Contents 1 History 2 Property types 3 Federal-level 4 State-level 5 Local-level 6 Significance 7 See also 8 References


History[edit] The first U.S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U.S. federal government designation by more than three decades.[1] Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.[1] New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter.[1] Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955.[2] The regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been consistently upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York (1978). The Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an entirely permissible governmental goal."[3] In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness."[4] By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay.


Property types[edit] See also: Contributing property and Property types Walker Hall, part of the University of Florida Campus Historic District Historic districts are generally two types of properties, contributing and non-contributing.[5] Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant.[6] Different entities, usually governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics.[6][7] In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district.[8] In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, building, structure, site, district and object; each one has a specific definition in relation to the National Register. All but the eponymous district category are also applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.[9]


Federal-level[edit] Helvenston House, part of the Ocala Historic District, in Ocala, Florida A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives."[10] The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U.S. federal law, last revised in 2004.[9] According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, buildings, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may also comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history.[9] Districts established under U.S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation.[11] While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved, then the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections.[12] For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois, then the federal designation would offer no protections. If, however, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.[12] Play media A Stroll along Beach Avenue, Cape May, New Jersey video (3:35) In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied consistently, but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions. Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years. However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" then an exception allowing their listing will be made.[9] Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval. In the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. If such an objection occurred, then the nomination would become a determination of National Register eligibility only.[9]


State-level[edit] 1848 Duncan House, National Register of Historic Places Cooksville Historic District, Wisconsin Most U.S. state governments have a listing similar to the National Register of Historic Places. State listings can have similar benefits to federal designation, such as granting qualification and tax incentives. In addition, the property can become protected under specific state laws.[12] The laws can be similar or different from the federal guidelines that govern the National Register. A state listing of a historic district on a "State Register of Historic Places," usually by the State Historic Preservation Office, can be an "honorary status," much like the National Register. For example, in Nevada, listing in the State Register places no limits on property owners.[13] In contrast, state law in Tennessee requires that property owners within historic districts follow a strict set of guidelines, from the U.S. Department of Interior, when altering their properties.[14] Though, according to the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, all states must have a State Historic Preservation Office, not all states must have a "state historic district" designation. As of 2004, for example, the state of North Carolina had no such designation.[15]


Local-level[edit] The properties in the Central Park West Historic District, such as 55 Central Park West, are part of both federal and local historic districts. Local historic districts usually enjoy the greatest level of protection legally from any threats that may compromise their historic integrity because many land-use decisions are made at the local level.[12] There are more than 2,300 local historic districts in the United States.[16] Local historic districts can be administered at the county or the municipal level; both entities are involved in land use decisions.[17] Local historic districts are identified by surveying historic resources and delineating appropriate boundaries that comply with all aspects of due process. Depending on local ordinance or State law, property owners permission may be required; however all owners are to be notified and given a chance to share their opinion. Most local historic districts are constricted by design guidelines that control changes to the properties included in the district. Many local commissions adopt specific guidelines for the "tout ensemble" of each neighborhood, although some smaller commissions rely on the Secretary of Interior Standards. For most minor changes, homeowners can consult with local preservation staff at the municipal office and receive guidance on and permission for the changes. Major changes however, require homeowners to apply for a Certificate of Appropriateness (COA), and the changes may be decided upon by the historic commission or architectural review board.[18] The COA process is carried out with all aspects of due process, with formal notification, hearings, and fair and informed decision making. According to the National Park Service, historic districts are one of the oldest forms of protection for historic properties. The city of Charleston, South Carolina is credited with beginning the modern day historic districts movement.[19] In 1931 Charleston enacted an ordinance which designated an "Old and Historic District" administered by a Board of Architectural Review.[19] Charleston's early ordinance reflected the strong protection that local historic districts often enjoy under local law. It asserted that no alteration could be made to any architectural features which could be viewed by the public from the street.[19] Local historic districts, as in New Orleans and Savannah, Georgia, predate the Register by 10 years or more as well.[20] Local historic districts are most likely to generate resistance because of the restrictions they tend to place on property owners.[21][22][23] Local laws can cause residents "to comply with (local historic district) ordinances."[24] The issue of local historic districts and the impact on property values is a concern to many homeowners. The effects have been extensively studied using multiple methodologies including before-and-after analysis and evaluating comparable neighborhoods with and without local designation status. Recent factual analysis has been conducted by independent researchers in a number of states, including New Jersey, Texas, Indiana, Georgia, Colorado, Maryland, North and South Carolina, Kentucky, Virginia, and elsewhere. As stated by economist Donovan Rypkema, "the results of these studies are remarkably consistent: property values in local historic districts appreciate significantly faster than the market as a whole in the vast majority of cases and appreciate at rates equivalent to the market in the worst case. Simply put – historic districts enhance property values."[25] In a 2011 study Connecticut Local Historic Districts and Property Values, it was found that "property values in every local historic district saw average increases in value ranging from 4% to over 19% per year." [26] Similarly, in New York City between 1980 and 2000, local historic district properties on a price per square foot basis increased in value significantly more than non-designated properties.[27] Equally important, local historic district property values were found to resist market downturns better than historic non-designated properties. A recent study investigating the data on single-family residential mortgage foreclosures and comparable non-designated neighborhoods found that designated properties were significantly less likely to experience foreclosure.[28] Local historic district designation has proven to protect property values from wild fluctuations and provides stability in the housing market.[28]


