Contents 1 Canada 2 France 3 Germany 4 Hong Kong 5 India 6 Ireland 7 Israel 8 Italy 9 Kenya 10 Malaysia 11 Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium) 12 Pakistan 12.1 Pakistan Engineering Council 13 Portugal 14 Russia 15 South Africa 16 South Korea 17 Thailand 18 United Kingdom 19 United States 20 Zambia 21 See also 22 References 23 External links

Canada[edit] Main article: Accreditation of Canadian universities Canada does not have a system of national or regional accreditation. Provincial legislation and membership in the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada are substitutes. Some universities seek evaluation from American regional accreditation agencies.[4]

France[edit] Main article: education in France In France the main accreditation authority is the Ministry of National Education. Every public institution[clarification needed] Accreditation by collation of academic degrees – whereas institutions of higher education issues diplomas, only the ministry can award degrees. It is the main accreditation level, automatically awarded to public universities. Accreditation by visa – the second-tier accreditation. Only for private institutions. Accreditation by recognition – the third-tier accreditation. Only for private institutions. In some education fields, the Ministry must take official advise from special bodies. The Ministry follows in almost every case the body advice. Business Schools – the official consultation body is the Commission d'évaluation des formations et diplômes de gestion. There two levels of accreditation. Accreditation by collation of master's degree. Accreditation by visa. Engineering Schools – the official consultation body is the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur. It is an accreditation authority for private schools, but only an advising body for public schools.[citation needed] Accreditation of Engineer's degrees. Vocational education – the consultation body is the Commission Nationale de la Certification Professionnelle (National Commission for Vocational Certification).[citation needed] Accreditation by inscription on the Répertoire national des certifications professionnelles (National Repertory of Vocational Certifications), which is a five-level listing. The Conférence des Grandes écoles, which is a non-profit association, issues three accreditations:[citation needed] Accreditation of Mastère Spécialisé (Specialized Master or Advanced Master), only in grandes écoles, Accreditation of Mastère en sciences (MSc), only in grandes écoles, Accreditation of Bilan d'aptitude délivré par les grandes écoles (Assessment of competency issued by grandes écoles), only in grandes écoles. French schools, mainly Business Schools, may seek non-French accreditation. Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business Association of MBAs European Foundation for Management Development European Quality Improvement System, the more prestigious EFMD Programme Accreditation System.

Germany[edit] The Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (Kultusministerkonferenz or KMK) was founded in 1948 by an agreement between the states of the Federal Republic of Germany.[5] Among its core responsibilities, the KMK ensures quality development and continuity in tertiary education.[6] Bachelor and Master programs must be accredited in accordance to a resolution of the Kultusministerkonerenz.[7] The German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat) was founded on September 5, 1957, and conducts institutional accreditation of private and religious universities since 2001.[8] The Foundation for the Accreditation of Study Programs in Germany or Accreditation Council (Akkreditierungsrat) was created in a KMK resolution on October 15, 2004.[9] The Accreditation Council certifies accreditation agencies and establishes guidelines and criteria for program and system accreditation.[10] There are currently ten certified agencies.[11] AHPGS – Accreditation Agency for Study Programs in Special Education, Care, Health Sciences and Social Work AKAST – Agency for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Canonical Study Programs ACQUIN – Accreditation, Certification and Quality Assurance Institute AQAS – Agency for Quality Assurance by Accreditation of Study Programs AQ Austria – Agency for Quality Assurance and Accreditation Austria ASIIN – Accreditation Agency for Degree Programs in Engineering, Informatics/Computer Science, the Natural Sciences and Mathematics evalag – Evaluation Agency Baden-Württemberg FIBAA – Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation OAQ – Swiss Center of Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Higher Education ZEvA – Central Evaluation- and Accreditation Agency These agencies accredit programs of study for bachelor's and master's degrees and quality management systems (system accreditation) from state or state recognized Higher Education institutions in Germany and abroad.[12] AKAST only accredit programs of study.

Hong Kong[edit] Main article: Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications The Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualificati is appointed by the Secretary for Education of Education Bureau as the Accreditation Authority and QR Authority under the Qualifications Framework of Hong Kong (HKQF). Assessment is made with reference to local and internationally recognised standards through a process of peer review. The HKCAAVQ will issue an accreditation report on the outcome of the accreditation activity.

