Main symbols The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end. Symbol Examples Description ^ top A [a] ( listen) German Mann For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father. [ä] ( listen) Mandarin 他 tā, American English ah, Spanish casa, French patte [aː] ( listen) German Aachen, French gare Long [a]. [ɐ] ( listen) RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written ⟨ʌ⟩.) [ɑ] ( listen) Finnish Linna, Dutch bad [ɑː] ( listen) RP father, French pâte Long [ɑ]. [ɑ̃] ( listen) French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ]. [ɒ] ( listen) RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded. [ʌ] ( listen) American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When ⟨ʌ⟩ is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].) [æ] ( listen) RP cat ^ top B [b] ( listen) English babble [ɓ] ( listen) Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants. [β] ( listen) Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children" Like [b], but with the lips not quite touching. ^ top C [c] ( listen) Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Romanian cameră "room"Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi. [ç] ( listen) German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!". [ɕ] ( listen) Mandarin 西安 Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she. [ɔ] ( listen) see under O ^ top D [d] ( listen) English dad [ɗ] ( listen) Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp. [ɖ] ( listen) American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back. [ð] ( listen) English the, bathe [dz]1 ( listen) English adds, Italian zero [dʒ]1 ( listen) English judge [dʑ]1 ( listen) Polish niedźwiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound. [dʐ]1 ( listen) Polish dżem "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back. ^ top E [e] ( listen) Spanish fe; French clé [eː] ( listen) German Klee Long [e]. Similar to English hey, before the y sets in. [ɘ] ( listen) Australian English bird [ə] ( listen) English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.) [ɚ] ( listen) American English runner [ɛ] ( listen) English bet [ɛ̃] ( listen) French Saint-Étienne, vin, main Nasalized [ɛ]. [ɜ] ( listen) RP bird (long) [ɝ] ( listen) American English bird ^ top F [f] ( listen) English fun [ɟ] ( listen) see under J [ʄ] ( listen) see under J ^ top G [ɡ] ( listen) English gag (Should look like . No different from a Latin "g") [ɠ] ( listen) Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp. [ɢ] ( listen) Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Muammar Gaddafi. [ʒ] ( listen) see under Z English beige. ^ top H [h] ( listen) American English house [ɦ] ( listen) English ahead, when said quickly. [ʰ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t]. [ħ] ( listen) Arabic ‏مُحَمَّد‎ Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger. [ɥ] ( listen) see under Y [ɮ] ( listen) see under L ^ top I [i] ( listen) French ville, Spanish Valladolid [iː] ( listen) English sea Long [i]. [ɪ] ( listen) English sit [ɨ] ( listen) Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses. ^ top J [j] ( listen) English yes, hallelujah, German Junge [ʲ] Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like. [ʝ] ( listen) Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger. [ɟ] ( listen) Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi. [ʄ] ( listen) Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp. ^ top K [k] ( listen) English kick, skip ^ top L [l] ( listen) English leaf [ɫ] ( listen) English wool Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small" "Dark" el. [ɬ] ( listen) Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey" Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit" By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla. [ɭ] ( listen) Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back. [ɺ] ( listen) A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together. [ɮ] ( listen) Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together. ^ top M [m] ( listen) English mime [ɱ] ( listen) English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f]. [ɯ] ( listen) see under W [ʍ] ( listen) see under W ^ top N [n] ( listen) English nun [ŋ] ( listen) English sing, Māori nga [ɲ] ( listen) Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon (/nj/ said quickly). [ɳ] ( listen) Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back. [ɴ] ( listen) Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat. ^ top O [o] ( listen) Spanish no, French eau [oː] ( listen) German Boden, French Vosges Long [o]. Somewhat reminiscent of English no. [ɔ] ( listen) German Oldenburg, French Garonne [ɔː] ( listen) RP law, French Limoges Long [ɔ]. [ɔ̃] ( listen) French Lyon, son Nasalized [ɔ]. [ø] ( listen) French feu, bœufs Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o]. [øː] ( listen) German Goethe, French Deûle, neutre Long [ø]. [ɵ] ( listen) Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front. [œ] ( listen) French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ]. [œː] ( listen) French œuvre, heure Long [œ]. [œ̃] ( listen) French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ]. [θ] ( listen) see under Others [ɸ] ( listen) see under Others ^ top P [p] ( listen) English pip ^ top Q [q] ( listen) Arabic ‏قُرْآن‎ Qur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat. ^ top R [r] ( listen) Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Often used for other rhotics, such as English [ɹ], when there's no ambiguity.) [ɾ] ( listen) Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R". [ʀ] ( listen) Dutch rood and German rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French. [ɽ] ( listen) Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back. [ɹ] ( listen) RP borrow [ɻ] ( listen) Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers. [ʁ] ( listen) French Paris, German Riemann Said back in the throat, but not trilled. ^ top S [s] ( listen) English sass [ʃ] ( listen) English shoe [ʂ] ( listen) Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back. ^ top T [t] ( listen) English tot, stop [ʈ] ( listen) Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back. [ts]2 ( listen) English cats, Russian царь tsar [tʃ]2 ( listen) English church [tɕ]2 ( listen) Mandarin 北京  Běijīng, Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound. [tʂ]2 ( listen) Mandarin 真正 zhēnzhèng, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back. ^ top U [u] ( listen) French vous "you" [uː] ( listen) French Rocquencourt, German Schumacher, close to RP food Long [u]. [ʊ] ( listen) English foot, German Bundesrepublik [ʉ] ( listen) Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u]. [ɥ] ( listen) see under Y [ɯ] ( listen) see under W ^ top V [v] ( listen) English verve [ʋ] ( listen) Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r. [ɤ] ( listen) see under Y [ɣ] ( listen) see under Y [ʌ] ( listen) see under A ^ top W [w] ( listen) English wow [ʷ] English rain [ɹʷeɪn] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, quick. [ʍ] ( listen) what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together [ɯ] ( listen) Turkish kayık "caïque", Scottish Gaelic gaol Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ]. [ɰ] ( listen) Spanish agua ^ top X [x] ( listen) Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", Spanish joven between [k] and [h] [χ] ( listen) northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back, in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x]. ^ top Y [y] ( listen) French rue Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u]. [yː] ( listen) German Bülow, French sûr Long [y]. [ʏ] ( listen) German Düsseldorf Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ]. [ɣ] ( listen) Arabic ‏غَالِي‎ ghālī and Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h]. [ɤ] ( listen) Mandarin 河南 Hénán, Scottish Gaelic taigh Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ]. [ʎ] ( listen) Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume. [ɥ] ( listen) French lui Like [j] and [w] said together. ^ top Z [z] ( listen) English zoo [ʒ] ( listen) English vision, French journal [ʑ] ( listen) formal Russian жжёшь [ʑːoʂ] "you burn", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey. [ʐ] ( listen) Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back. [ɮ] ( listen) see under L ^ top Others [θ] ( listen) English thigh, bath [ɸ] ( listen) Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching [ʔ] ( listen) English uh-oh, Hawai‘i, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɪnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [əˈʔæpl̩]. [ʕ] ( listen) Arabic ‏عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat. [ǀ] ( listen) English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǀ], [ɡǀ], [ŋǀ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo. [ǁ] ( listen) English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǁ], [ɡǁ], [ŋǁ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa. [ǃ] ( listen) Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǃ], [ɡǃ], [ŋǃ]. ^1 ^2 These symbols are officially written with a tie linking them (e.g. t͡ʃ), and are also sometimes written as single characters (e.g. ʧ) though the latter convention is no longer official. They are written without ligatures here to ensure correct display in all browsers.


