Contents 1 Syllables and stress 2 Key 3 Optional sounds 4 Notes 5 See also


Syllables and stress Syllables are separated by hyphens ("-") in the display. The stress on a syllable is indicated by bold capital letters in the display. For example, the word "pronunciation" (/prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃən/) is respelled prə-NUN-see-AY-shən. In this example, the primary and secondary stress are not distinguished, as the difference is automatic. When primary stress precedes secondary stress, however, it is advised to not indicate the secondary stress and to write, for example, KOWN-tər-fit instead of KOWN-tər-FIT because the latter would not distinguish between /ˈkaʊntərˌfɪt/ and /ˌkaʊntərˈfɪt/.


Key Vowels Rspl. Example(s) IPA a[1] trap /æ/ ah palm /ɑː/ air[2] square, scarce /ɛər/ ar[2] start /ɑːr/ arr marry[3] /ær/ aw thought, fall, straw[4] /ɔː/ ay face, fail, vein, pay /eɪ/ e[1] dress /ɛ/ eh[5] prestige ee fleece, meter, sea /iː/ happy, serious[6] /i/ eer[2] near, fierce /ɪər/ err error /ɛr/ ew[7] cute, beauty, dew[8] /juː/ ewr[2][7] cure /jʊər/ eye[9] item /aɪ/ i[1] kit /ɪ/ ih[10] historic ire[2] hire /aɪər/ irr mirror /ɪr/ o[1] lot[11] /ɒ/ oh goat, mode, toe /oʊ/ oir[2] coir /ɔɪər/ oo goose, you /uː/ situation[12] /u/ oor[2] poor, tourist[13] /ʊər/ or[2] north, war, force, more[13] /ɔːr/ orr moral /ɒr/ ow[14] mouth, how /aʊ/ owr[2] flour /aʊər/ oy choice, boy /ɔɪ/ u[1] cut, tough /ʌ/ uh[15] frustration ur[2] nurse, word, girl, fern /ɜːr/ urr hurry /ʌr/ uu[1] foot, full /ʊ/ uurr courier /ʊr/ y[9] price /aɪ/ ər[2] letter, picture, Oxford /ər/ ə comma, pencil, mountain /ə/ Consonants Rspl. Example(s) IPA b buy, cab /b/ ch[16] church, nature /tʃ/ d dye, cad /d/ dh this, breathe /ð/ f fool, graph /f/ g go, bag /ɡ/ gh[17] guess, guitar h high, ahead /h/ j jam, giant, badge /dʒ/ k quiz, sky, crack /k/ kh loch, Chanukah[18] /x/ l lie, bell /l/ m man, smile, cam /m/ n no, snow, tin /n/ ng[19] ring, singer /ŋ/ p pen, spin, tip /p/ r run, try, very /r/ s see, past /s/ ss[20] ice, tense sh she, emotion, cache /ʃ/ t two, sting, bet /t/ tch[16] church, natural /tʃ/ th thing, teeth /θ/ v voice, of /v/ w we, quick /w/ wh which[21] /hw/ y yes /j/ z zoo, rose, lens /z/ zh pleasure, vision, beige[22] /ʒ/


Optional sounds When a certain sound is pronounced by some speakers but not by others, the sound is put inside parentheses (round brackets). For example, the word "fuchsia" (/ˈfjuːʃ(i)ə/) could be respelled FEW-sh(ee-)ə, which can be pronounced either FEW-shee-ə or FEW-shə.


Notes ^ a b c d e f /æ, ɛ, ɪ, ɒ, ʌ, ʊ/ (a, e(h), i(h), o, u(h), uu) are checked vowels, meaning never occurring word-finally or before a vowel. While, in IPA, a consonant between a checked vowel and another vowel is usually attributed to the same syllable as the second vowel, in this respelling system, it is usually attributed to the same syllable as the first. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k In non-rhotic accents such as Received Pronunciation, r in syllable-final positions is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. ^ arr is pronounced the same as err (as in "merry") in dialects with the Mary–marry–merry merger. ^ aw is pronounced the same as o (as in "lot") in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of General American. ^ /ɛ/ is sometimes respelled eh instead of e in syllable-final positions, so as to avoid confusion with such sounds as ee and ay. ^ ee at the end of a word or before a vowel is pronounced the same as i in accents with happy tensing. While it is transcribed as /i/ in IPA, this distinction is not made in this respelling system. ^ a b ew(r) is for when /juː/ (or /jʊər/) takes place right after a consonant within the same syllable. When /juː/ (or /jʊər/) happens at the beginning of a syllable (e.g. "youth", "Europe"), use yoo(r). ^ In dialects with yod-dropping, ew is pronounced oo after t, d, s, z, n, th and l, so "tune" and "dew" are pronounced the same as "toon" and "do". ^ a b /aɪ/ is respelled y when preceded by a consonant and otherwise eye. When it is followed by a consonant within the same syllable, place an e after the consonant as necessary: "price" pryse, "tight" tyte ^ /ɪ/ is sometimes respelled ih instead of i in syllable-final positions, so as to avoid confusion with such sounds as eye. ^ o is pronounced the same as ah (as in "palm") in dialects with the father–bother merger such as General American. ^ u before a vowel is pronounced either oo or uu depending on the dialect. While it is transcribed as /u/ in IPA, this distinction is not made in this respelling system. ^ a b oor is pronounced the same as or in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including those spoken by younger speakers. ^ Respelling this sound could prove problematic as there are a variety of monosyllabic words spelled with "ow" that are pronounced with the oh sound: blow, blown, bow, bowl, clow, crow, flow, flown, glow, grow, grown, growth, growths, low, mow, mown, own, owt, owts, row, show, slow, snow, sow, sown, stow, strow, throw, tow, and trow. While owt(s) may be replaced with out(s), there is no universal solution to this problem and so respelling a word including this sound may be best avoided altogether. ^ /ʌ/ is sometimes respelled uh instead of u in syllable-final positions, so as to avoid confusion with such sounds as uu. ^ a b /tʃ/ is respelled tch instead of ch in syllable-final positions, so as to avoid confusion with such sounds as k and kh. ^ gh in lieu of g is used when otherwise there might be confusion with j. ^ In most dialects, /x/ (kh) is replaced by /k/ in most words, including "loch". Where the sound begins a word, such as "Chanukah", it is sometimes replaced with /h/. ^ Sequence /ŋk/ (as in "sink") is respelled nk instead of ngk, since the assimilation is obvious, except beyond a syllable boundary: "tinker" ting-ker ^ ss in lieu of s is used when otherwise there might be confusion with z: "ice" eyess, "tense" tenss (compare eyes, tens) ^ wh is pronounced the same as w in many dialects with the wine–whine merger. ^ A number of English words, such as "genre" and "garage", are pronounced with either j or zh.


See also {{Respell}}: the template and instructions for adding pronunciation respelling Pronunciation respelling for English Help:IPA/English Help:IPA/Conventions for English Wikipedia:WikiProject Spoken Wikipedia/Pronunciation task force Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Pronunciation_respelling_key&oldid=814689923" Categories: Wikipedia information pagesWikipedia pronunciation


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