India[edit] Accreditation is compulsory for all universities in India except those created through an act of Parliament. Without accreditation, "It is emphasized that these fake institutions have no legal entity to call themselves as University/Vishwvidyalaya and to award ‘degrees’ which are not treated as valid for academic/employment purposes."[13] The University Grants Commission Act, 1956 explains, "the right of conferring or granting degrees shall be exercised only by a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, or a State Act, or an Institution deemed to be University or an institution specially empowered by an Act of the Parliament to confer or grant degrees. Thus, any institution which has not been created by an enactment of Parliament or a State Legislature or has not been granted the status of a Deemed-to-be-University, is not entitled to award a degree."[13] Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission.[13] In 2012, Seattle Times wrote about "Poorly regulated, unaccredited and often entirely fake colleges have sprung up" around India in response to "demand for higher education accelerates, driven by rising aspirations and a bulging population of young people."[14] India's higher-education commission reported that of more than 31,000 higher-education institutions, only 4,532 schools were accredited.[14]

Ireland[edit] Under the Universities act 1997, the Irish universities became self-governing.[15] Outside the university sector, the Higher Education and Training Awards Council (HETAC) and Further Education and Training Awards Council (FETAC) are national accreditation boards. Additionally, qualifications gained abroad are recognized by the Irish national qualification framework if accredited by a reputable organization for example NCFE, City & Guilds, ICM, ABE, btec/edexcel etc. Many further education colleges in Ireland offer some courses accredited by UK universities.

Israel[edit] Main article: Council for Higher Education in Israel The Council for Higher Education is, by a 1958 law,[16] the only institution qualified to accredit universities and colleges in Israel. The council acts as a reviewer of the activity of the academic centers in Israel and sets terms and requirements for every degree given.

Italy[edit] The formal system for accreditation of State University programs in Italy began in 2001. The system involves two separate but correlated programs that were instituted at the same time: First, each University went through a four-step process to adopt and approve its own Regolamenti Didattici di Ateneo (RDA). The RDA establishes the rules for the organization of teaching at the university, including establishing the requirements and objectives of each degree program, the curricula, credits awarded, and requirements and objectives of examinations. The RDA's were developed in consultation with representatives of the individual university, the regional coordinating committee (CRC), employers, and the National University Council, and are ultimately approved by the Ministry of Education (MIUR). Second, a series of formal, objective standards was adopted as minimum requirements for approval of any programs. In addition, there are other forms of accreditation in Italy. These include: (i) accreditation of degree programs in engineering by the Council of Presidents of the Italian Faculties of Engineering called SINAI, a national system for accrediting such programs; (ii) accreditation of MBA programs by the independent agency, Association for Business Management Training (ASFOR)and (iii) a program for accreditation of non-state university programs, which, since 1996, as involved a process of formal legal approval, involving an independent review by the National Committee for Evaluation of the University System (CNVSU) and then issuance of a formal ministerial decree approving by the issuance of degrees by the university.[17]

Kenya[edit] The Commission of University Education (CUE) formerly known as Commission of Higher Education(CHE) is in charge of the programs accreditation and the award of charters to institutions of higher learning. The commission also serves as the monitoring & evaluation body to ensure compliance towards quality of education offered by institutions under charter.[18]

Malaysia[edit] Main article: Malaysian Qualifications Agency Accreditation was done by the Lembaga Akreditasi Negara (National Accreditation Board), a statutory body created through an act of Parliament, for certificates, diplomas and degree courses provided by private higher educational institutions (defined as institutions providing tertiary or post-secondary education) until 2007 when the body was replaced with the Malaysian Qualifications Agency. Prior to the enactment of the legislations that provided for the establishment of these bodies, no specific framework for accreditation existed and institutions only required a valid registration status from the Ministry of Education of Malaysia.

Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium)[edit] The Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO) is a binational organization formed by treaty in 2003 to independently ensure the quality of higher education in the Netherlands and Flanders by assessing and accrediting programs. As a result of separate legislation in the two jurisdictions, accreditation policies and procedures differ between the two countries.[19]