Marks added to letters Several marks can be added above, below, before or after letters. These are here shown on a carrier letter such as the vowel a. A more complete list is given at International Phonetic Alphabet § Diacritics and prosodic notation. Symbol Example Description Signs above a letter [ã] French vin blanc [vɛ̃ blɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang. [ä] Portuguese vá [vä] "go" A central vowel pronounced with the tongue position in the middle of the mouth; neither forward nor back. Signs below a letter [a̯] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].) [n̥] Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa. [n̩] English button A consonant without a vowel. (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.) [d̪] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English. Signs next to a letter [kʰ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ]. [k’] Zulu ukuza "come" Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [tʼ pʼ qʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ]. [aː] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc. [aˑ] RP caught [ˈkʰɔˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɒt].) [ˈa] pronunciation [pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩] Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable. [ˌa] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable. [.] English courtship [ˈkɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break. (this is often redundant and therefore left off)


Brackets Two types of brackets are commonly used to enclose transcriptions in the IPA: /Slashes/ indicate sounds that are distinguished as the basic units of words in a language by native speakers; these are called phonemes. Changing the symbols between these slashes would either change the identity of the word or produce nonsense. For example, since there is no meaningful difference to a native speaker between the two sounds written with the letter L in the word lulls, they are considered the same phoneme, and so, using slashes, they are given the same symbol in IPA: /ˈlʌlz/. Similarly, Spanish la bamba is transcribed phonemically with two instances of the same b sound, /la ˈbamba/, despite the fact that they sound different to a speaker of English. Thus a reader who is not familiar with the language in question might not know how to interpret these transcriptions more narrowly. [Square brackets] indicate the narrower or more detailed phonetic qualities of a pronunciation, not taking into account the norms of the language to which it belongs; therefore, such transcriptions do not regard whether subtly different sounds in the pronunciation are actually noticeable or distinguishable to a native speaker of the language. Within square brackets is what a foreigner who does not know the structure of a language might hear as discrete units of sound. For instance, the English word lulls may be pronounced in a particular dialect more specifically as [ˈlɐɫz], with different letter L sounds at the beginning and end. This may be obvious to speakers of languages that differentiate between the sounds [l] and [ɫ]. Likewise, Spanish la bamba (pronounced without a pause) has two different b-sounds to the ears of foreigners or linguists—[la ˈβamba]—though a native Spanish speaker might not be able to hear it. Omitting or adding such detail does not make a difference to the identity of the word, but helps to give a more precise pronunciation. A third kind of bracket is occasionally seen: Either //double slashes// or |pipes| (or occasionally other conventions) show that the enclosed sounds are theoretical constructs that are not actually heard. (This is part of morphophonology.) For instance, most phonologists argue that the -s at the ends of verbs, which surfaces as either /s/ in talks /tɔːks/ or as /z/ in lulls /lʌlz/, has a single underlying form. If they decide this form is an s, they would write it //s// (or |s|) to claim that phonemic /tɔːks/ and /lʌlz/ are essentially //tɔːks// and //lʌls// underneath. If they were to decide it was essentially the latter, //z//, they would transcribe these words //tɔːkz// and //lʌlz//. Lastly, ⟨Angle brackets⟩ are used to set off orthography, as well as transliteration from non-Latin scripts. Thus ⟨lulls⟩, ⟨la bamba⟩, the letter ⟨a⟩. Angle brackets are not supported by all fonts, so a template {{angle bracket}} (shortcut {{angbr}}) is used to ensure maximal compatibility. (Comment there if you're having problems.)


