Contents 1 History 2 Modern features 2.1 Wheels 2.2 Elevation 2.3 Side rails 2.4 Tilting 2.5 Bed exit alarm 2.6 CPR function 2.7 Specialist beds 3 Disadvantages 3.1 Cost 3.2 Effect on health of patients 3.3 Safety 4 See also 5 References


History[edit] Beds with adjustable side rails first appeared in England some time between 1815 and 1825.[1] In 1874 the mattress company Andrew Wuest and Son, Cincinnati, Ohio, registered a patent for a type of mattress frame with a hinged head that could be elevated, a predecessor of the modern day hospital bed.[2] The modern 3-segment adjustable hospital bed was invented by Willis Dew Gatch, chair of the Department of Surgery at the Indiana University School of Medicine, in the early 20th century. This type of bed is sometimes referred to as the Gatch Bed.[1] The modern push-button hospital bed was invented in 1945, and it originally included a built-in toilet in hopes of eliminating the bedpan.[3]


Modern features[edit] Hospital beds at the Hospital Regional de Apatzingán in Apatzingán, Michoacán, Mexico. Wheels[edit] Wheels enable easy movement of the bed, either within parts of the facility in which they are located, or within the room. Sometimes movement of the bed a few inches to a few feet may be necessary in patient care. Wheels are lockable. For safety, wheels can be locked when transferring the patient in or out of the bed.[4] Elevation[edit] Beds can be raised and lowered at the head, feet, and their entire height. While on older beds this is done with cranks usually found at the foot of the bed, on modern beds this feature is electronic. Today, while a fully electric bed has many features that are electronic, a semi-electric bed has two motors, one to raise the head, and the other to raise the foot.[5] Raising the head (known as a Fowler's position) can provide some benefits to the patient, the staff, or both. The Fowler's position is used for sitting the patient upright for feeding or certain other activities, or in some patients, can ease breathing, or may be beneficial to the patient for other reasons.[5] Raising the feet can help ease movement of the patient toward the headboard and may also be necessary for certain conditions. Raising and lowering the height of the bed can help bring the bed to a comfortable level for the patient to get in and out of bed, or for caregivers to work with the patient. Side rails[edit] Beds have side rails that can be raised or lowered. These rails, which serve as protection for the patient and sometimes can make the patient feel more secure, can also include the buttons used for their operation by staff and patients to move the bed, call the nurse, or even control the television.[6] There are a variety of different types of side rails to serve different purposes. While some are simply to prevent patient falls, others have equipment that can aid the patient themself without physically confining the patient to bed. Side rails, if not built properly, can be of risk for patient entrapment. In the United States, more than 300 deaths were reported as a result of this between 1985 and 2004.[7] As a result, the Food and Drug Administration has set guidelines regarding the safety of side rails.[8] In some cases, use of the rails may require a physician's order (depending on local laws and the policies of the facility where they are used) as rails may be considered a form of medical restraint. Tilting[edit] Some advanced beds are equipped with columns which help tilt the bed to 15-30 degrees on each side. Such tilting can help prevent pressure ulcers for the patient, and help caregivers to do their daily tasks with less of a risk of back injuries. Bed exit alarm[edit] Many modern hospital beds are able to feature a bed exit alarm whereby a pressure pad on or in the mattress arms an audible alert when a weight such as a patient is placed on it, and activating the full alarm once this weight is removed. This is helpful to hospital staff or caregivers monitoring any number of patients from a distance (such as a nurse's station) as the alarm will trigger in the event of a patient (especially the elderly or memory impaired) falling out of the bed or wandering off unsupervised. This alarm can be emitted solely from the bed itself or connected to the nurse call bell/light or hospital phone/paging system. Also some beds can feature a multi-zone bed exit alarm which can alert the staff when the patient start moving in the bed and before the actual exit which is necessary for some cases. CPR function[edit] In the event of the bed occupant suddenly requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, some hospital beds offer a CPR function in the form of a button or lever which when activated flatten the bed platform and put it in lowest height and deflates and flattens the bed's air mattress (if installed) creating a flat hard surface necessary for effective CPR administration. Specialist beds[edit] Many specialist hospital beds are also produced in order to effectively treat different injuries. These include standing beds, turning beds and legacy beds. These are usually used to treat back and spinal injuries as well as severe trauma.