Pakistan[edit] Main article: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan The main accreditation body for higher education is Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. It regulates and formulates laws governing all the degree awarding universities in Pakistan. The Higher Education Commission (HEC), formerly the University Grant Commission, is the primary regulator of higher education in Pakistan. It also facilitates the development of higher educational system in Pakistan. Its main purpose is to upgrade the Universities of Pakistan to be centres of education, research and development. Pakistan Engineering Council[edit] Main article: Pakistan Engineering Council The Pakistan Engineering Council is a statutory body, constituted under the PEC Act 1976 (V of 1976) amended up to 24 January 2011, to regulate the engineering profession in the country such that it shall function as key driving force for achieving rapid and sustainable growth in all national, economic and social fields. The council shall as its mission set and maintain realistic and internationally relevant standards of professional competence and ethics for engineers, and licence engineers, and engineering institutions to competently and professionally promote and uphold the standards. Its main statutory functions include registration of engineers, consulting engineers, constructors/operators and accreditation of engineering programmes run by universities/institutions, ensuring and managing of continuing professional development, assisting the Federal Government as think tank, establishing standards for engineering products and services besides safeguarding the interest of its members. The council shall encourage, facilitate and regulate working of professional engineering bodies for creativity and as custodians of engineering under the umbrella of the Council. PEC interacts with the Government, both at the Federal and Provincial level by participating in Commissions, Committees and Advisory Bodies. PEC is a fully representative body of the engineering community in the country. PEC has also been providing support to the Government in conducting technical enquiries and recommending remedial measures on the subjects referred. Over the years, the Pakistan Engineering Council has become an influential voice, which speaks for the engineering profession as a whole in the country. It forms an effective bridge between Government, industry and education. PEC maintains a very lean secretariat at its headquarters at Islamabad and branch offices in all the provincial capitals.

Portugal[edit] Main article: Higher education in Portugal The Portuguese Agência de Acreditação (state-managed Accreditation Agency) for higher education is, since 2007, responsible for the publication of the national ranking of higher education institutions and degrees. Within the Bologna process a state agency was set up by the Portuguese Government to offer central and regulated accreditation. Previously, Portugal had used a system of professional accreditation and degree recognition by sector, with a number of associations, Unions and Professional Orders (Ordens Profissionais): the Ordem dos Médicos (for medical doctors), the Ordem dos Engenheiros (for engineers), and the Portuguese Bar Association (for lawyers).[citation needed] The Sindicato dos Engenheiros Técnicos (for technical engineers), was created as the professional association of technical engineers, who were not full chartered engineers, having as mandatory qualification a simple short-cycle 3-year bachelor's degree (bacharelato) awarded by the Portuguese polytechnical institutes and now discontinued since the mid-2000s. The Associação de Técnicos de Contas (for accounting technicians), the Câmara de Revisores Oficiais de Contas (for financial auditors, similar to Chartered Accountants), and the Sindicato dos Enfermeiros (for nurses) are examples of organizations which were oriented towards professions that at least until the 1990s did not demand a specific academic degree. For example, to be member of the Câmara de Revisores Oficiais de Contas (for financial auditors), candidates needed to have two years of experience and must have a degree in a range of possible area (Economics, Finance, Business Administration, Accounting or Law). Like in other similar international associations (Chartered Accountant), the Câmara de Revisores Oficiais de Contas have very selective examinations. Some organizations (starting as Associations or Unions) were upgraded later into Ordens like, for example, the Ordem dos Farmacêuticos (for pharmacists), the Ordem dos Arquitectos (for architects), the Ordem dos Biólogos (for biologists), the Ordem dos Economistas (for economists), the Ordem dos Enfermeiros (for nurses), and the Ordem dos Revisores Oficiais de Contas (for Chartered Accountants and financial auditors). In addition, the state through the ministry for higher education, has usually been the central highest accreditation entity, and thus it is illegal to award degrees without government approval. For many years, there were state-accredited institutions, both public and private, awarding unaccredited degrees by the Ordens. This dubious situation changed in the mid-2000s with the deep reorganization imposed by the Bologna process implementation in Portugal, the creation of the new central state-managed Accreditation Agency and the foundation of many regulated new Ordens covering dozens of professions until then unregulated by this type of professional organization. In 1999, over 15,000 students enrolled in Portuguese higher learning institutions and newly graduates in the fields of engineering and architecture, were enrolled or were awarded a degree in a non-accredited course. Those students and graduates with no official recognition were not admitted to any Ordem and were unable to develop professional activity in their presumed field of expertise (e.g. architect; chemical, electrical, or civil/structural engineer; lawyer; accountant; and financial auditor, among other professionals). At the same time, only one accredited engineering course was offered by a private university, and over 90% of the accredited courses with recognition in the fields of engineering, architecture, and law were exclusively provided by state-run universities.[20] In 2007, the compulsory closing of some problematic and unreliable private higher education institutions (like the defunct Independente University and the Moderna University) which in general had been accredited by the state during the boom of private teaching of the 1990s, but usually without providing any accredited degrees in accordance with the requirements of the main Ordens was seen as a remedy of last resort in order to prevent a further loss of credibility among some sectors within the non-public university higher education.[21][not in citation given]