Rendering issues IPA typeface support is increasing, and is now included in several typefaces such as the Times New Roman versions that come with various recent computer operating systems. Diacritics are not always properly rendered, however. IPA typefaces that are freely available online include Gentium, several from the SIL (such as Charis SIL, and Doulos SIL), Dehuti, DejaVu Sans, and TITUS Cyberbit, which are all freely available; as well as commercial typefaces such as Brill, available from Brill Publishers, and Lucida Sans Unicode and Arial Unicode MS, shipping with various Microsoft products. These all include several ranges of characters in addition to the IPA. Modern Web browsers generally do not need any configuration to display these symbols, provided that a typeface capable of doing so is available to the operating system. Particularly, the following symbols may be shown improperly depending on your font: Voiced velar plosive These two characters should look similar: ɡ If in the box to the left you see the symbol rather than a lower-case open-tail g, you may be experiencing a well-known bug in the font MS Reference Sans Serif; switching to another font may fix it. On your current font: [ɡ], and in several other fonts: Arial: [ɡ] Arial Unicode MS: [ɡ] Biolinum: [ɡ] Bitstream Cyberbit: [ɡ] Cambria: [ɡ] Calibri: [ɡ] Charis SIL: [ɡ] Chrysanthi: [ɡ] Code2000: [ɡ] DejaVu Sans: [ɡ] Doulos SIL: [ɡ] Everson Mono: [ɡ] Gentium: [ɡ] GentiumAlt: [ɡ] Gentium Plus: [ɡ] Helvetica: [ɡ] Helvetica Neue: [ɡ] Hiragino Kaku Gothic: [ɡ] Linux Libertine: [ɡ] Lucida Grande: [ɡ] Lucida Sans: [ɡ] Matrix: [ɡ] Quivira: [ɡ] STIX: [ɡ] Segoe UI: [ɡ] Times New Roman: [ɡ] TITUS Cyberbit Basic: [ɡ] Unifont: [ɡ] Affricates and double articulation The tie bar is intended to cover both letters of an affricate or doubly articulated consonant. However, if your browser uses Arial Unicode MS to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences may look better than the correct order (letter, tie bar, letter) due to a bug in that font: ts͡, tʃ͡, tɕ͡, dz͡, dʒ͡, dʑ͡, tɬ͡, kp͡, ɡb͡, ŋm͡. Here is how the proper configuration displays in your default IPA font: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m, and in several other fonts: Arial: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Arial Unicode MS: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Biolinum: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Bitstream Cyberbit: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Cambria: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Calibri: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Charis SIL: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Chrysanthi: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Code2000: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m DejaVu Sans: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Doulos SIL: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Everson Mono: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Gentium: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m GentiumAlt: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Gentium Plus: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Helvetica: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Helvetica Neue: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Hiragino Kaku Gothic: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Linux Libertine: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Lucida Grande: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Lucida Sans: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Matrix: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Quivira: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m STIX: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Segoe UI: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Times New Roman: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m TITUS Cyberbit Basic: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Unifont: t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m Angle brackets True angle brackets, ⟨ ⟩, are unsupported by several common fonts. Here is how they display in your default settings: ⟨...⟩ (unformatted) ⟨...⟩ (default IPA font) ⟨...⟩ (default Unicode font), and in several specific fonts: Arial: ⟨...⟩ Arial Unicode MS: ⟨...⟩ Biolinum: ⟨...⟩ Bitstream Cyberbit: ⟨...⟩ Cambria: ⟨...⟩ Calibri: ⟨...⟩ Charis SIL: ⟨...⟩ Chrysanthi: ⟨...⟩ Code2000: ⟨...⟩ DejaVu Sans: ⟨...⟩ Doulos SIL: ⟨...⟩ Everson Mono: ⟨...⟩ Gentium: ⟨...⟩ GentiumAlt: ⟨...⟩ Gentium Plus: ⟨...⟩ Helvetica: ⟨...⟩ Helvetica Neue: ⟨...⟩ Hiragino Kaku Gothic: ⟨...⟩ Linux Libertine: ⟨...⟩ Lucida Grande: ⟨...⟩ Lucida Sans: ⟨...⟩ Matrix: ⟨...⟩ Quivira: ⟨...⟩ STIX: ⟨...⟩ Segoe UI: ⟨...⟩ Times New Roman: ⟨...⟩ TITUS Cyberbit Basic: ⟨...⟩ Unifont: ⟨...⟩


