Contents 1 History 1.1 Early history 1.2 Late 19th century 1.3 Early 20th century 1.4 1950s and 1960s 1.5 1970s and 1980s 1.5.1 Housing and zoning changes 1.5.2 Political movements 1.6 1990s and 2000s 1.6.1 Demographic changes 1.6.2 Protests 1.7 2010s 1.7.1 Protests 2 Geography 2.1 Geology 2.1.1 Earthquakes 2.2 Climate 3 Demographics 4 Homelessness in Berkeley 4.1 History 4.2 21st Century 4.3 List of Resources for Homeless Population 5 Transportation 5.1 Transportation history 6 Economy 6.1 Top employers 6.2 Businesses 7 Places 7.1 Major streets 7.2 Freeways 7.3 Bicycle and pedestrian paths 7.4 Neighborhoods 7.5 Points of interest 8 Parks and recreation 8.1 Landmarks and historic districts 9 Arts and culture 9.1 Annual events 10 Education 10.1 Colleges and universities 10.2 Primary and secondary schools 10.3 Public libraries 11 Government 12 Notable people 13 Sister cities 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] The site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived.[12] Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, and a shellmound, now mostly leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek. Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. This pit in the surface of a rock at Indian Rock Park is typical of those used by Ohlone Indians to grind acorns. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776.[13] Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley. The De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay (the Golden Gate), which is due west of Berkeley. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay (the contra costa, "opposite shore") for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio". The primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were also pursued. Eventually, Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies mostly in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente. No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names (Vicente, Domingo, and Peralta). However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant. The Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U.S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, and especially, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands quickly encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were quickly reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes. The rest of the land was surveyed and parceled out to various American claimants (See Kellersberger's Map). Politically, the area that became Berkeley was initially part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County. The area that became Berkeley was then the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County. During this period, "Berkeley" was mostly a mix of open land, farms, and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay. The city as seen from Indian Rock Park in the North Berkeley Hills. Berkeley is in the foreground, with the Berkeley Marina and César Chávez Park just beyond. Late 19th century[edit] In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site. It settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range (later called the Berkeley Hills) astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet (150 m) above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley, 'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher."[14] The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee.[15] The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land. To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, and they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California. As construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences, saloons, and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along what is now Telegraph Avenue. The first post office opened in 1872.[16] By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound (now a part of Emeryville) into what is now downtown Berkeley. That same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View. There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkeley at this time. In 1876, the state enacted the mile limit law, which forbade sale or public consumption of alcohol within one mile (1.6 km) of the new University of California.[17] Then, in 1899 Berkeley residents voted to make their city an alcohol-free zone. Scientists, scholars and religious leaders spoke vehemently of the dangers of alcohol.[18] In 1878, the people of Ocean View and the area around the university campus, together with local farmers, incorporated as the Town of Berkeley. The first elected trustees of the town were the slate of Denis Kearney's Workingman's Party, who were particularly favored in the working class area of the former Ocean View, now called "West Berkeley". The area near the university became known for a time as "East Berkeley". The modern age came quickly to Berkeley, no doubt due to the influence of the university. Electric lights were in use by 1888. The telephone had already come to town. Electric streetcars soon replaced the horsecar. A silent film of one of these early streetcars in Berkeley can be seen at the Library of Congress website: "A Trip To Berkeley, California".[19] Early 20th century[edit] Map of Oakland and Berkeley area in 1917 Berkeley's slow growth ended abruptly with the Great San Francisco earthquake of 1906. The town and other parts of the East Bay escaped serious damage, and thousands of refugees flowed across the Bay. Among them were most of San Francisco's painters and sculptors, who created between 1907 and 1911 one of the largest art colonies west of Chicago. Artist and critic, Jennie V. Cannon, described the founding of the Berkeley Art Association and the rivalries of competing studios and art clubs.[20] In 1904, the first hospitals in Berkeley were created: the Alta Bates Sanatorium for women and children, founded by nurse Alta Bates on Walnut Street, and the Roosevelt (later, Herrick) Hospital, by Dr. LeRoy Francis Herrick, on the corner of Dwight Way and Milvia Street.[21][22] In 1908, a statewide referendum that proposed moving the California state capital to Berkeley was defeated by a margin of about 33,000 votes.[23] The city named streets around the proposed capitol grounds for California counties. They bear those names today, a legacy of the failed referendum. In 1909, the citizens of Berkeley adopted a new charter, and the Town of Berkeley became the City of Berkeley. Rapid growth continued up to the Crash of 1929. The Great Depression hit Berkeley hard, but not as hard as many other places in the U.S., thanks in part to the university. On September 17, 1923, a major fire swept down the hills toward the university campus and the downtown section. Around 640 structures burned before a late afternoon sea breeze stopped its progress, allowing firefighters to put it out. The next big growth occurred with the advent of World War II, when large numbers of people moved to the Bay Area to work in the many war industries, such as the immense Kaiser Shipyards in nearby Richmond. One who moved out, but played a big role in the outcome of the War was U.C. Professor and Berkeley resident J. Robert Oppenheimer. During the war, an Army base, Camp Ashby, was temporarily sited in Berkeley. The University of California in 1940 The element berkelium was synthesized utilizing the 60-inch cyclotron at UC Berkeley, and named in 1949, recognizing the university, thus also placing the city's name in the list of elements. 1950s and 1960s[edit] During the 1940s, many African Americans migrated to Berkeley.[24] In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Berkeley's population as 11.7% black and 84.6% white.[25] The postwar years brought moderate growth to the city, as events on the U.C. campus began to build up to the recognizable activism of the sixties. In the 1950s, McCarthyism induced the university to demand a loyalty oath from its professors, many of whom refused to sign the oath on the principle of freedom of thought. In 1960, a U.S. House committee (HUAC) came to San Francisco to investigate the influence of communists in the Bay Area. Their presence was met by protesters, including many from the university. Meanwhile, a number of U.C. students became active in the civil rights movement. Finally, in 1964, the university provoked a massive student protest by banning distribution of political literature on campus. This protest became the Free Speech Movement. As the Vietnam War rapidly escalated in the ensuing years, so did student activism at the university, particularly that organized by the Vietnam Day Committee. See also: 1960s Berkeley protests Berkeley is strongly identified with the rapid social changes, civic unrest, and political upheaval that characterized the late 1960s.[26] In that period, Berkeley—especially Telegraph Avenue—became a focal point for the hippie movement, which spilled over the Bay from San Francisco. Many hippies were apolitical drop-outs, rather than students, but in the heady atmosphere of Berkeley in 1967–1969 there was considerable overlap between the hippie movement and the radical left. An iconic event in the Berkeley Sixties scene was a conflict over a parcel of university property south of the contiguous campus site that came to be called "People's Park." People's Park with Unit 2 in the background The battle over the disposition of People's Park resulted in a month-long occupation of Berkeley by the National Guard on orders of then-Governor Ronald Reagan. In the end, the park remained undeveloped, and remains so today. A spin-off, People's Park Annex, was established at the same time by activist citizens of Berkeley on a strip of land above the Bay Area Rapid Transit subway construction along Hearst Avenue northwest of the U.C. campus. The land had also been intended for development, but was turned over to the city by BART and is now Ohlone Park. The era of large public protest in Berkeley waned considerably with the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. While the 1960s were the heyday of liberal activism in Berkeley, it remains one of the most overwhelmingly Democratic cities in the United States. 1970s and 1980s[edit] Housing and zoning changes[edit] Shattuck Avenue at Center Street in downtown Berkeley as seen in 1973 The Berkeley population declined in the 1970s, partly due to an exodus to the suburbs. Some moved because of the rising cost of living throughout the Bay Area, and others because of the decline and disappearance of many industries in West Berkeley. Increasing enrollment at the University led to replacement of older buildings by large apartment buildings, especially in older parts of the city near the University and downtown. Increasing enrollment also led the university to wanting to redevelop certain places of Berkeley, especially Southside, but more specifically People's Park.[27] Preservationists passed the Neighborhood Protection Ordinance in 1973 by ballot measure and the Landmarks Preservation Ordinance in 1974 by City Council. Together, these ordinances brought most new construction to a halt.[28] Facing rising housing costs, residents voted to enact rent control with vacancy decontrol in 1980.[29] Political movements[edit] During the 1970s and 1980s, activists increased their power in local government. This era also saw major developments in Berkeley's environmental and food culture. Berkeley's last Republican mayor, Wallace J.S. Johnson left office in 1971. Alice Waters opened Chez Panisse in 1971. The first curbside recycling program in the U.S. was started by the Ecology Center in 1973. Styrofoam was banned in 1988.[30] As the city leaned more and more Democratic, local politics became divided between "Progressives" and "Moderates". 1984 saw the Progressives take the majority for the first time. Nancy Skinner became the first UC Berkeley student elected to City Council. In 1986, in reaction to the 1984 election, a ballot measure switched Berkeley from at-large to district-based elections for city council.[31] In 1983, Berkeley's Domestic Partner Task Force was established, which in 1984 made policy recommendation to the school board, which passed domestic partner legislation. The legislation became a model for similar measures nationwide.[32] 1990s and 2000s[edit] Demographic changes[edit] In 1995, California's Costa-Hawkins Rental Housing Act ended vacancy control, allowing rents to increase when a tenant moved out. Despite a slow down in 2005–2007, median home prices and rents remain dramatically higher than the rest of the nation,[33] fueled by spillover from the San Francisco housing shortage and population growth. South and West Berkeley underwent gentrification, with some historically Black neighborhoods such as the Adeline Corridor seeing a 50% decline in Black / African American population from 1990 to 2010.[34] In the 1990s, Public Television's Frontline documentary series featured race relations at Berkeley's only public high school, Berkeley High School.[35] Chinese restaurants in the Southside neighborhood With an economy dominated by the University of California and a high-demand housing market, Berkeley was relatively unaffected by the Great Recession. State budget cuts caused the University to increase the number of out-of-state and international students, with international enrollment, mostly from Asia, rising from 2,785 in 2007 to 5,951 in 2016.[36] Since then, more international restaurants have opened downtown and on Telegraph Avenue, including East Asian chains such as 85C Bakery Cafe and Daiso. 2020 Kittredge Street, built 2006. Site of 2015 balcony collapse. The current wave of downtown apartment construction began in 1998, with the construction of a 56 unit mixed use building at 1910 Oxford Street. The developer, Panoramic Interests, followed up with a total of 368 apartments in 7 buildings between 1998 and 2004.[37] Soon afterwards, other developers also began building in Berkeley. One of the buildings from this era was the site of the 2015 Berkeley balcony collapse disaster. Protests[edit] In 2006, the Berkeley Oak Grove Protest began protesting construction of a new sports center annex to Memorial Stadium at the expense of a grove of oak trees on the UC campus. The protest ended in September 2008 after a lengthy court process. In 2007–2008, Berkeley received media attention due to demonstrations against a Marine Corps recruiting office in downtown Berkeley and a series of controversial motions by Berkeley's city council regarding opposition to Marine recruiting. (See Berkeley Marine Corps Recruiting Center controversy.) Berkeley Student Food Collective New housing downtown 2010s[edit] During the fall of 2010, the Berkeley Student Food Collective opened after many protests on the UC Berkeley campus due to the proposed opening of the fast food chain Panda Express. Students and community members worked together to open a collectively run grocery store right off of the UC Berkeley campus, where the community can buy local, seasonal, humane, and organic foods. The Berkeley Student Food Collective still operates at 2440 Bancroft Way. On September 18, 2012, Berkeley became what may be the first city in the U.S. to officially proclaim a day recognizing bisexuals September 23, which is known as Celebrate Bisexuality Day.[38] On September 2, 2014, the city council approved a measure to provide free medical marijuana to low-income patients.[39] The Measure D soda tax was approved by Berkeley voters on November 4, 2014, the first such tax in the United States.[40] Protests[edit] In the Fall of 2011, the nationwide Occupy Wall Street movement came to two Berkeley locations: on the campus of the University of California and as an encampment in Civic Center Park. During a Black Lives Matter protest on December 6, 2014, police use of tear gas and batons to clear protestors from Telegraph Avenue led to a riot and five consecutive days and nights of protests, marches, and freeway occupations in Berkeley and Oakland.[41] Afterwards, changes were implemented by the Police Department to avoid escalation of violence and to protect bystanders during protests.[42] During protests in regards to speaker Milo Yiannopolous' presence in Berkeley, in 2016, a professor from Diablo Valley College named Eric Clanton physically assaulted others with a bike lock concealed in a tube sock, causing multiple hospitalizations.[43]