Russia[edit] In Russia accreditation/national recognition is directly overseen by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation.[22] Since 1981, Russia has followed the UNESCO international regulations to ensure Russian institutions and international institutions meet high quality standards.[citation needed] It is illegal for a school to operate without government approval. The Russian Federation has a three-step recognition system:[citation needed] License Accreditation Attestation There exist additional agencies, such as the Agency for Higher Education Quality Assurance and Career Development (AKKORK), which conducts independent assessment of quality assurance of higher education institutions. AKKORK is an independent professional agency in the field of consultancy, conduct of the reviews, accreditation and certification of education institutions.It should also be noted that in accordance with the Russian legislation in such activities as: state supervision over compliance with legislation of the Russian Federation on education, control over compliance with licensing requirements and conditions, state control over the education quality could be involved experts and expert organizations, accredited in accordance with rules approved by the Government of the Russian Federation . AKKORK on July 8, 2011 received the proper accreditation in the Federal Service for Supervision in Education and Science.[23] Also can be mentioned the National Accreditation Agency of the Russian Federation under Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation.[2] It operates under the authority of the Federal Service of Supervision in Education and Science. Scope of Authority: NAA is recognised as the organisation in Russia responsible for dissemination of knowledge and information on procedures of the state accreditation of HEIs. It develops materials and methodological recommendations for conducting self-evaluations and external reviews, trains experts, conducts research into the development of QA of higher education in Russia, prepares the final reports on the quality of the HEI.

South Africa[edit] In South Africa all higher education institutions are required to register with the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET). All qualifications are registered by the South African Qualifications Authority in line with the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). The Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) of the Council on Higher Education (CHE) accredits programs leading to a NQF registered qualification. All programs offered by South African higher education institutions must be accredited.[24]

South Korea[edit] It is illegal to falsely claim a degree in South Korea if it does not meet accredited approval. For example, in March 2006, prosecutors in Seoul "broken up a crime ring selling bogus music diplomas from Russia, which helped many land university jobs and seats in orchestras."[25] People who falsely used these degrees were criminally charged.

Thailand[edit] Thailand has a system of national accreditation. The agency who takes care of such accreditation is Office of the Higher Education Commission. The details regarding quality assurance can be found in Handbook for Internal Quality Assurance for Higher Education Institutions.[26] She also has criteria for international qualification, especially those who have obtained degrees abroad. In addition, since Thailand is an active member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)[27], the educational collaboration is also strengthened in Southeast Asian states.

United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Higher education accreditation in the United Kingdom In the UK it is illegal to offer a qualification that is or might seem to be a UK degree unless the awarding body is a "recognised body" authorised by a Royal Charter or by or under an Act of Parliament to grant degrees, a "listed body" authorised by a recognised body to offer courses leading to a degree from that recognised body, or the qualification is a "recognised award" designated by order of the Secretary of State.[28][non-primary source needed][29] Prosecutions under the Education Reform Act are rare, as many unaccredited awarding bodies are based outside UK jurisdiction. It is also worth noting in this context that the Business Names Act 1985 made it an offence for any business in the UK to use the word "university" in its name without the formal approval of the Privy Council.[30] Private higher (HE) and further education (FE) institutions (here distinguished from the qualifications that they offer) are unregulated, but may choose to become accredited by various non-regulatory bodies such as the British Accreditation Council or the British Council and Accreditation Service for International Colleges in order to demonstrate third-party assessment of the quality of education they offer. The Universities Funding Council, and Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council established in the UK under the 1988 Education Reform Act[31] have responsibility for the public funding of the FE and HE sector. Prosecutions under legislation other than the Education Reform Act 1988 do occur. In 2004, Thames Valley College in London was prosecuted under the Trade Descriptions Act for offering degrees from the 'University of North America', a limited liability company set up by themselves in the US with no academic staff and no premises other than a mail forwarding service.[32] (Note that this organization differs from the current University of North America, a non-accredited institution.[33])

United States[edit] Main article: Higher education accreditation in the United States The US Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) (a non-governmental organization) both recognize reputable accrediting bodies for institutions of higher education. They also provide guidelines[34] as well as resources and relevant data regarding these accreditors. Neither the US Department of Education nor the CHEA accredit individual institutions.[35][36] However the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity is involved in certifying accrediting agencies, as it applies to the issue of higher education institutions' qualifications to disburse federal financial aid to their students and their students' ability to qualify for federal financial aid.

Zambia[edit] Main article: Higher Education Authority of Zambia The Higher Education Authority was established under the Higher Education Act No. 4 of 2013 [37] to provide regulation and quality assurance of higher education institutions in Zambia.The authority is also mandated by law to register private higher education institutions.