Computer input using on-screen keyboard Online IPA keyboard utilities[1] are available and they cover the (complete) range of IPA symbols and diacritics.


See also Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA charts for diphthongs in various languages Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation)#Entering IPA characters


External links Ultrasound and MRI videos of production of the sounds of the IPA charts IPA pronunciation chart with audio IPA Chart with audio – pronunciation charts with an interactive chart of all IPA symbols with their sounds (Flash) Getting JAWS 6.1 to recognize "exotic" Unicode symbols—For help on getting the screen reader JAWS to read IPA symbols


References ^ Online IPA keyboard utilities like IPA character picker 19 at GitHub, TypeIt.org, or IPA Chart keyboard at GitHub, Portals Access related topics Help portal Language portal Writing portal v t e International Phonetic Alphabet keys Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic Egyptian Hejazi Tunisian Aramaic Armenian Assamese Asturian Australian languages Azerbaijani Basque Belarusian Bengali Berber Breton Bulgarian Burmese Catalan Chinese Standard Cantonese Taiwanese Hokkien Corsican Czech Danish Dari Dothraki Dutch English Dialects Old English Esperanto Estonian Extremaduran Fijian Finnish Franco-Provençal French Frisian Saterland West Galician Gagauz Georgian German Standard Alemannic Gorani Greek Guarani Gujarati Haitian Creole Hawaiian Hebrew Hindi-Urdu Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Inuktitut Inupiaq Irish Italian Japanese Judaeo-Spanish Kannada Kashmiri Kazakh Khmer Klingon Korean Kouri-Vini Kurdish Lao Latin Latvian Laz Lithuanian Luxembourgish Macedonian Malagasy Malaysian Malayalam Maltese Manchu Manx Māori Marshallese Mayan Mingrelian Mongolian Mirandese Nahuatl Navajo Neapolitan Northern Thai Norwegian Occitan Odia Oromo Ossetic Persian Polish Portuguese Punjabi Quechua Ripuarian Colognian Romanian Romansh Russian Sanskrit Classical Sardinian Scottish Gaelic Serbo-Croatian Shan Slovak Slovene Spanish Svan Swahili Swazi Swedish Tagalog Tai Lü Tajik Tamil Thai Tibetan Tigrinya Turkish Turkmen Ukrainian Venetian Vietnamese Walloon Wandamen Welsh Xhosa Yiddish Zaza Zulu Comparisons with other English IPA conventions with Wikipedia pronunciation respelling key with other English pronunciation respelling keys Introductory guides Symbols For English speakers Manual of Style: Pronunciation Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:IPA&oldid=823958805" Categories: Wikipedia information pagesInternational Phonetic Alphabet helpHidden categories: Wikipedia semi-protected project pages