Geography[edit] Berkeley is located at 37°52′18″N 122°16′29″W / 37.87167°N 122.27472°W / 37.87167; -122.27472 (37.871775, −122.274603).[44] Satellite map of the San Francisco Bay Area from the U.S. Geological Survey. According to the United States Census Bureau the city's 17.7 square miles (46 km2) area includes 10.5 square miles (27 km2) of land and 7.2 square miles (19 km2) (40.83%) water, most of it part of San Francisco Bay. Berkeley borders the cities of Albany, Oakland, and Emeryville and Contra Costa County, including unincorporated Kensington, as well as San Francisco Bay. Berkeley lies within telephone area code 510 (until September 2, 1991, Berkeley was part of the 415 telephone code that now covers only San Francisco and Marin counties[45]), and the postal ZIP codes are 94701 through 94710, 94712, and 94720 for the University of California campus. Geology[edit] Most of Berkeley lies on a rolling sedimentary plain that rises gently from sea level to the base of the Berkeley Hills. East of the Hayward Fault along the base of the hills, elevation increases more rapidly. The highest peak along the ridge line above Berkeley is Grizzly Peak, elevation 1,754 feet (535 m). A number of small creeks run from the hills to the Bay through Berkeley: Cerrito, Codornices, Schoolhouse and Strawberry Creeks are the principal streams. Most of these are largely culverted once they reach the plain west of the hills. The Berkeley Hills are part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, and run in a northwest–southeast alignment. Exposed in the Berkeley Hills are cherts and shales of the Claremont Formation (equivalent to the Monterey Formation), conglomerate and sandstone of the Orinda Formation and lava flows of the Moraga Volcanics. Of similar age to the Moraga Volcanics (extinct), within the Northbrae neighborhood of Berkeley, are outcroppings of erosion resistant rhyolite. These rhyolite formations can be seen in several city parks and in the yards of a number of private residences. Indian Rock Park in the northeastern part of Berkeley near the Arlington/Marin Circle features a large example. Earthquakes[edit] Berkeley is traversed by the Hayward Fault Zone, a major branch of the San Andreas Fault to the west. No large earthquake has occurred on the Hayward Fault near Berkeley in historic times (except possibly in 1836), but seismologists warn about the geologic record of large tremblors several times in the deeper past. The current assessment is that a Bay Area earthquake of magnitude 6.7 or greater within the next 30 years is likely, with the Hayward Fault having the highest likelihood among faults in the Bay Area of being the epicenter.[46] Moreover, like much of the Bay Area, Berkeley has many areas of some risk to soil liquefaction, with the flat areas closer to the shore at low to high susceptibility.[47] The 1868 Hayward earthquake did occur on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault[48] in the vicinity of today's city of Hayward (hence, how the fault got its name). This quake destroyed the county seat of Alameda County then located in San Leandro and it subsequently moved to Oakland. It was strongly felt in San Francisco, causing major damage, and experienced by Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain).[49] It was regarded as the "Great San Francisco earthquake" prior to 1906. It produced a furrow in the ground along the fault line in Berkeley, across the grounds of the new State Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind then under construction, which was noted by one early University of California professor. Though no significant damage was reported to most of the few Berkeley buildings of the time, the 1868 quake did destroy the vulnerable adobe home of Domingo Peralta in north Berkeley.[50] Today, evidence of the Hayward Fault's "creeping" is visible at various locations in Berkeley. Cracked roadways, sharp jogs in streams, and springs mark the fault's path. However, since it cuts across the base of the hills, the creep is often concealed by or confused with slide activity. Some of the slide activity itself, however, results from movement on the Hayward Fault. A notorious segment of the Hayward Fault runs lengthwise down the middle of Memorial Stadium at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon on the University of California campus. Photos and measurements[51] show the movement of the fault through the stadium. Climate[edit] Berkeley has a cool summer Mediterranean climate (type Csb in the Köppen climate classification), with dry summers and wet winters. Berkeley's location directly opposite the Golden Gate ensures that typical eastward fog flow blankets the city more often than its neighbors.[52] The summers are cooler than a typical Mediterranean climate thanks to upwelling ocean currents along the California coast. These help produce cool and foggy nights and mornings. Winter is punctuated with rainstorms of varying ferocity and duration, but also produces stretches of bright sunny days and clear cold nights. It does not normally snow, though occasionally the hilltops get a dusting. Spring and fall are transitional and intermediate, with some rainfall and variable temperature. Summer typically brings night and morning low clouds or fog, followed by sunny, warm days. The warmest and driest months are typically June through September, with the highest temperatures occurring in September. Mid-summer (July–August) is often a bit cooler due to the sea breezes and fog common then. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 56.4 °F (13.6 °C) and a minimum of 43.6 °F (6.4 °C). Average September (the warmest month) temperatures are a maximum of 71.7 °F (22.1 °C) and a minimum of 55.9 °F (13.3 °C). In a year, there are an average of 2.9 days with highs of 90.0 °F (32.2 °C) or higher, and an average of 0.8 days with lows of 32 °F (0 °C) or lower. The highest recorded temperature was 107 °F (42 °C) on June 15, 2000 and July 16, 1993, and the lowest recorded temperature was 24 °F (−4 °C) on December 22, 1990. January is normally the wettest month, averaging 5.13 inches (130 mm) of precipitation. Average annual precipitation is 25.40 inches (645 mm), falling on an average of 63.7 days each year. The most rainfall in one month was 14.49 inches (368 mm) in February 1998. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 6.98 inches (177 mm) on January 4, 1982.[53] As in most of California, the heaviest rainfall years are usually associated with warm water El Niño episodes in the Pacific (e.g., 1982–83; 1997–98), which bring in drenching "pineapple express" storms. In contrast, dry years are often associated with cold Pacific La Niña episodes. Light snow has fallen on rare occasions. Snow has generally fallen every several years on the higher peaks of the Berkeley Hills.[54] In the late spring and early fall, strong offshore winds of sinking air typically develop, bringing heat and dryness to the area. In the spring, this is not usually a problem as vegetation is still moist from winter rains, but extreme dryness prevails by the fall, creating a danger of wildfires. In September 1923 a major fire swept through the neighborhoods north of the university campus, stopping just short of downtown. (See 1923 Berkeley fire). On October 20, 1991, gusty, hot winds fanned a conflagration along the Berkeley–Oakland border, killing 25 people and injuring 150, as well as destroying 2,449 single-family dwellings and 437 apartment and condominium units. (See 1991 Oakland firestorm) Climate data for Berkeley, California (1981–2010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 77 (25) 80 (27) 87 (31) 95 (35) 101 (38) 107 (42) 107 (42) 104 (40) 106 (41) 99 (37) 86 (30) 80 (27) 107 (42) Average high °F (°C) 58.4 (14.7) 61.6 (16.4) 64.2 (17.9) 66.8 (19.3) 69.7 (20.9) 73.2 (22.9) 73.9 (23.3) 74.3 (23.5) 74.8 (23.8) 72.5 (22.5) 64.8 (18.2) 58.6 (14.8) 67.8 (19.9) Average low °F (°C) 42.0 (5.6) 44.2 (6.8) 45.7 (7.6) 46.5 (8.1) 49.4 (9.7) 51.7 (10.9) 53.0 (11.7) 53.9 (12.2) 53.4 (11.9) 51.5 (10.8) 46.6 (8.1) 42.6 (5.9) 48.4 (9.1) Record low °F (°C) 25 (−4) 29 (−2) 33 (1) 36 (2) 36 (2) 40 (4) 40 (4) 42 (6) 38 (3) 38 (3) 33 (1) 25 (−4) 25 (−4) Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.98 (126.5) 5.21 (132.3) 3.86 (98) 1.66 (42.2) 0.86 (21.8) 0.15 (3.8) 0.01 (0.3) 0.06 (1.5) 0.24 (6.1) 1.37 (34.8) 3.30 (83.8) 5.04 (128) 26.74 (679.2) Source: Western Regional Climate Center[55]