Significance[edit] The David Davis III & IV House in Bloomington, Illinois, is another example of a property in a local historic district that is also listed on the federal National Register of Historic Places.[29][30] The original concept of an American historic district was as a protective area surrounding more important, individual historic sites. As the field of historic preservation progressed, those involved came to realize that the structures acting as "buffer zones" were actually key elements of the historic integrity of larger, landmark sites. Preservationists came to the view that districts should be more encompassing, blending together a mesh of structures, streets, open space and landscaping to define the historical character of a historic district.[31] As early as 1981 the National Trust for Historic Preservation identified 882 American cities and towns that had some form of "historic district zoning" in place; local laws meant specifically to protect historic districts. Before 1966, historic preservation in the United States was in its infancy. That year the U.S. Conference of Mayors penned an influential report which concluded, in part, that Americans suffered from a sense of "rootlessness."[4] They recommended historic preservation to help provide Americans with a sense of orientation. The creation of the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, on the heels of the report, helped to instill that sense of orientation the mayors were looking for.[4] The mayors also recommended that any historic preservation program not focus solely on individual properties but also on "areas and districts which contain special meaning for the community." Local, state and federal historic districts now account for thousands of historic property listings at all levels of government.[4]


See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Historic districts in the United States. Adaptive reuse Conservation area Historic district


