Notes[edit] ^ a b c d e f /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕, ʝ˕] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/. Then, they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ] like English b, d, g, j, but they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts. When it is distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8). ^ a b c Most speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information. ^ a b c d The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ contrast only before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the neutralized nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel. ^ a b The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere. ^ a b Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between ⟨s⟩ (/s/) and soft ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩ (/θ/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft ⟨c⟩, ⟨z⟩ and even ⟨s⟩ as /θ/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information. ^ a b [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants. ^ The letter ⟨x⟩ represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas). ^ The letter ⟨h⟩ represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent. ^ /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as [tʃ] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou]. ^ The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/. ^ Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].


References[edit] Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/s0025100303001373 


External links[edit] Animations and video demonstrations of the IPA for Spanish by The Departments of Spanish and Portuguese, German, Speech Pathology and Audiology, and Academic Technologies at the University of Iowa. Spanish Phonetic Transcription Converter—Free Online Tool to convert Spanish Text to IPA Phonetic Transcription v t e International Phonetic Alphabet keys Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic Egyptian Hejazi Tunisian Aramaic Armenian Assamese Asturian Australian languages Azerbaijani Basque Belarusian Bengali Berber Breton Bulgarian Burmese Catalan Chinese Standard Cantonese Taiwanese Hokkien Corsican Czech Danish Dari Dothraki Dutch English Dialects Old English Esperanto Estonian Extremaduran Fijian Finnish Franco-Provençal French Frisian Saterland West Galician Gagauz Georgian German Standard Alemannic Greek Guarani Gujarati Haitian Creole Hawaiian Hebrew Hindi-Urdu Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Inuktitut Inupiaq Irish Italian Japanese Judaeo-Spanish Kannada Kashmiri Kazakh Khmer Klingon Korean Kouri-Vini Kurdish Lao Latin Latvian Laz Lithuanian Luxembourgish Macedonian Malagasy Malaysian Malayalam Maltese Manchu Manx Māori Marshallese Mayan Mingrelian Mongolian Mirandese Nahuatl Navajo Neapolitan Northern Thai Norwegian Occitan Odia Oromo Ossetic Persian Polish Portuguese Punjabi Quechua Ripuarian Colognian Romanian Romansh Russian Sanskrit Classical Sardinian Scottish Gaelic Serbo-Croatian Shan Slovak Slovene Spanish Svan Swahili Swazi Swedish Tagalog Tai Lü Tajik Tamil Thai Tibetan Tigrinya Turkish Turkmen Ukrainian Venetian Vietnamese Walloon Wandamen Welsh Xhosa Yiddish Zulu Comparisons with other English IPA conventions with Wikipedia pronunciation respelling key with other English pronunciation respelling keys Introductory guides Symbols For English speakers Manual of Style: Pronunciation Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:IPA/Spanish&oldid=819344751" Categories: International Phonetic Alphabet help


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