Demographics[edit] Historical population Census Pop. %± 1890 5,101 — 1900 13,214 159.0% 1910 40,434 206.0% 1920 56,036 38.6% 1930 82,109 46.5% 1940 85,547 4.2% 1950 113,805 33.0% 1960 111,268 −2.2% 1970 114,091 2.5% 1980 103,328 −9.4% 1990 102,724 −0.6% 2000 102,743 0.0% 2010 112,580 9.6% Est. 2016 121,240 [10] 7.7% U.S. Decennial Census[56] Street fair on Telegraph Avenue The 2010 United States Census[57] reported that Berkeley had a population of 112,580. The population density was 10,752 people per square mile of land area (4,104/km²). The racial makeup of Berkeley was 66,996 (59.5%) White, 11,241 (10.0%) Black or African American, 479 (0.4%) Native American, 21,690 (19.3%) Asian (8.4% Chinese, 2.4% Indian, 2.1% Korean, 1.6% Japanese, 1.5% Filipino, 1.0% Vietnamese), 186 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 4,994 (4.4%) from other races, and 6,994 (6.2%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,209 persons (10.8%). 6.8% of the city's population was of Mexican ancestry. The Census reported that 99,731 people (88.6% of the population) lived in households, 12,430 (11.0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 419 (0.4%) were institutionalized. There were 46,029 households, out of which 8,467 (18.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,569 (29.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,855 (8.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,368 (3.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,931 (6.4%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 961 (2.1%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 16,904 households (36.7%) were made up of individuals and 4,578 (9.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17. There were 18,792 families (40.8% of all households); the average family size was 2.81. There were 49,454 housing units at an average density of 2,794.6 per square mile (1,079.0/km²), of which 18,846 (40.9%) were owner-occupied, and 27,183 (59.1%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.5%. 45,096 people (40.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 54,635 people (48.5%) lived in rental housing units. The population was spread out with 13,872 people (12.3%) under the age of 18, 30,295 people (26.9%) aged 18 to 24, 30,231 people (26.9%) aged 25 to 44, 25,006 people (22.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 13,176 people (11.7%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.0 years. For every 100 females there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. According to the 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $60,908, and the median income for a family was $102,976.[58] Males had a median income of $67,476 versus $57,319 for females. The per capita income for the city was $38,896. About 7.2% of families and 18.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. Berkeley has a higher-than-average crime rate, particularly property crime,[59] though the crime rate has fallen significantly since 2000.[60] Demographic profile[61] 2010 Total Population 112,580 – 100.0% One Race 105,586 – 93.8% Not Hispanic or Latino 100,371 – 89.2% White alone 61,539 – 54.7% Black or African American alone 10,896 – 9.7% American Indian and Alaska Native alone 228 – 0.2% Asian alone 21,499 – 19.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 170 – 0.2% Some other race alone 503 – 0.4% Two or more races alone 5,536 – 4.9% Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 12,209 – 10.8%

