Contents 1 Early years 2 Governor 3 Senator 4 Death 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 8.1 Primary sources 9 External links 9.1 Archives


Early years[edit] Johnson was born in Sacramento, California on September 2, 1866; his father was Grove Lawrence Johnson, a Republican Representative and a member of the California State Legislature who was accused of election irregularities and using his political offices to look after his personal financial interests. His mother was Annie DeMontfredy, partially descended of a family of Huguenots who had left France after the Edict of Nantes, to escape religious persecution. Annie was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution, claiming descent from a general of the Continental Army. Johnson had a brother and three sisters.[1] After attending public schools and Heald College, Johnson first worked as a shorthand reporter and stenographer in law offices. He eventually pursued a legal career, studying at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was a member of the Chi Phi Fraternity. He was admitted to the bar in 1888 and commenced practice in his hometown. In 1902, he moved to San Francisco. He served as assistant district attorney and became active in reform politics, taking up an anti-corruption mantle. He attracted statewide attention in 1908 when he assisted Francis J. Heney in the graft prosecution of Abe Ruef and Mayor Eugene Schmitz. His success was due in large measure to the fact that after Heney was gunned down in the courtroom, he took the lead for the prosecution and won the case. He married Minne L. McNeal; the couple had two sons.


Governor[edit] Johnson during his tenure as governor Johnson and newly elected Lieutenant Governor A.J. Wallace, right, in the Los Angeles Herald, November 9, 1910 In 1910, Johnson won the gubernatorial election as a member of the Lincoln–Roosevelt League, a liberal Republican movement running on an anti-Southern Pacific Railroad platform. He toured the state in an open automobile. In office, Johnson was a populist who implemented many important reforms. Among them was the popular election of U.S. senators, which stripped away the sole franchise of the California State Legislature to vote for federal senators. Johnson's administration also pushed for the ability of candidates to register in more than one political party, a reform that he believed would cripple the influence of what he viewed as a monolithic political establishment. In 1911, Johnson and the Progressives added initiative, referendum, and recall to the state government, giving California a degree of direct democracy unmatched by any other U.S. state. Johnson was instrumental in the establishment of a railroad commission to regulate the power of the Southern Pacific Railroad. On taking office, Johnson soon paroled the convicted Southern Pacific train bandit Chris Evans but required that he leave California. Although initially opposed to the bill, Johnson eventually gave in to political pressure and supported the California Alien Land Law of 1913, which prevented Asian immigrants (excluded from naturalized citizenship because of their race) from owning land in the state.[2] Nationally, Johnson was a founder of the Progressive Party in 1912. That same year, he was the party's vice presidential candidate, sharing a ticket with former President Theodore Roosevelt; his selection helped Roosevelt to carry California by 0.2 percent of the votes. The Progressives finished second nationally ahead of the incumbent Republican, President William Howard Taft, but still lost the election to the Democrats and their candidate, Woodrow Wilson. Johnson was re-elected governor of California in 1914, almost doubling his opponent's vote total.[3][4]