References[edit] ^ a b c "History of Local Historic Districts" (PDF). Establishing Local Historic Districts. Massachusetts Historical Commission.  ^ 'Philadelphia Historical Commission' http://www.phila.gov/historical/designation.html ^ 438 U.S. 104, 129 (1978) ^ a b c d Datel, Robin Elisabeth. "Preservation and a Sense of Orientation for American Cities," Geographical Review, Vol. 75, No. 2. (Apr., 1985), pp. 125-141. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ National Register Historic Districts Q&A Archived 2010-03-22 at the Wayback Machine., South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved February 19, 2007. ^ a b Historic and Scenic Preservation Local Option Property Tax Reimbursement, Maine Historic Preservation Commission. Retrieved February 19, 2007. ^ Ordinance No. 2001-02, (PDF), Daville, California ordinance, California Office of Historic Preservation. Retrieved February 19, 2007. ^ Iowa City Historic Preservation Handbook, (PDF), Iowa City Urban Planning Division. Retrieved March 26, 2007. ^ a b c d e Title 36: Section 60.3, Parks Forests and Public Property, Chapter One, Part 60. National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved February 19, 2007. ^ Strengths of Local Listing, Working on the Past in Local Historic Districts, National Park Service. Retrieved February 20, 2007. ^ "About the Register," National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ a b c d Federal, State and Local Historic Districts, Toolbox, FAQ, National Park Service. Retrieved February 19, 2007. ^ Whaley, Sean. "State adds Goldfield to historic places registry," Las Vegas Review-Journal, December 24, 2005. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ Kreyling, Christine. "Something Old, Something New," Planning; August/September 2006, Vol. 72 Issue 8, p34-39, 6p. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ Nicholson, Scott. "Commissioners Address Alcohol Sales In Valle Crucis," The Mountain Times, August 5, 2004. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ Bringing Preservation Home, Working on the Past in Local Historic Districts, National Park Service. Retrieved February 19, 2007. ^ "Local laws as neighborhood guardians," Working on the Past in Local Historic Districts (Section B), National Park Service. Retrieved October 5, 2009. ^ Miller, Julia. "Providing for Economic Hardship Relief in the Regulation of Historic Properties." Preservation Law Reporter 15 PLR 1135, no. 1996 ^ a b c Early Models Archived 2007-02-05 at the Wayback Machine., Working on the Past in Local Historic Districts, National Park Service. Retrieved February 20, 2007. ^ Brown, Kay. " Old Savannah," Chicago Defender, November 17, 1973, p.22, col.3. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ Hu, Winnie. "Council Poised to Intervene on Enclave's Landmark Status," New York Times; March 25, 2006, Vol. 155 Issue 53529, pB1-B5, 2p, 1bw. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ Vandam, Jeff. "Brick Houses, Winding Paths and Unexpected Sharp Elbow," New York Times; December 31, 2006, Vol. 156 Issue 53810, Section 14 p5-5, 1/3p. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ "Rochester Historic District expansion plan overreaches," (Editorial), Foster's Daily Democrat, April 3, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ Heuer, Ted. "Living History: How Homeowners in a New Local Historic District Negotiate Their Legal Obligations," Yale Law Journal; January 2007, Vol. 116 Issue 4, p768-822, 55p. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ Donovan D. Rypkema, "The (Economic) Value of National Register Listing," CRM, 2002, Vol. 25. No. 1. ^ Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation, 2011, http://cttrust.org/12594 ^ Glaeser, Edward, "Preservation Follies," http://www.city-journal.org/2010/20_2_preservation-follies.html ^ a b Broadbent, Kimberly A. (2011). Assessing the Impact of Local Historic District Designation on Mortgage Foreclosure Rates: The Case of Philadelphia. (Masters Thesis). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA., 14 ^ "Davis-Jefferson Historic District Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.," Bloomington Historic Preservation Commission, City of Bloomington. Retrieved April 4, 2007. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ Bigolin, Steve. The Sycamore Historic District: Introduction, Daily Chronicle, August 14, 2006. Retrieved February 20, 2007. v t e U.S. National Register of Historic Places Topics Architectural style categories Contributing property Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places Keeper of the Register National Park Service Property types Lists by states Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Lists by insular areas American Samoa Guam Minor Outlying Islands Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Lists by associated states Federated States of Micronesia Marshall Islands Palau Other areas District of Columbia Morocco Portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historic_districts_in_the_United_States&oldid=808679486" Categories: Historic districts in the United StatesHistoric preservation in the United StatesHistoric sites in the United StatesHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksGood articlesArticles containing video clips