Homelessness in Berkeley[edit] History[edit] The 1923 Berkeley Fire began in Wildcat Canyon, today part of Tilden Park. Though the conflagration resulted in no deaths or serious injuries, it destroyed 584 residential buildings and 56 other structures including a public school. The total economic loss was about ten million dollars. Furthermore, approximately 4,000 people were left homeless.[62] The city government and Red Cross struggled to find temporary quarters for the homeless but many refugees found immediate shelter in San Francisco. In the 60s, the street people of Telegraph Avenue were often young adventurers testing the frontiers of the countercultural experience.[63] In 1969, People’s Park was created and eventually became a haven for “small-time drug dealers, street people, and the homeless”.[64] People’s park has been recognized as a refuge for homeless people since its founding, even as elsewhere in Berkeley, the City has actively removed squatters and homeless people from the streets (sometimes housing them in a disused city landfill).[64] Consequently, the Park became a relatively safe place for the homeless to congregate. By the 80s, street people were more likely to be impoverished and homeless, sometimes plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. In the mid-80s, restless young African Americans hung out on the Avenue, and in the 90s, young, homeless whites established themselves in the area.[62] Although homelessness increased substantially during the 1980s, the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill has been occurring steadily since the mid-1950s. At the center of this explanation is the perceived relationship between homelessness and mental illness. Large-scale deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill in the last quarter of the 20th century coincided with growth in the number of public shelters and increased visibility of the homeless.[65] Organizations such as Building Opportunities for Self Sufficiency (BOSS) was established in 1971 in response to the needs of mentally ill individuals being released to the streets by state hospital closures.[66] 21st Century[edit] In 2015, an estimated 834-1200 people were homeless in Berkeley,[67] half of whom were deinstitutionalized mentally ill people.[68] In that same year, rent in Alameda County increased by 25% while the average household income only grew by 5%.[69] This disparity not only contributes to the growing homeless population in Berkeley, but also presents an increased need for more affordable housing in the greater East Bay. With the political activism of the UC, Berkeley has historically been vocal about the housing crisis that affects students and locals alike. An example of these efforts to create and maintain space for those who cannot fight for themselves lies in the movement to preserve People's Park as a place for the homeless population to call its own instead of destroying it to make room for more student housing in the area.[70] The efforts made by the community to create and maintain space for the homeless population in Berkeley did not stop there. With the history of homelessness and lack of affordable housing, there has been masses of organizations opening up with the sole mission to help this vulnerable population with not only housing assistance, but other symptoms that derive from homelessness. These organizations have stemmed from church groups, non-profits, even the UC. One of the many UC Berkeley student run programs that focuses on assisting the homeless is Suitcase Clinic. Suitcase Clinic was created in the late 1980s by undergraduate and graduate level students who wanted to provide direct services to those who were affected by the broken record of the housing crisis in Berkeley.[71] Services provided by students have altered over the years to cater to the homeless population needs, which have included not only professional medical and dental support, but also health education, foot-washing, child care, and a hot meal.[72] Despite the high demand for housing, new housing units must abide by "rental control" laws, which tend to favor those who can afford and are willing to pay the high rent. This marginalizes those at a lower income level and increases their risk of becoming homeless due to an inability to access affordable housing.[73] List of Resources for Homeless Population[edit] Berkeley Food and Housing Project Berkeley Food Pantry Berkeley Free Clinic Berkeley Public Library Building Opportunity for Self Sufficiency (BOSS) Goodwill (Salvation Army) Housing and Community Service Department (City of Berkeley) Operation Dignity Inc. (Homeless veteran's and their families) Suitcase Clinic (Youth/LGBTQIA+, General, Women's) Women's Daytime Drop-in Center

Transportation[edit] Berkeley is served by Amtrak (Capitol Corridor), AC Transit, BART (Ashby, Downtown Berkeley Station and North Berkeley) and bus shuttles operated by major employers including UC Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Eastshore Freeway (Interstate 80 and Interstate 580) runs along the bay shoreline. Each day there is an influx of thousands of cars into the city by commuting UC faculty, staff and students, making parking for more than a few hours an expensive proposition. Berkeley has one of the highest rates of bicycle and pedestrian commuting in the nation. Berkeley is the safest city of its size in California for pedestrians and cyclists, considering the number of injuries per pedestrian and cyclist, rather than per capita.[74] A street closed off into two dead ends by traffic calming barriers. A gap in the middle allows passage by bikes and emergency vehicles. Berkeley has modified its original grid roadway structure through use of diverters and barriers, moving most traffic out of neighborhoods and onto arterial streets (visitors often find this confusing, because the diverters are not shown on all maps). Berkeley maintains a separate grid of arterial streets for bicycles, called Bicycle Boulevards, with bike lanes and lower amounts of car traffic than the major streets they often parallel. Berkeley hosts car sharing networks including Uhaul Car Share, and Zipcar. Rather than owning (and parking) their own cars, members share a group of cars parked nearby. Web- and telephone-based reservation systems keep track of hours and charges. Several "pods" (points of departure where cars are kept) exist throughout the city, in several downtown locations, at the Ashby and North Berkeley BART stations, and at various other locations in Berkeley (and other cities in the region). Using alternative transportation is encouraged. Berkeley has had recurring problems with parking meter vandalism. In 1999, over 2,400 Berkeley meters were jammed, smashed, or sawed apart.[75] Starting in 2005 and continuing into 2006, Berkeley began to phase out mechanical meters in favor of more centralized electronic meters. Transportation history[edit] The first commuter service to San Francisco was provided by the Central Pacific's Berkeley Branch Railroad, a standard gauge steam railroad, which terminated in downtown Berkeley, and connected in Emeryville (at a locale then known as "Shellmound") with trains to the Oakland ferry pier as well as with the Central Pacific main line starting in 1876. The Berkeley Branch line was extended from Shattuck and University to Vine Street ("Berryman's Station") in 1878. Starting in 1882, Berkeley trains ran directly to the Oakland Pier.[76] In the 1880s, Southern Pacific assumed operations of the Berkeley Branch under a lease from its own paper affiliate, the Northern Railway. In 1911, Southern Pacific electrified this line and the several others it constructed in Berkeley, creating its East Bay Electric Lines division. The huge and heavy cars specially built for these lines were called the "Red Trains" or the "Big Red Cars." The Shattuck line was extended and connected with two other Berkeley lines (the Ninth Street Line and the California Street line) at Solano and Colusa (the "Colusa Wye"). At this time, the Northbrae Tunnel and Rose Street Undercrossing were constructed, both of which still exist. (The Rose Street Undercrossing is not accessible to the public, being situated between what is now two backyards.) The fourth Berkeley line was the Ellsworth St. line to the university campus. The last Red Trains ran in July 1941.[77] The first electric rail service in Berkeley was provided by several small streetcar companies starting in 1891. Most of these were eventually bought up by the Key System of Francis "Borax" Smith who added lines and improved equipment. The Key System's streetcars were operated by its East Bay Street Railways division. Principal lines in Berkeley ran on Euclid, The Arlington, College, Telegraph, Shattuck, San Pablo, University, and Grove (today's Martin Luther King Jr. Way). The last streetcars ran in 1948, replaced by buses. The first electric commuter interurban-type trains to San Francisco from Berkeley were put in operation by the Key System in 1903, several years before the Southern Pacific electrified its steam commuter lines. Like the SP, Key trains ran to a pier serviced by the Key's own fleet of ferryboats, which also docked at the Ferry Building in San Francisco. After the Bay Bridge was built, the Key trains ran to the Transbay Terminal in San Francisco, sharing tracks on the lower deck of the Bay Bridge with the SP's red trains and the Sacramento Northern Railroad. It was at this time that the Key trains acquired their letter designations, which were later preserved by Key's public successor, AC Transit. Today's F bus is the successor of the F train. Likewise, the E, G and the H. Before the Bridge, these lines were simply the Shattuck Avenue Line, the Claremont Line, the Westbrae Line, and the Sacramento Street Line, respectively. After the Southern Pacific abandoned transbay service in 1941, the Key System acquired the rights to use its tracks and catenary on Shattuck north of Dwight Way and through the Northbrae Tunnel to The Alameda for the F-train. The SP tracks along Monterey Avenue as far as Colusa had been acquired by the Key System in 1933 for the H-train, but were abandoned in 1941. The Key System trains stopped running in April 1958.[78] In 1963, the Northbrae Tunnel was opened to auto traffic.