Senator[edit] In 1916, Johnson ran successfully for the U.S. Senate, defeating Democrat George S. Patton Sr., and assuming office on March 16, 1917. It is alleged that was the year that he spoke the words for which he is best remembered today: "The first casualty when war comes is truth" about United States entry into World War I. However, the source of the famous quote has yet to be determined.[5] From 1917 to 1929, he resided at Riversdale in Riverdale Park, Maryland. Following Theodore Roosevelt's death in January 1919, Johnson was regarded as the natural leader of the Progressive Party. In 1920, however, he did not attempt to revive the Progressive Party, but ran for President as a Republican. He was defeated for the Republican presidential nomination by U.S. Senator Warren Harding of Ohio. Johnson also did not get the support of Roosevelt's family, who instead supported Roosevelt's long-time friend Leonard Wood. At the convention, Johnson was asked to serve as Harding's running mate, but he declined.[6] Johnson helped push through the Immigration Act of 1924, having worked with Valentine S. McClatchy and other anti-Japanese lobbyists to prohibit Japanese and other East Asian immigrants from entering the United States.[2] Johnson sought the 1924 Republican nomination against President Calvin Coolidge, but his campaign was derailed after he lost the California primary. Johnson declined to challenge Herbert Hoover for the 1928 presidential nomination, instead choosing to seek re-election to the Senate.[6] When the motion picture industry sought someone to establish a self-regulatory process and to help the industry fend off official censorship, three candidates were identified: Herbert Hoover, Johnson and Will H. Hays. Hays, who had campaigned actively for Harding among industry leaders, was ultimately named to head the new Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in early 1922.[7] As a senator, Johnson proved extremely popular. In 1934, he was re-elected with 94.5 percent of the popular vote because he was nominated by both Republicans and Democrats and his only opponent was Socialist George Ross Kirkpatrick.[8] Play media Hiram Johnson at the 1913 California State Fair In the 1932 presidential election, Johnson broke with President Hoover, and was one of the most prominent Republicans in the country to support Franklin D. Roosevelt.[6] During the early presidency of Roosevelt, Johnson supported the president's economic recovery package, the New Deal, and frequently crossed the floor to aid the Democrats. He even endorsed FDR in the 1932 and 1936 presidential elections, although he never switched party affiliation. He became disenchanted with Roosevelt and the New Deal following FDR's unsuccessful attempt to increase the size of the Supreme Court. As a staunch isolationist, Johnson voted against the League of Nations. He was not present when the Senate voted to ratify the treaty to create a similar organization, the United Nations, but he made it known that he would have voted against ratification; only senators Henrik Shipstead and William Langer actually cast votes against the United Nations Charter.[9] In 1943, a confidential analysis of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee made by British scholar Isaiah Berlin for his Foreign Office stated that Johnson: is the Isolationists' elder statesman and the only surviving member of the [William E. ] Borah- [Henry Cabot] Lodge-Johnson combination which led the fight against the League in 1919 and 1920. He is an implacable and uncompromising Isolationist with immense prestige in California, of which he has twice been Governor. His election to the Senate has not been opposed for many years by either party. He is acutely Pacific-conscious and is a champion of a more adequate defence of the West Coast. He is a member of the Farm Bloc and is au fond, against foreign affairs as such; his view of Europe as a sink of iniquity has not changed in any particular since 1912, when he founded a short-lived progressive party. His prestige in Congress is still great and his parliamentary skill should not be underestimated.[10] Johnson achieved Senate seniority as Chairman of the Committee on Cuban Relations in the Sixty-sixth Congress; he was also a member of the Patents, Immigration, Territories and Insular Possessions and Commerce committees. He was California's longest-serving senator.[11]


Death[edit] The front page of the Los Angeles Times for August 7, 1945, reporting the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima and the death of Johnson Having served in the Senate for almost thirty years, Johnson died in the Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, on August 6, 1945, ironically (for a staunch isolationist) on the date of the first deployment of nuclear weapons in warfare, by the United States on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. He was interred in Cypress Lawn Memorial Park in Colma, California.


Legacy[edit] Johnson gained some recognition in the media and general public during the 2003 California recall election because he was the most important person behind the introduction of the law that allowed state officials to be recalled. Also, then-gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger referred to Johnson's progressive legacy in his campaign speeches. On August 25, 2009, Governor Schwarzenegger and his wife, Maria Shriver, announced that Johnson would be one of 13 California Hall of Fame inductees in The California Museum's yearlong exhibit. The induction ceremony was on December 1, 2009 in Sacramento. The Hiram Johnson papers reside at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley.[12] Hiram Johnson High School in Sacramento, California is named in his honor.


