the privately held company R.R. Bowker issues ISBNs.[5] There is a charge that varies depending upon the number of ISBNs purchased, with prices starting at $125 for a single number. Access is immediate when requested via their website.[30] Publishers and authors in other countries obtain ISBNs from their respective national ISBN registration agency. A directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Registration group identifier The registration group identifier is a 1- to 5-digit number that is valid within a single prefix element (i.e. one of 978 or 979).[12] Registration group identifiers have primarily been allocated within the 978 prefix element.[31] The single-digit group identifiers within the 978 prefix element are: 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries; 2 for French-speaking countries; 3 for German-speaking countries; 4 for Japan; 5 for Russian-speaking countries; and 7 for People's Republic of China. An example 5-digit group identifier is 99936, for Bhutan. The allocated group IDs are: 0–5, 600–621, 7, 80–94, 950–989, 9926–9989, and 99901–99976.[32] Books published in rare languages typically have longer group identifiers.[33] Within the 979 prefix element, the registration group identifier 0 is reserved for compatibility with International Standard Music Numbers (ISMNs), but such material is not actually assigned an ISBN.[12] The registration group identifiers within prefix element 979 that have been assigned are 10 for France, 11 for the Republic of Korea, and 12 for Italy.[34] The original 9-digit standard book number (SBN) had no registration group identifier, but prefixing a zero (0) to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN. Registrant element The national ISBN agency assigns the registrant element (cf. Category:ISBN agencies) and an accompanying series of ISBNs within that registrant element to the publisher; the publisher then allocates one of the ISBNs to each of its books. In most countries, a book publisher is not required by law to assign an ISBN; however, most bookstores only handle ISBN bearing publications.[citation needed] A listing of more than 900,000 assigned publisher codes is published, and can be ordered in book form (€1399, US$1959). The web site of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes.[35] Partial lists have been compiled (from library catalogs) for the English-language groups: identifier 0 and identifier 1. Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs, with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them; a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the registration group identifier, several digits for the registrant, and a single digit for the publication element. Once that block of ISBNs is used, the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs, with a different registrant element. Consequently, a publisher may have different allotted registrant elements. There also may be more than one registration group identifier used in a country. This might occur once all the registrant elements from a particular registration group have been allocated to publishers. By using variable block lengths, registration agencies are able to customise the allocations of ISBNs that they make to publishers. For example, a large publisher may be given a block of ISBNs where fewer digits are allocated for the registrant element and many digits are allocated for the publication element; likewise, countries publishing many titles have few allocated digits for the registration group identifier and many for the registrant and publication elements.[36] Here are some sample ISBN-10 codes, illustrating block length variations. ISBN Country or area Publisher 99921-58-10-7 Qatar NCCAH, Doha 9971-5-0210-0 Singapore World Scientific 960-425-059-0 Greece Sigma Publications 80-902734-1-6 Czech Republic; Slovakia Taita Publishers 85-359-0277-5 Brazil Companhia das Letras 1-84356-028-3 English-speaking area Simon Wallenberg Press 0-684-84328-5 English-speaking area Scribner 0-8044-2957-X English-speaking area Frederick Ungar 0-85131-041-9 English-speaking area J. A. Allen & Co. 0-943396-04-2 English-speaking area Willmann–Bell 0-9752298-0-X English-speaking area KT Publishing Pattern for English language ISBNs English-language registration group elements are 0 and 1 (2 of more than 220 registration group elements). These two registration group elements are divided into registrant elements in a systematic pattern, which allows their length to be determined, as follows:[37] Publication element length 0 – Registration group element 1 – Registration group element Total Registrants From To Registrants From To Registrants 6 digits 0-00-xxxxxx-x 0-19-xxxxxx-x 20 1-00-xxxxxx-x 1-09-xxxxxx-x 10 30 5 digits 0-200-xxxxx-x 0-699-xxxxx-x 500 1-100-xxxxx-x 1-399-xxxxx-x 300 800 4 digits 0-7000-xxxx-x 0-8499-xxxx-x 1,500 1-4000-xxxx-x 1-5499-xxxx-x 1,500 3,000 3 digits 0-85000-xxx-x 0-89999-xxx-x 5,000 1-55000-xxx-x 1-86979-xxx-x 31,980 36,980 2 digits 0-900000-xx-x 0-949999-xx-x 50,000 1-869800-xx-x 1-998999-xx-x 129,200 179,200 1 digit 0-9500000-x-x 0-9999999-x-x 500,000 1-9990000-x-x 1-9999999-x-x 10,000 510,000 Total 557,020 Total 172,990 730,010

EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading Currently the barcodes on a book's back cover (or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover) are EAN-13; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits for the currency and the recommended retail price.[44] For 10 digit ISBNs, the number "978", the Bookland "country code", is prefixed to the ISBN in the barcode data, and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN13 formula (modulo 10, 1x and 3x weighting on alternate digits). Partly because of an expected shortage in certain ISBN categories, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to migrate to a thirteen-digit ISBN (ISBN-13). The process began 1 January 2005 and was planned to conclude 1 January 2007.[45] As of 2011, all the 13-digit ISBNs began with 978. As the 978 ISBN supply is exhausted, the 979 prefix was introduced. Part of the 979 prefix is reserved for use with the Musicland code for musical scores with an ISMN. 10 digit ISMN codes differed visually as they began with an "M" letter; the bar code represents the "M" as a zero (0), and for checksum purposes it counted as a 3. All ISMNs are now 13 digits commencing 979-0; 979-1 to 979-9 will be used by ISBN. Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the 978 and 979 ISBNs, likewise, there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same. Moreover, the ten-digit ISBN check digit generally is not the same as the thirteen-digit ISBN check digit. Because the GTIN-13 is part of the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) system (that includes the GTIN-14, the GTIN-12, and the GTIN-8), the 13-digit ISBN falls within the 14-digit data field range.[46] Barcode format compatibility is maintained, because (aside from the group breaks) the ISBN-13 barcode format is identical to the EAN barcode format of existing 10-digit ISBNs. So, migration to an EAN-based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non-book products that is compatible with existing ISBN based data, with only minimal changes to information technology systems. Hence, many booksellers (e.g., Barnes & Noble) migrated to EAN barcodes as early as March 2005. Although many American and Canadian booksellers were able to read EAN-13 barcodes before 2005, most general retailers could not read them. The upgrading of the UPC barcode system to full EAN-13, in 2005, eased migration to the ISBN-13 in North America.

See also ASIN (Amazon Standard Identification Number) CODEN (serial publication identifier currently used by libraries; replaced by the ISSN for new works) DOI (Digital Object Identifier) ESTC (English Short Title Catalogue) ETTN (Electronic Textbook Track Number) ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number) ISMN (International Standard Music Number) ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code) ISRC (International Standard Recording Code) ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) ISTC (International Standard Text Code) ISWN (International Standard Wine Number) LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number) List of group-0 ISBN publisher codes List of group-1 ISBN publisher codes OCLC number (Online Computer Library Center number[47]) Registration authority BICI (Book Item and Component Identifier) SICI (Serial Item and Contribution Identifier) Special:Booksources, Wikipedia's ISBN search page VD 16 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts)(in English: Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Sixteenth Century) VD 17 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts)(in English: Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Seventeenth Century)

Notes ^ Occasionally, publishers erroneously assign an ISBN to more than one title—the first edition of The Ultimate Alphabet and The Ultimate Alphabet Workbook have the same ISBN, 0-8050-0076-3. Conversely, books are published with several ISBNs: A German second-language edition of Emil und die Detektive has the ISBNs 87-23-90157-8 (Denmark), 0-8219-1069-8 (United States), 91-21-15628-X (Sweden), 0-85048-548-7 (United Kingdom) and 3-12-675495-3 (Germany). ^ In some cases, books sold only as sets share ISBNs. For example, the Vance Integral Edition used only two ISBNs for 44 books.