Economy[edit] Top employers[edit] Sather Tower at the University of California. According to the city's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[79] the top employers in the city are: # Employer # of Employees 1 University of California, Berkeley 14,983 2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 3,363 3 Alta Bates Summit Medical Center (part of Sutter Health) 2,117 4 Berkeley Unified School District 1,682 5 Bayer 1,462 6 City of Berkeley 1,353 7 Siemens 765 8 Kaiser Permanente 629 9 Berkeley Bowl 597 10 FHR Claremont Hotel Management Company 514 Businesses[edit] Main article: List of companies based in Berkeley, California Berkeley is the location of a number of nationally prominent businesses, many of which have been pioneers in their areas of operation. Notable businesses include Chez Panisse, birthplace of California cuisine, Peet's Coffee's original store, the Claremont Resort, punk rock haven 924 Gilman, and Saul Zaentz's Fantasy Studios. Notable former businesses include pioneer bookseller Cody's Books, The Nature Company, and the Berkeley Co-op. Berkeley has relatively few chain stores for a city of its size, due to policies and zoning that promote small businesses[80] and limits to the size of certain types of stores.[81]

Places[edit] Major streets[edit] Shattuck Avenue passes through several neighborhoods from north to south, including the downtown business district in Berkeley. It is named for Francis K. Shattuck, one of Berkeley's earliest influential citizens. University Avenue runs from Berkeley's bayshore and marina in the west to the University of California campus in the east. College Ave, running from the University of California from the north to Broadway in Oakland in the south close to the foothill, is a relatively quiet street compared with other major streets in Berkeley. It has many nice restaurants and small shops. Ashby Avenue (Highway 13), which also runs from Berkeley's bayshore to the hills, connects with the Warren Freeway and Highway 24 leading to the Caldecott Tunnel, named for a former Berkeley mayor. San Pablo Avenue (Highway 123) runs north–south through West Berkeley, connecting Oakland and Emeryville to the south and Albany to the north. Telegraph Avenue, which runs north-south from the university campus to Oakland, historically the site of much of the hippie culture of Berkeley. Martin Luther King Jr. Way, which until 1984 was called Grove St, runs north-south a few blocks west of Shattuck Avenue, connecting Oakland and the freeways to the south with the neighborhoods and other communities to the north. Sacramento Street is one of the four streets with a median in Berkeley, running from Hopkins Street from the north to Alcatraz Ave in the south. Solano Avenue, a major street for shopping and restaurants, runs east-west near the north end of Berkeley, continuing into Albany. Since 1974, Solano Avenue has hosted the annual Solano Avenue Stroll and Parade of the twin-cities of Albany and Berkeley, the East Bay’s largest street festival. Freeways[edit] The Eastshore Freeway (I-80 and I-580) runs along Berkeley's bayshore with exits at Ashby Avenue, University Avenue and Gilman Street. Bicycle and pedestrian paths[edit] Ohlone Greenway San Francisco Bay Trail Berkeley I-80 bridge – opened in 2002, an arch-suspension bridge spanning Interstate 80, for bicycles and pedestrians only, giving access from the city at the foot of Addison Street to the San Francisco Bay Trail, the Eastshore State Park and the Berkeley Marina. Berkeley's Network of Historic Pathways – Berkeley has a network of historic pathways that link the winding neighborhoods found in the hills and offer panoramic lookouts over the East Bay. A complete guide to the pathways may be found at Berkeley Path Wanderers Association website.[82] Neighborhoods[edit] See also: List of Berkeley neighborhoods The Claremont Resort at the heart of the Claremont neighborhood. Berkeley has a number of distinct neighborhoods. Surrounding the University of California campus are the most densely populated parts of the city. West of the campus is Downtown Berkeley, the city's traditional commercial core; home of the civic center, the city's only public high school, the busiest BART station in Berkeley, as well as a major transfer point for AC Transit buses. South of the campus is the Southside neighborhood, mainly a student ghetto, where much of the university's student housing is located. The busiest stretch of Telegraph Avenue is in this neighborhood. North of the campus is the quieter Northside neighborhood, the location of the Graduate Theological Union. Farther from the university campus, the influence of the university quickly becomes less visible. Most of Berkeley's neighborhoods are primarily made up of detached houses, often with separate in-law units in the rear, although larger apartment buildings are also common in many neighborhoods. Commercial activities are concentrated along the major avenues and at important intersections. In the southeastern corner of the city is the Claremont District, home to the Claremont Hotel; and the Elmwood District, with a small shopping area on College Avenue. West of Elmwood is South Berkeley, known for its weekend flea market at the Ashby Station. West of (and including) San Pablo Avenue, a major commercial corridor, is West Berkeley, the historic commercial center of the city, and the former unincorporated town of Ocean View. West Berkeley contains the remnants of Berkeley's industrial area, much of which has been replaced by retail and office uses, as well as residential live/work loft space, with the decline of manufacturing in the United States. The areas of South and West Berkeley are in the midst of redevelopment. Some residents have opposed redevelopment in this area. Along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the foot of University Avenue is the Berkeley Marina. Nearby is Berkeley's Aquatic Park, featuring an artificial linear lagoon of San Francisco Bay. North of Downtown is the North Berkeley neighborhood, which has been nicknamed the "Gourmet Ghetto" because of the concentration of well-known restaurants and other food-related businesses. West of North Berkeley is Westbrae, a small neighborhood through which part of the Ohlone Greenway runs. Meanwhile, further north of North Berkeley are Northbrae, a master-planned subdivision from the early 20th century, and Thousand Oaks. Above these last three neighborhoods, on the western slopes of the Berkeley Hills are the neighborhoods of Cragmont and La Loma Park, notable for their dramatic views, winding streets, and numerous public stairways and paths. Apartments and other higher density housing in Berkeley, California Mid-20th century apartments with soft story parking. Zoning at the time allowed 4 stories plus a small penthouse.  Small early-20th century buildings with more recent additions in the rear.  Mid 20th and early 20th century apartment buildings.  Prefabricated modular housing built in the 2010s.  Mixed use Mediterranean Revival style building built in the 2010s.  Shingle style apartment building from mid 20th century.  UC Berkeley dormitories.  Former sorority converted into boarding house.  A student co-op.  Mixed use building on Telegraph Avenue.  Points of interest[edit] Doe Memorial Library, the main library of the University of California, Berkeley Libraries. Berkeley and the San Francisco Bay at nightfall, as seen from the Lawrence Hall of Science. University of California, Berkeley Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive Berkeley Marina Berkeley History Center (1931 Center St.) Berkeley Public Library (Shattuck Avenue at Kittridge Street) Berkeley Repertory Theatre Berkeley Rose Garden Cloyne Court Hotel, a member of the Berkeley Student Cooperative Hearst Greek Theatre (home of the annual Berkeley Jazz Festival) Judah L. Magnes Museum Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lawrence Hall of Science Regional Parks Botanic Garden Tilden Regional Park University of California Botanical Garden The Campanile (Sather Tower) in the University of California, Berkeley campus. Telegraph Avenue and People's Park, both known as centers of the counterculture of the 1960s. The Berkeley Free Clinic, a free clinic operating since 1969. The Edible Schoolyard is a one-acre garden at Martin Luther King Middle School (Berkeley) Berkeley High School

Parks and recreation[edit] Martin Luther King, Jr. Civic Center Park The city has many parks, and promotes greenery and the environment. The city has planted trees for years and is a leader in the nationwide effort to re-tree urban areas.[citation needed] Tilden Regional Park, lies east of the city, occupying the upper extent of Wildcat Canyon between the Berkeley Hills and the San Pablo Ridge. The city is also heavily involved in creek restoration and wetlands restoration, including a planned daylighting of Strawberry Creek along Center Street. The Berkeley Marina and East Shore State Park flank its shoreline at San Francisco Bay and organizations like the Urban Creeks Council and Friends of the Five Creeks the former of which is headquartered in Berkeley support the riparian areas in the town and coastlines as well. César Chávez Park, near the Berkeley Marina, was built at the former site of the city dump. Landmarks and historic districts[edit] 165 buildings in Berkeley are designated as local landmarks or local structures of merit. Of these, 49 are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, including: Berkeley High School (the city's only public high school) and the Berkeley Community Theatre, which is on its campus.[83] Berkeley Women's City Club, now Berkeley City Club – Julia Morgan (1929–30) First Church of Christ, Scientist – Bernard Maybeck (1910) St. John's Presbyterian Church – Julia Morgan (1910), now the Berkeley Playhouse Studio Building – architect not recorded, built for Frederick H. Dakin (1905) William R. Thorsen House, now Sigma Phi Society Chapter House – Charles Sumner Greene & Henry Mather Greene (1908–10) Studio Building, 2045 Shattuck Ave, Berkeley, CA. Historic Districts listed in the National Register of Historic Places: George C. Edwards Stadium – Located at intersection of Bancroft Way and Fulton Street on University of California, Berkeley campus (80 acres (32 ha), 3 buildings, 4 structures, 3 objects; added 1993). Site of the Clark Kerr Campus, UC Berkeley – until 1980, this location housed the State Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind, also known as The California Schools for the Deaf and Blind – Bounded by Dwight Way, the city line, Derby Street, and Warring Street (500 acres (2.0 km2), 20 buildings; added 1982). The school was closed in 1980 and the Clark Kerr Campus was opened in 1986. See List of Berkeley Landmarks, Structures of Merit, and Historic Districts The Campanile and Sather Gate on the UC Berkeley campus.