See also[edit] biography portal List of United States Congress members who died in office (1900–49)


References[edit] ^ "HON. HIRAM WARREN JOHNSON". freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ a b Niiya, Brian. "Hiram Johnson". Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 29, 2014.  ^ California gubernatorial election, 1914 ^ "The only successful progressive leader". The Independent. Nov 16, 1914. Retrieved July 24, 2012.  ^ Wikiquote, Hiram Johnson ^ a b c Hamilton, Marty (September 1962). "Bull Moose Plays an Encore: Hiram Johnson and the Presidential Campaign of 1932". California Historical Society Quarterly. 41 (3): 211–221.  ^ "Will Hays: America's Morality Czar", "Source: 'Will Hays.' Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement, Vol. 21. Gale Group, 2001." Retrieved 2011-09-12. ^ "HarpWeek - Elections - 1912 Biographies". elections.harpweek.com. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ "Congressional Record" (PDF). Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ Hachey, Thomas E. (Winter 1973–1974). "American Profiles on Capitol Hill: A Confidential Study for the British Foreign Office in 1943" (PDF). Wisconsin Magazine of History. 57 (2): 141–153. JSTOR 4634869. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2013.  ^ "Who were California's longest-serving senators?". LA Times. 2014-11-16. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ Hiram Johnson papers, 1895-1945


Further reading[edit] Blackford, Mansel Griffiths. "Businessmen and the regulation of railroads and public utilities in California during the Progressive Era." Business History Review 44.03 (1970): 307-319. Feinman, Ronald L. Twilight of progressivism: the western Republican senators and the New Deal (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981) Le Pore, Herbert P. "Prelude to Prejudice: Hiram Johnson, Woodrow Wilson, and the California Alien Land Law Controversy of 1913." Southern California Quarterly (1979): 99-110. in JSTOR Lower, Richard Coke. A Bloc of One: The Political Career of Hiram W. Johnson (Stanford University Press, 1993) McKee, Irving. "The Background and Early Career of Hiram Warren Johnson, 1866-1910." Pacific Historical Review (1950): 17-30. in JSTOR Miller, Karen A.J. Populist nationalism: Republican insurgency and American foreign policy making, 1918-1925 (Greenwood, 1999) Olin, Spencer C. California's prodigal sons: Hiram Johnson and the Progressives, 1911-1917 (U of California Press, 1968) Olin, Spencer C. "Hiram Johnson, the California Progressives, and the Hughes Campaign of 1916." The Pacific Historical Review (1962): 403-412. in JSTOR Olin, Spencer C. "Hiram Johnson, the Lincoln-Roosevelt League, and the Election of 1910." California Historical Society Quarterly (1966): 225-240. in JSTOR Shover, John L. "The progressives and the working class vote in California." Labor History (1969) 10#4 pp: 584-601. online Weatherson, Michael A., and Hal Bochin. Hiram Johnson: Political Revivalist (University Press of America, 1995) Weatherson, Michael A., and Hal Bochin. Hiram Johnson: A Bio-Bibliography (Greenwood Press, 1988) Primary sources[edit] Johnson, Hiram. The diary letters of Hiram Johnson, 1917-1945 (Vol. 1. Garland Publishing, 1983)