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages DeutschEspañolNederlandsPortuguês中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 4 November 2017, at 12:38. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.172","walltime":"0.244","ppvisitednodes":{"value":935,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":33239,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":548,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":10,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":0,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 169.650 1 -total"," 38.62% 65.514 1 Template:Reflist"," 18.70% 31.718 2 Template:Cite_web"," 13.90% 23.580 1 Template:Commons_category"," 13.30% 22.568 1 Template:Good_article"," 12.35% 20.947 1 Template:Top_icon"," 12.12% 20.566 1 Template:Commons"," 11.40% 19.334 1 Template:Sister_project"," 10.85% 18.411 1 Template:See_also"," 10.58% 17.949 1 Template:Registered_Historic_Places"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.039","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":2651268,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1247","timestamp":"20171126013403","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":63,"wgHostname":"mw1272"});});


Historic_districts_in_the_United_States - Photos and All Basic Informations

Historic_districts_in_the_United_States More Links

This Is A Good Article. Follow The Link For More Information.EnlargeSycamore Historic DistrictIllinoisUnited StatesPropertyContributing PropertyUnited States Department Of InteriorNational Park ServiceHistoric DistrictNational Register Of Historic PlacesU.S. StateEnlargeWellsville, PennsylvaniaNational Register Of Historic PlacesCharleston, South CarolinaNew OrleansFrench QuarterPhiladelphiaFederal Government Of The United StatesU.S. Conference Of MayorsArizona Proposition 207 (2006)Contributing PropertyProperty TypesEnlargeWalker Hall (Gainesville, Florida)University Of Florida Campus Historic DistrictEnlargeOcala Historic DistrictOcala, FloridaNational Historic Preservation Act Of 1966Cultural Resources ManagementU.S. GovernmentProperty TypesEnlargeContributing PropertyEnlargeNational Register Of Historic PlacesU.S. StateState Historic Preservation OfficeNevadaTennesseeU.S. Department Of InteriorNorth CarolinaEnlargeCentral Park West Historic District55 Central Park WestCounty (United States)MunicipalDue ProcessCharleston, South CarolinaLocal OrdinanceNew OrleansSavannah, GeorgiaEnlargeDavid Davis III & IV HouseBloomington, IllinoisNational Register Of Historic PlacesHistoric PreservationLandmarkNational Trust For Historic PreservationZoningU.S. Conference Of MayorsAdaptive ReuseConservation AreaHistoric DistrictWayback MachinePDFPDFWayback MachineEditorialWayback MachineNational Park ServiceTemplate:National Register Of Historic PlacesTemplate Talk:National Register Of Historic PlacesNational Register Of Historic PlacesNational Register Of Historic Places Architectural Style CategoriesContributing PropertyHistory Of The National Register Of Historic PlacesKeeper Of The RegisterNational Park ServiceNational Register Of Historic Places Property TypesNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In AlabamaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In AlaskaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In ArizonaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In ArkansasNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In CaliforniaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In ColoradoNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In ConnecticutNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In DelawareNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In FloridaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In GeorgiaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In HawaiiNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In IdahoNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In IllinoisNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In IndianaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In IowaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In KansasNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In KentuckyNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In LouisianaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MaineNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MarylandNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MassachusettsNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MichiganNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MinnesotaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MississippiNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MissouriNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In MontanaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In NebraskaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In NevadaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In New HampshireNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In New JerseyNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In New MexicoNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In New YorkNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In North CarolinaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In North DakotaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In OhioNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In OklahomaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In OregonNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In PennsylvaniaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In Rhode IslandNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In South CarolinaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In South DakotaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In TennesseeNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In TexasNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In UtahNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In VermontNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In VirginiaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In Washington StateNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In West VirginiaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In WisconsinNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In WyomingNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In American SamoaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In GuamNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In The United States Minor Outlying IslandsNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In The Northern Mariana IslandsNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In Puerto RicoNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In The United States Virgin IslandsNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In The Federated States Of MicronesiaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In The Marshall IslandsNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In PalauNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In Washington, D.C.American Legation, TangierPortal:National Register Of Historic PlacesHelp:CategoryCategory:Historic Districts In The United StatesCategory:Historic Preservation In The United StatesCategory:Historic Sites In The United StatesCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Good ArticlesCategory:Articles Containing Video ClipsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link