Arts and culture[edit] Berkeley is home to the Chilean-American community's La Peña Cultural Center, the largest cultural center for this community in the United States. The Freight and Salvage is the oldest established full-time folk and traditional music venue west of the Mississippi River.[84] Additionally, Berkeley is home to the off-broadway theater Berkeley Repertory Theater, commonly known as "Berkeley Rep". The Berkeley Repertory Theater consists of two stages, a school, and has received a Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theatre.[85] The historic Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive (BAMPFA) is operated by UC Berkeley, and was moved to downtown Berkeley in January 2016. It offers many exhibitions and screenings of historic films, as well as outreach programs within the community.[86] Annual events[edit] Jewish Music Festival[87] – March Cal Day University of California, Berkeley Open House[88] – April Berkeley Arts Festival[89] – April and May Himalayan Fair[90] – May The Berkeley Juneteenth Festival – Adeline/Alcatraz Corridor – June Berkeley Kite Festival[91] – July Berkeley Juggling and Unicycling Festival[92] – July or August The Solano Avenue Stroll[93] – Solano Avenue, Berkeley and Albany – September

Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit] University of California, Berkeley's main campus is in the city limits. The Graduate Theological Union, a consortium of nine independent theological schools, is located a block north of the University of California Berkeley's main campus. The Graduate Theological Union has the largest number of students and faculty of any religious studies doctoral program in the United States.[94] In addition to more theological schools, Zaytuna College, a newly established Muslim liberal arts college, has taken 'Holy Hill' as its new home. Wright Institute, a psychology graduate school, is located in Berkeley. Berkeley City College is a community college in the Peralta Community College District. Primary and secondary schools[edit] Berkeley High School The Berkeley Unified School District operates public schools. The first public school in Berkeley was the Ocean View School, now the site of the Berkeley Adult School located at Virginia Street and San Pablo Avenue. The public schools today are administered by the Berkeley Unified School District. In the 1960s, Berkeley was one of the earliest US cities to voluntarily desegregate, utilizing a system of buses, still in use. The city has one public high school, Berkeley High School (BHS). Established in 1880, BHS currently has over 3,000 students. The Berkeley High campus was designated a historic district by the National Register of Historic Places on January 7, 2008.[95] Saint Mary's College High School, a Catholic school, also has its street address in Berkeley, although most of the grounds and buildings are actually in neighboring Albany. Berkeley has 11 public elementary schools and three middle schools. The East Bay campus of the German International School of Silicon Valley (GISSV) formerly occupied the Hillside Campus, Berkeley, California; it opened there in 2012.[96] In December 2016, the GISSV closed the building, due to unmet seismic retrofit needs.[97] There is also the Bay Area Technology School, the only school in the whole Bay Area to offer a technology- and science-based curriculum, with connections to leading universities. Berkeley also houses Zaytuna College, the first accredited Muslim, liberal-arts college in the United States. Public libraries[edit] Berkeley Public Library serves as the municipal library. University of California, Berkeley Libraries operates the University of California Berkeley libraries.

Government[edit] Mayor Jesse Arreguín and other elected officials and staffers on the steps of City Hall. See also: List of mayors of Berkeley and Government of Alameda County, California Berkeley has a council–manager government.[1] The mayor is elected at-large for a four-year term and is the ceremonial head of the city and the chair of the city council. The Berkeley City Council is composed of the mayor and eight council members elected by district who each serve four-year terms. Districts 2, 3, 5 and 6 hold their elections in years divisible by four while Districts 1, 4, 7 and 8 hold theirs in even-numbered years not divisible by four. The city council appoints a city manager, who is the chief executive of the city. Additionally, the city voters directly elect an independent City Auditor and a Rent Stabilization Board. The current councilmembers are:[3] Mayor (At-Large): Jesse Arreguín District 1: Linda Maio District 2: Cheryl Davila District 3: Ben Bartlett District 4: Kate Harrison District 5: Sophie Hahn District 6: Susan Wengraf District 7: Kriss Worthington District 8: Lori Droste Most of the University housing is located in District 7 (although Foothill and Clark Kerr are in Districts 6 and 8, respectively). Districts 4 and 7 are majority-student. Berkeley is also part of Alameda County, for which the Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, and the Charter of the County of Alameda.[98] The county government provides countywide services, such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, jails, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, and social services. The county government is primarily composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, other elected offices including the Sheriff/Coroner, the District Attorney, Assessor, Auditor-Controller/County Clerk/Recorder, and Treasurer/Tax Collector, and numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Administrator.

Notable people[edit] Main articles: List of people from Berkeley, California and List of Berkeley High School (Berkeley, California) people Notable individuals who were born in and/or have lived in Berkeley include actors Ben Affleck and Andy Samberg, Billie Joe Armstrong, lead singer of Green Day, and rapper Lil B.

Sister cities[edit] Berkeley has 16 sister cities:[99] Asmara, Eritrea Blackfeet Nation, Montana, United States Yurok Tribe, California, United States Haidian District, Beijing, China City of Djibouti, Djibouti Sakai, Osaka, Japan Gao, Mali Uma Bawang, Malaysia (1991)[100] Dmitrov, Russia Jena, Germany Ulan-Ude, Buryatia, Russia San Antonio Los Ranchos, El Salvador Mathopestad, South Africa Oukasie, South Africa Yondó, Colombia Palma Soriano, Cuba León, Nicaragua