External links[edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hiram Johnson Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hiram Johnson. Wikisource has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica article Johnson, Hiram Warren. United States Congress. "JOHNSON, Hiram Warren (id: J000140)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Guide to the Hiram Johnson Papers at the Bancroft Library Hiram Warren Johnson at Find a Grave Archives[edit] [1] Robert E. Burke Collection at the Labor Archives of the University of Washington Libraries] Political offices Preceded by James Gillett Governor of California 1911–1917 Succeeded by William Stephens U.S. Senate Preceded by John D. Works U.S. Senator (Class 1) from California March 16, 1917 – August 6, 1945 Served alongside: James D. Phelan, Samuel M. Shortridge, William Gibbs McAdoo, Thomas M. Storke, Sheridan Downey Succeeded by William F. Knowland Preceded by Oscar Underwood Alabama Chair of the Senate Committee on Cuban Relations 1919–1921 Office abolished Party political offices Preceded by James Gillett Republican nominee for Governor of California 1910 Succeeded by John D. Fredericks First Party created in 1912 Progressive (Bull Moose) nominee for Vice President of the United States 1912 Party dissolved First Party created in 1912 Progressive (Bull Moose) nominee for Governor of California 1914 Party dissolved First after direct election of Senators was adopted in 1913 Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from California (Class 1) 1916, 1922, 1928, 1934, 1940 Succeeded by William F. Knowland Awards and achievements Preceded by Leo H. Baekeland Cover of Time magazine 29 September 1924 Succeeded by William Allen White v t e Governors of California Colony (1769–1822) Capt. Portolà Col. Fages Capt. Rivera Capt-Gen. de Neve Col. Fages Capt. Roméu Capt. Arrillaga Col. Bórica Lt. Col. Alberní Capt. Arrillaga Capt. J. Argüello Don Solá Territory (1822–36) Capt. L. Argüello Lt. Col. Echeandía Gen. Victoria Don P. Pico Lt. Col. Echeandía Brig. Gen. Figueroa Lt. Col. Castro Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Col. Chico Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Sovereignty (1836–46) Pres. Castro Pres. Alvarado · Uncle Carrillo (rival) Brig. Gen. Micheltorena Don P. Pico Republic (1846–50) Cdre. Sloat Cdre. Stockton · Gen. Flores (rival) Gen. Kearny · Maj. Frémont (mutineer) Gen. Mason Gen. Smith Gen. Riley Burnett (from 1849) U.S. State (since 1850) Burnett McDougal Bigler J. Johnson Weller Latham Downey Stanford Low Haight Booth Pacheco Irwin Perkins Stoneman Bartlett Waterman Markham Budd Gage Pardee Gillett H. Johnson Stephens Richardson Young Rolph Merriam Olson Warren Knight P. Brown Reagan J. Brown Deukmejian Wilson Davis Schwarzenegger J. Brown Before 1850 After 1850 After 1850 by age v t e Third-party governors of U.S. states Populist Party William A. Poynter (NE) Andrew E. Lee (SD) John W. Leedy (KS) John Rankin Rogers (WA) Silas A. Holcomb (NE) Lorenzo D. Lewelling (KS) Davis Hanson Waite (CO) Silver Party Denver S. Dickerson (NV) John Sparks (NV) Reinhold Sadler (NV) John Jones (NV) Other parties Jesse Ventura (MN) Lowell Weicker (CT) Wally Hickel (AK) Elmer Austin Benson (MN) Hjalmar Petersen (MN) Philip La Follette (WI) Floyd B. Olson (MN) Sidney Johnston Catts (FL) John P. Buchanan (TN) William E. Cameron (VA) Independents Lincoln Chafee (RI) Charlie Crist (FL) Angus King (ME) James B. Longley (ME) Eli C. D. Shortridge (ND) Bill Walker (AK) Julius Meier (OR) Portal:Politics Third party (United States) Third party officeholders in the United States Notable third party performances in United States elections v t e United States Senators from California Class 1 Frémont Weller Broderick Haun Latham Conness Casserly Hager Booth Miller Hearst Williams Hearst Felton White Bard Flint Works Johnson Knowland Engle Salinger Murphy Tunney Hayakawa Wilson Seymour Feinstein Class 3 Gwin McDougall Cole Sargent Farley Stanford Perkins Phelan Shortridge McAdoo Storke Downey Nixon Kuchel Cranston Boxer Harris v t e Chairmen of the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation Commerce and Manufactures (1816–1825) Hunter Sanford Dickerson Commerce (1825–1947) Lloyd Johnston Woodbury Forsyth King Silsbee Goldsborough Davis King Huntington Haywood Dix Hamlin Dodge Clay Chandler Conkling Gordon Ransom McMillan