See also[edit] Unaccredited institutions of higher learning List of recognized higher education accreditation organizations List of unrecognized higher education accreditation organizations

References[edit] ^ Dr. Marjorie Peace Lenn, Global Trends in Quality Assurance in Higher Education Archived 2008-10-29 at the Wayback Machine., World Education News & Reviews, v. 5, no. 2, Spring 1992, pages 1 and 21 ^ CHEA International Directory introduction ^ ^ Millar, Erin (2010-03-17). "SFU pursues American accreditation". Maclean's. Retrieved 13 November 2014.  ^ Standing Conference of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany, Foundation and Composition ^ Standing Conference of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany, Qualitätssicherung im Hochschulbereich ^ Kultusministerkonferenz. Ländergemeinsame Strukturvorgaben gemäß § 9 Abs. 2 HRG für die Akkreditierung von Bachelor- und Masterstudiengängen. October 10, 2003, amended September 18, 2008 ^ Council of Sciences and Humanities, Function Archived April 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Resolution of the Standing Conference of the Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany of December 16, 2004. Agreement on the Foundation "Foundation: Accreditation of Study Courses in Germany." Archived August 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Accreditation Council, Mission Statement ^ Accreditation Council, Accreditation Agencies ^ Accreditation Council, Accreditation of Programs ^ a b c "Higher Education". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-01.  ^ a b "Unaccredited, even fake, colleges in India add to education crisis". Seattle Times. April 2, 2012. Archived from the original on April 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-08.  ^ Manning, Maurice (23 February 2010). "The National University of Ireland's abolition?" (PDF). Public Affairs Ireland.  ^ "חוק המועצה להשכלה גבוהה, תשי"ח-1958". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2010-06-01.  ^ Finocchetti, C and Capucci, S, "Accreditation in the Italian University System" Information Center on Academic Mobility and Performance (CIMEA) (March 2003) "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-31. Retrieved 2012-02-02.  ^ "Commission of University Education (Kenya)". Archived from the original on 2013-06-23.  ^ Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders official website ^ (in Portuguese)15 mil alunos frequentam cursos não reconhecidos - Expresso (Nº1382), 24 April 1999, accessed December 2006 ^ (in Portuguese) Pedro Sousa Tavares, Governo desencadeia saneamento das privadas, Diário de Notícias (26 May 2007) ^ Alexandra Osipova. "NIC ARaM of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation". Retrieved 2010-06-01.  ^ ^ Retrieved 23 October 2011 Archived July 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [1][dead link] ^ คู่มือการประกันคุณภาพการศึกษาภายในสถานศึกษาระดับอุดมศึกษา พ.ศ. 2557 ^ Putthiwanit, C.; Ho, S.-H.; Litan, M. A. D. G. (2013). "The Influence of Self-service Technology on Efficiency and Productivity as a Catalyst to Student Satisfaction: A Guideline for ASEAN Universities". Preparation and Impact of Workforce Movement due to AEC Framework (การเตรียมความพร้อมและผลกระทบการเคลื่อนย้ายแรงงานบุคลากรสายวิชาชีพหลักตามกรอบประชาคมเศรษฐกิจอาเซียน): 108–112. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3643.9048/1.  ^ "Education Reform Act 1988, sections 214 to 217". Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ "Check if a university or college is officially recognised". 4 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ Evidence given by Charles Clarke, then Secretary of State for Education and Skills MP, to the Parliamentary Select Committee on Education and Skills, 7 July 2004 ^ "1988 Education Reform Act sections 132 and 133". Retrieved 2010-06-01.  ^ Alex Thompson, 2004. College fined £1,000. East End Life 29/11/04, Tower Hamlets Council. Google cache ^ "Private & Out-of-State Colleges & Universities Certified to Operate in Virginia". State Council of Higher Education for Virginia. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2009.  ^ CHEA Recognition Policy & Procedures ^ "Accreditation in the United States". US Department of Education.  ^ CHEA Overview "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-08-03.  ^ "The Higher Education Act No. 4 of 2013". National Assembly of Zambia. 2013-02-13. Archived from the original on 2017-02-07. Retrieved 2018-01-18. 

External links[edit] Stefanie Schwarz; Don F. Westerheikden, eds. (2003). "Accreditation in the framework of evaluation activities" (PDF). GEW.  Retrieved from "" Categories: Higher education accreditationEducational evaluation methodsHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksArticles with Portuguese-language external linksAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from January 2010Articles needing cleanup from November 2009All pages needing cleanupCleanup tagged articles without a reason field from November 2009Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from November 2009Articles needing additional references from February 2010All articles needing additional referencesArticles with multiple maintenance issuesWikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2014All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2014Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016All articles with failed verificationArticles with failed verification from December 2014Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009All pages needing factual verificationWikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2016

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