References[edit] ^ a b c d "Structure of Berkeley Government". City Clerk. City of Berkeley. Retrieved June 13, 2016.  ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2013.  ^ a b c "Elected Officials Home". City of Berkeley. Retrieved December 8, 2016.  ^ "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013.  ^ "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013.  ^ "California's 13th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 9, 2013.  ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 19, 2017.  ^ "Berkeley". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 8, 2015.  ^ "Using 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates for population estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 13, 2015.  ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ "ZIP Code(tm) Lookup". United States Postal Service. Retrieved November 24, 2014.  ^ Golla, Victor (2011). California Indian Languages. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 380. ISBN 978-0-520-26667-4.  ^ National Park Service. "Juan Bautista de Anza". Borrego Springs Chamber of Commerce.  ^ Stadtman, Verne, ed. (1967). The Centennial Record of the University of California. Regents of the University of California. p. 114.  ^ "George Berkeley – Biography". European Graduate School. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013.  ^ Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 601. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.  ^ Berkeley Gazette. 1900 April 9 ^ Berkeley 1900: Daily Life at the Turn of the Century, by Richard Schwartz. 2000. page 187 ^ "Trip to Berkeley, California, Lcmp003 M3a29754". Library of Congress.  ^ Edwards, Robert W. (2012). Jennie V. Cannon: The Untold History of the Carmel and Berkeley Art Colonies, Vol. 1. Oakland, Calif.: East Bay Heritage Project. pp. 72–105. ISBN 9781467545679.  An online facsimile of the entire text of Vol. 1 is posted on the Traditional Fine Arts Organization website. Archived April 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Pettitt, George Albert (1973). Berkeley: the Town and Gown of it. Howell-North Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8310-7101-1.  ^ "Downtown Berkeley Historic Resources Reconnaissance Survey" (PDF). City of Berkeley. City of Berkeley. August 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2017.  ^ Exactly Opposite the Golden Gate, edited by Phil McCardle, published 1983 by the Berkeley Historical Society, p.251 ^ "Berkeley, A City in History" Archived January 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Berkeley Public Library. ^ "California – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.  ^ "Shattuck Avenue: Commercial Corridor Historic Context and Survey". City of Berkeley. Retrieved October 5, 2017. ^ Mitchell, Don (1992). "Iconography and locational conflict from the underside: Free speech, People's Park, and the politics of homelessness in Berkeley, California". Political Geography. 2: 152–169. doi:10.1016/0962-6298(92)90046-V.  ^ City of Berkeley. "Urban Design and Preservation Element". Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ "What is Rent Control? ... and How Does It Affect Me?". City of Berkeley. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ "Our History". Ecology Center. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ Mark A. Stein (November 3, 1986). "Progressives in Berkeley Challenged by Tradition". L.A. Times. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ Joe Garofoli (December 12, 2012). "Ethel Manheimer, Berkeley activist, dies". SFGate. Retrieved January 1, 2013.  ^ areavibes. "Berkeley, CA Home Prices & Housing Information".  ^ Chloee Weiner (June 8, 2015). "South Berkeley residents mobilize around plan to develop Adeline Street corridor". Daily Cal. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ "School Colors". Frontline. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ "International Student Enrollment Data". UC Berkeley. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ Richard Brenneman (April 6, 2007). "Panoramic Sells Off 7 Apartment Buildings". Berkeley Daily Planet. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ "Berkeley becomes first US city to declare Bisexual Pride Day, support 'marginalized' group". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 19, 2012. [dead link] ^ "Berkeley Pushes a Boundary on Medical Marijuana". The New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2015.  ^ [1] Archived May 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Emilie Raguso (June 11, 2015). "Police report mistakes, challenges in Berkeley protests". Berkeleyside. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ Emilie Raguso (June 11, 2015). "BPD chief: Lessons learned in 2014 'Black Lives Matter' protests guided us during Milo demonstrations". Berkeleyside. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ Emilie Raguso (May 24, 2017). "Police arrest Eric Clanton after bike lock assaults during Berkeley protests". Berkeleyside. Retrieved January 2, 2018.  ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.  ^ Fabisch, M.P. (June 6, 1990). "Revised Date for Split of 415 (California) Numbering Plan Area" (PDF). BellCore Letter. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ "2008 Bay Area Earthquake Probabilities". USGS. USGS. Retrieved June 26, 2015.  ^ "U.S. Geological Survey Liquefaction Hazard Maps". U.S. Geological Survey. USGS. Retrieved February 18, 2015.  ^ "Earthquake in San Francisco and Neighboring Places". The New York Times. October 22, 1868.  ^ "Roughing It". Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014.  ^ Lawson, A. C. (ed.), The California Earthquake of April 18, 1906, 1908, Reprinted 1969 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. This is a comprehensive report on the 1906 earthquake, published by the State Earthquake Investigation Commission, and comprises two volumes and an atlas. It contains a discussion of the 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake and its effects, and includes a number of photos taken by Lawson himself of damage in Berkeley caused by the 1906 quake. The report is available from the USGS. "The California Earthquake of April 18, 1906".  ^ [2][dead link] ^ "Jane Houston Jones. ''San Francisco Weather – Weird and Wacky''. SJAA Ephemeris July 2001". July 19, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2013.  ^ "Climatography of the United States : No. 20 : 1971-2000" (PDF). Retrieved January 21, 2015.  ^ Western Regional Climate Center Web site ^ "Berkeley, California". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved December 8, 2012.  ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on April 22, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2015.  ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Berkeley city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.  ^ "2007–2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". Archived from the original on September 16, 2013.  ^ "Berkeley CA crime rates and statistics - NeighborhoodScout". Retrieved August 25, 2015.  ^ "Crime in Berkeley, California (CA): murders, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts, auto thefts, arson, law enforcement employees, police officers, crime map". Retrieved August 25, 2015.  ^ "Demographic Profile Bay Area Census". Retrieved January 21, 2015.  ^ a b Charles Wollenberg (2008). Berkeley: A City in History. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-520-25307-0.  ^ "Shattuck Avenue: Commercial Corridor Historic Context and Survey". City of Berkeley. Retrieved October 5, 2017. ^ a b Don Mitchell (1995) The End of Public Space?People's Park, Definitions of thePublic, and Democracy, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 85:1, 108-133 ^ Quigley, John M., et al. Homelessness in California. Public Policy Institute of California, 2001. ^ ^ "Berkeley 2015 Homeless Point-In-Time Count" (PDF). City Council Report.  ^ "Affordable housing, homelessness, and mental health: What heath [sic] care policy needs to address.." The Free Library. 2015 Southern Public Administration Education Foundation, Inc. 19 Oct. 2017 ^ "A Report on the 2015 Alameda County Point In Time Count" (PDF). Alameda County Public Health Department.  ^ Mitchell, Don. "The End of Public Space?People's Park, Definitions of the Public, and Democracy". Annuals of the Association of American Geographers.  ^ Steinbach, Alan. "The Berkeley Suitcase Clinic: Homeless Services by Undergraduate and Medical Student Team". Academic Medicine. 76: 524. doi:10.1097/00001888-200105000-00058.  ^ ^ Tucker, William. "How Housing Regulations Cause Homelessness". The Public Interest.  ^ Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety in Berkeley, City of Berkeley. ^ "Chicanery tops meters in Berkeley", San Francisco Chronicle. ^ Berkeley Gazette, January 22, 1903 ^ Ford, Robert S. (1977). Red Trains in the East Bay: The History of the Southern Pacific Transbay Train and Ferry System. Interurbans Specials. 65. Glendale, California: Interurban Press. ISBN 0-916374-27-0.  ^ Demoro, Harre W. (1985). The Key Route: Transbay Commuting by Train and Ferry, Part 1. Interurbans Specials. 95. Glendale, California: Interurban Press. ISBN 0-916374-66-1.  ^ "list of current and past City of Berkeley CAFR's". Retrieved June 19, 2014.  ^ "Economic Development and Employment Element". General Plan. City of Berkeley. Retrieved 19 April 2017.  ^ Massara, G. Haley (18 June 2014). "Berkeley City Council moves to limit abundance of large drugstores". Daily Californian. Retrieved 19 April 2017.  ^ "Berkeley Path Wanderers Association". Retrieved January 21, 2015.  ^ "Berkeley High". Retrieved November 12, 2013.  ^ Addison St – Freight and Salvage Aug09 – City of Berkeley, CA. Retrieved on July 15, 2013. ^ ^ ^ "". Retrieved January 27, 2014.  ^ "UC Berkeley | Cal Day 2013 | Share". Retrieved January 27, 2014.  ^ "". Retrieved January 27, 2014.  ^ "". Archived from the original on January 20, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014.  ^ "Berkeley Kite Festival website". July 28, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013.  ^ "2011 Berkeley Juggling & Unicycle Festival". Retrieved January 27, 2014.  ^ "Solano Avenue Stroll website". November 6, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2013.  ^ "A Data-Based Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States". Retrieved January 1, 2013.  ^ Berkeley Daily Planet, January 22–24, 2008 ^ Taylor, Tracey (November 13, 2012). "German School opens on historic Berkeley campus". Berkeleyside. Retrieved March 21, 2017.  ^ Taylor, Tracey (December 7, 2016). "Future uncertain for Berkeley school due to unsafe building". Berkeleyside. Retrieved February 16, 2017.  ^ California Government Code § 23004 ^ "City of Berkeley Sister Cities". City of Berkeley. Retrieved 19 April 2017.  ^ "Berkeley's Borneo Project Aims to Restore Lands by Teaching Mapping By MATTHEW ARTZ". The Berkeley Daily Planet. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 