Frye Ransom Frye Nelson Clarke Fletcher Jones H. Johnson Stephens Copeland Bailey Interstate Commerce (1887–1947) Cullom Butler Cullom Elkins Clapp Newlands Smith Cummins Smith Watson Couzens Dill Wheeler Interstate and Foreign Commerce/Commerce (1947–1977) White E. Johnson Tobey Bricker Magnuson Commerce, Science, and Transportation (1977–) Magnuson Cannon Packwood Danforth Hollings Pressler McCain Hollings McCain Hollings McCain Stevens Inouye Rockefeller Thune v t e (1908 ←) United States presidential election, 1912 (→ 1916) Democratic Party Convention Nominee Woodrow Wilson VP nominee Thomas R. Marshall Candidates Champ Clark Judson Harmon Oscar Underwood Thomas R. Marshall Eugene Foss Republican Party Convention Nominee William Howard Taft VP nominee Nicholas Murray Butler Candidates Theodore Roosevelt Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Progressive Party Convention Nominee Theodore Roosevelt VP nominee Hiram Johnson Socialist Party Nominee Eugene V. Debs VP nominee Emil Seidel Third party and independent candidates Prohibition Party Nominee Eugene W. Chafin VP nominee Aaron S. Watkins Socialist Labor Party Nominee Arthur E. Reimer VP nominee August Gillhaus Other 1912 elections: House Senate v t e (1916 ←) United States presidential election, 1920 (→ 1924) Democratic Party Convention Nominee James M. Cox VP nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt Candidates William Gibbs McAdoo A. Mitchell Palmer Al Smith John W. Davis Edward I. Edwards Woodrow Wilson Robert Latham Owen Republican Party Convention Nominee Warren G. Harding VP nominee Calvin Coolidge Candidates Leonard Wood Frank Orren Lowden Hiram Johnson William Cameron Sproul Nicholas Murray Butler Calvin Coolidge Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Jeter Connelly Pritchard Miles Poindexter Howard Sutherland Herbert Hoover Third party and independent candidates Socialist Party of America Nominee Eugene V. Debs VP nominee Seymour Stedman Farmer–Labor Party Nominee Parley P. Christensen VP nominee Max S. Hayes Prohibition Party Nominee Aaron S. Watkins VP nominee D. Leigh Colvin American Party Nominee James E. Ferguson VP nominee William J. Hough Socialist Labor Party Nominee William Wesley Cox VP nominee August Gillhaus Single Tax Nominee Robert Colvin Macauley VP nominee Richard C. Barnum Other 1920 elections: House Senate v t e (1920 ←) United States presidential election, 1924 (→ 1928) Democratic Party Convention Primaries Nominee John W. Davis VP nominee Charles W. Bryan Candidates William Gibbs McAdoo Al Smith Oscar Underwood Republican Party Convention Nominee Calvin Coolidge VP nominee Charles G. Dawes Candidates Hiram Johnson Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Progressive Party Nominee Robert M. La Follette, Sr. VP nominee Burton K. Wheeler Third party and independent candidates Communist Party Nominee William Z. Foster VP nominee Benjamin Gitlow Prohibition Party Nominee Herman P. Faris VP nominee Marie C. Brehm American Party Nominee Gilbert Nations VP nominee Charles Hiram Randall Other 1924 elections: House Senate Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64812833 LCCN: n83179908 ISNI: 0000 0000 2352 7084 GND: 11923601X SUDOC: 168620863 BNF: cb166554173 (data) US Congress: J000140 SNAC: w61r6rzn Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hiram_Johnson&oldid=826010685" Categories: Governors of CaliforniaUnited States Senators from California1866 births1945 deathsAmerican EpiscopaliansAmerican people of French descentCalifornia RepublicansDirect democracy activistsDistrict attorneys in CaliforniaHistory of San FranciscoPoliticians from Sacramento, CaliforniaPoliticians from San FranciscoUnited States presidential candidates, 1920United States presidential candidates, 192420th-century American politiciansUnited States vice-presidential candidates, 1912University of California, Berkeley alumniCalifornia Progressives (1912)Republican Party state governors of the United StatesRepublican Party United States SenatorsProgressive Party (1912) state governors of the United StatesHidden categories: CS1: Julian–Gregorian uncertaintyPages using infobox officeholder with an atypical party valueFind a Grave template with ID same as WikidataWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiersArticles containing video clips


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