Disadvantages[edit] Cost[edit] A hospital bed can average cost over $1000.00 USD; with different costs associated with completely manual functions, 2-motor functions and fully electric 3-motor functions (whole bed going up and down). Other costs are associated with bariatric heavy duty models that also offer extra width.[9] Effect on health of patients[edit] Hospital beds can make a patient's spine more rounded because a patient who sits up a lot, such as when watching television, tends to slip down.[10] Some of the category A bed manufacturers are providing there beds with built-in function which act as anti-slip. LINET is providing Ergoframe while others got different names. [11] Safety[edit] Patient safety has been a concern with hospital beds. In 1982, a 3-year-old Milwaukee girl hospitalized for pneumonia was killed when crushed by a mechanical hospital bed.[12] In 1983, an 11-year-old Illinois boy was strangled to death by a hospital bed.[13]


See also[edit] Nursing care bed List of countries by hospital beds Inpatient care Medical observation Stretcher


References[edit] ^ a b "Who Invented The Hospital Bed?". askdeb.com. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ National Association of Bedding Manufacturers, March 1964, Nation's Oldest Family-Held Bedding Firm: Adam Wuest, Inc. ^ LIFE. Time Inc. p. 92. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ Kneedler, J.A.; Dodge, G.H. (1994). Perioperative Patient Care: The Nursing Perspective. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 215. ISBN 9780867206425. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ a b Mitsumoto, H. (2009). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Guide for Patients and Families:Third Edition. Demos Medical Publishing. p. 125. ISBN 9781935281191. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ Hegner, B.R.; Acello, B.; Caldwell, E. (2004). Nursing Assistant: A Nursing Process Approach. Delmar Learning. p. 203. ISBN 9781401806330. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ "FDA Proposes Hospital Bed Entrapment Rules". consumeraffairs.com. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ "Hospital Bed Safety (HBSW)". Archived from the original on 2006-06-22. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ Stellman, J.M. (1998). Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Office. ISBN 9789221092032. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ Schatz, M.P. (1992). Back Care Basics: A Doctor's Gentle Yoga Program for Back and Neck Pain Relief. Rodmell Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780962713828. Retrieved 2015-03-08.  ^ JUSTIA (2008). "ERGOFRAME - Trademark Details". JUSTIA.  ^ Los Angeles Times, Jan 15, 1982 Girl, 3, Killed by Mechanical Hospital Bed, Her Family Says ^ The Sun Baltimore, Md. Apr 19, 1983 Illinois boy, 11, strangled in hospital-bed accident Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hospital beds. v t e Health care Economics Equipment Guidelines Industry Philosophy Policy Providers Ranking Reform System Professions Medicine Nursing Healthcare science Dentistry Allied health professions Pharmacy Health information management Settings Assisted living Clinic Hospital Nursing home Medical school (Academic health science centre, Teaching hospital) Care Acute Chronic End-of-life Hospice Overutilization Palliative Primary Self Total Skills / Training Bedside manner Cultural competence Diagnosis Education Universal precautions Category v t e Bedding Bed types (Bed sizes) Banig Bassinet Box-bed Bunk bed Cage bed Camp bed Canopy bed Couch bed Cradle (bed) Daybed Four-poster bed Futon Hammock Hospital bed Infant bed Kang bed-stove Lit a la turque Loft bed Charpai Murphy bed Petate Platform bed Sleigh bed Sofa bed Toddler bed Trundle bed Bed components Bed frame Bed sheet Bed skirt Cot side Footboard Headboard Mattresses Air mattress Featherbed Mattress pad Mattress protector Memory foam Orthopedic mattress Waterbed Bed bases Box-spring Bunkie board Blankets Afghan Comforter Duvet Duvet cover Electric blanket Hudson's Bay point blanket Patchwork quilt Photo blanket Quilt Razai Security blanket Silk comforter Sleeping bag Pillows Acupressure pillow Bamboo wife Bolster Contour leg pillow Cushion Dakimakura Eye pillow Orthopedic pillow Phonetic pillow Sex pillow Speaker pillow Throw pillow Related items Bed warmer Couch Nightstand Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hospital_bed&oldid=826100854" Categories: BedsMedical equipment


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