Further reading[edit] Exactly Opposite the Golden Gate, edited by Phil McCardle. Berkeley Historical Society, 1983 Berkeley: The Life and Spirit of a Remarkable Town, Ellen Weis, photographs by Kiran Singh. Berkeley: Frog, Ltd. 2004 ISBN 1-58394-093-6 Berkeley Inside/Out, Don Pitcher, history sections by Malcolm Margolin. Berkeley: Heyday Books. 1989 ISBN 0-930588-33-9 A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius, by Dave Eggers.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Berkeley, California. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Berkeley, California. Official website U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Berkeley, California Berkeley Historical Society website Finding Aid to City of Berkeley Records, The Bancroft Library Berkeley Local Wiki Berkeley Daily Gazette, Google news archive. —PDFs of 8,057 issues, dating from 1911 to 1946.  "Berkeley, a city of Alameda county, California, U.S.A.". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  Places adjacent to Berkeley, California Albany El Cerrito, Kensington Berkeley Orinda Moraga Emeryville Oakland Piedmont v t e Berkeley, California Neighborhoods Berkeley Marina Claremont Cragmont Downtown Berkeley Elmwood Gourmet Ghetto La Loma Park Lorin District North Berkeley Northside Panoramic Hill South Berkeley Southside Thousand Oaks West Berkeley Westbrae Education Primary and Secondary Schools Berkeley Unified School District Berkeley High School Berkeley Adult School German International School of Silicon Valley Campus: Hillside Elementary School (CLOSED) Maybeck High School Colleges and universities Berkeley City College Graduate Theological Union University of California, Berkeley Trunk roads and highways Interstate 80 Interstate 580 Piedmont Avenue Ashby Avenue (State Route 13) San Pablo Avenue (State Route 123) Shattuck Avenue Solano Avenue Telegraph Avenue Public transportation AC Transit Ashby BART Bear Transit Berkeley Amtrak Station Downtown Berkeley BART North Berkeley BART People List of people from Berkeley List of Berkeley High School people History List of landmarks 1923 fire 1960s protests People's Park occupation 1991 fire v t e Municipalities and communities of Alameda County, California, United States County seat: Oakland Cities Alameda Albany Berkeley Dublin Emeryville Fremont Hayward Livermore Newark Oakland Piedmont Pleasanton San Leandro Union City CDPs Ashland Castro Valley Cherryland Fairview San Lorenzo Sunol Unincorporated communities Albrae Altamont Asco Baumberg Brightside Brookshire Carpenter Dougherty Dresser East Pleasanton Farwell Hall Station Halvern Kilkare Woods Komandorski Village Lorenzo Station Mattos Mendenhall Springs Midway Mountain House Mowry Landing Radum San Ramon Village Scotts Corner Sorenson Verona Former settlements Alden Alisal Alvarado Ann Brooklyn Carnegie Decoto Drawbridge Eden Landing Elliot Goecken Greenville Hacienda Hayward Heath Laddville Larkin's Landing Lynn Mallard Melita Merienda Monte Vista Mount Eden Remillard Robert Russell City Stokes Landing Tesla v t e San Francisco Bay Area Bodies of water Bodega Bay Carquinez Strait Clifton Forebay Golden Gate Grizzly Bay Guadalupe River Half Moon Bay Lake Berryessa Napa River Oakland Estuary Petaluma River Richardson Bay Richmond Inner Harbor Russian River Sacramento River San Francisco Bay San Leandro Bay San Pablo Bay Sonoma Creek Suisun Bay Tomales Bay Counties Alameda Contra Costa Marin Napa San Francisco San Mateo Santa Clara Solano Sonoma Major cities San Jose San Francisco Oakland Cities and towns 100k–250k Antioch Berkeley Concord Daly City Fairfield Fremont Hayward Richmond Santa Clara Santa Rosa Sunnyvale Vallejo Cities and towns 50k–99k Alameda Brentwood Castro Valley Cupertino Livermore Milpitas Mountain View Napa Novato Palo Alto Petaluma Pittsburg Pleasanton Redwood City San Leandro San Mateo San Rafael San Ramon South San Francisco Union City Vacaville Walnut Creek Cities and towns 25k-50k Belmont Benicia Burlingame Campbell Danville Dublin East Palo Alto Foster City Gilroy Los Altos Los Gatos Martinez Menlo Park Morgan Hill Newark Oakley Pacifica Pleasant Hill Rohnert Park San Bruno San Carlos San Pablo Saratoga Suisun City Windsor Cities and towns 10k–25k Alamo Albany American Canyon Ashland Bay Point Cherryland Clayton Discovery Bay Dixon El Cerrito El Sobrante Emeryville Fairview Half Moon Bay Healdsburg Hercules Hillsborough Lafayette Larkspur Millbrae Mill Valley Moraga North Fair Oaks Orinda Piedmont Pinole San Anselmo San Lorenzo Sonoma Stanford Tamalpais-Homestead Valley Sub-regions East Bay North Bay San Francisco Peninsula Silicon Valley South Bay Politics Sports Transportation v t e Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in California Eric Garcetti (Los Angeles) Kevin Faulconer (San Diego) Sam Liccardo (San Jose) Mark Farrell (San Francisco) Lee Brand (Fresno) Darrell Steinberg (Sacramento) Robert Garcia (Long Beach) Libby Schaaf (Oakland) Karen Goh (Bakersfield) Tom Tait (Anaheim) Miguel A. 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History_of_Berkeley,_California - Photos and All Basic Informations

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Charter CityDowntown Berkeley Viewed From The Berkeley Hills, With San Francisco In The BackgroundSan FranciscoOfficial Seal Of Berkeley, CaliforniaLocation Of Berkeley In Alameda County, California.Geographic Coordinate SystemList Of Sovereign StatesU.S. StateCaliforniaList Of Counties In CaliforniaAlameda County, CaliforniaMunicipal CorporationCharter CityCouncil–manager GovernmentMayorJesse ArreguínCalifornia's 9th State Senate DistrictNancy Skinner (California Politician)California Democratic PartyCalifornia's 15th State Assembly DistrictTony ThurmondCalifornia Democratic PartyCalifornia's 13th Congressional DistrictBarbara LeeDemocratic Party (United States)2010 United States CensusAlameda County, CaliforniaList Of Largest California Cities By PopulationDemonymTime ZonePacific Time ZoneUTC−8Daylight Saving TimePacific Daylight TimeUTC−7ZIP CodeNorth American Numbering PlanArea Code 510Federal Information Processing StandardGeographic Names Information SystemHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:Pronunciation Respelling KeySan Francisco BayAlameda County, CaliforniaCaliforniaAnglo-IrishGeorge BerkeleyOakland, CaliforniaEmeryville, CaliforniaAlbany, CaliforniaUnincorporated AreaKensington, CaliforniaContra Costa County, CaliforniaBerkeley HillsUniversity Of CaliforniaUniversity Of California, BerkeleyLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryGraduate Theological UnionSocial LiberalismOhloneShellmoundSan Francisco BayStrawberry CreekDowntown BerkeleyEnlargeIndian Rock ParkOhloneAcornDe Anza ExpeditionInterstate 80 (California)Presidio Of San FranciscoGolden GateLuis María PeraltaKing Of SpainRancho San Antonio (Peralta)José Domingo PeraltaAlta CaliforniaMexican War Of IndependenceMexican–American WarCalifornia Gold RushSquatterKellersberger's MapContra Costa CountySanta Clara CountyEnlargeIndian Rock ParkBerkeley MarinaCésar Chávez ParkCollege Of CaliforniaBerkeley HillsStrawberry CreekGolden GateFounders' RockGolden GateFrederick BillingsGeorge BerkeleyAmerican EnglishUniversity Of CaliforniaOcean View, Berkeley, CaliforniaHorsecarTemescal, Oakland, CaliforniaTelegraph AvenueTranscontinental RailroadCentral Pacific RailroadBerkeley Branch RailroadDowntown Berkeley, CaliforniaMunicipal CorporationDenis KearneyWorkingman's PartyElectric LightStreetcarHorsecarLibrary Of CongressEnlarge1906 San Francisco EarthquakeEast Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)Jennie V. 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