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Help:IPA - Photos and All Basic Informations

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This Page Is Semi-protected.Help:Special CharactersHelp:IPA/IntroductionWikipedia:Project NamespaceWikipedia:Policies And GuidelinesWikipedia:ConsensusWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:Media HelpInternational Phonetic AlphabetHelp:IPA/EnglishInternational Phonetic AlphabetWikipedia:Manual Of Style/PronunciationReceived PronunciationFrench PhonologyStandard German PhonologySpanish PhonologyStandard ChineseHindustani PhonologyArabic PhonologyRussian PhonologySwahili LanguageTurkish PhonologyZulu LanguageOpen Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundOpen Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundOpen Central Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundOpen Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundAachenNear-open Central Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundKaiserslauternOpen Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundFinnish PhonologyVäinö LinnaOpen Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundNasal VowelAbout This SoundCaenOpen Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundOpen-mid Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundNear-open Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundVoiced Bilabial StopAbout This SoundVoiced Bilabial ImplosiveAbout This SoundImplosive ConsonantVoiced Bilabial FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Palatal StopAbout This SoundKebabRoomVoiceless Palatal FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Alveolo-palatal FricativeAbout This SoundXi'anOpen-mid Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundVoiced Dental And Alveolar StopsAbout This SoundVoiced Alveolar ImplosiveAbout This SoundVoiced Retroflex StopAbout This SoundVoiced Dental FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Alveolar AffricateAbout This SoundVoiced Palato-alveolar AffricateAbout This SoundVoiced Alveolo-palatal AffricateAbout This SoundPolish PhonologyVoiced Retroflex AffricateAbout This SoundClose-mid Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundClose-mid Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundClose-mid Central Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundMid Central VowelAbout This SoundR-colored VowelAbout This SoundOpen-mid Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundNasal VowelAbout This SoundSaint-ÉtienneOpen-mid Central Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundR-colored VowelAbout This SoundVoiceless Labiodental FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Palatal StopAbout This SoundVoiced Palatal ImplosiveAbout This SoundVoiced Velar StopAbout This SoundRepresentation In The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)Voiced Velar ImplosiveAbout This SoundVoiced Uvular StopAbout This SoundPersian PhonologyMuammar GaddafiVoiced Postalveolar FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Glottal FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Glottal FricativeAbout This SoundAspirated ConsonantVoiceless Pharyngeal FricativeAbout This SoundLabialized Palatal ApproximantAbout This SoundVoiced Dental And Alveolar Lateral FricativesAbout This SoundClose Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundValladolidClose Front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundNear-close Near-front Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundClose Central Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundPalatal ApproximantAbout This SoundPalatalization (phonetics)LeninVoiced Palatal FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Palatal StopAbout This SoundVoiced Palatal ImplosiveAbout This SoundVoiceless Velar StopAbout This SoundDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsAbout This SoundDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsAbout This SoundVoiceless Dental And Alveolar Lateral FricativesAbout This SoundWelsh LanguageNelson MandelaRetroflex Lateral ApproximantAbout This SoundDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral FlapsAbout This SoundVoiced Dental And Alveolar Lateral FricativesAbout This SoundBilabial NasalAbout This SoundLabiodental NasalAbout This SoundClose Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundVoiceless Labialized Velar ApproximantAbout This SoundDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsAbout This SoundVelar NasalAbout This SoundPalatal NasalAbout This SoundRetroflex NasalAbout This SoundVarunaUvular NasalAbout This SoundClose-mid Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundClose-mid Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundVosgesOpen-mid Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundOldenburg (disambiguation)GaronneOpen-mid Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundLimogesNasal VowelAbout This SoundLyonClose-mid Front Rounded VowelAbout This SoundClose-mid Front Rounded VowelAbout This SoundJohann Wolfgang Von GoetheDeûleClose-mid Central Rounded VowelAbout This SoundOpen-mid Front Rounded VowelAbout This SoundGöttingenOpen-mid Front Rounded VowelAbout This SoundNasal VowelAbout This SoundVoiceless Dental FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Bilabial FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Bilabial StopAbout This SoundVoiceless Uvular StopAbout This SoundQur'anDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsAbout This SoundDental And Alveolar FlapsAbout This SoundUvular TrillAbout This SoundRetroflex FlapAbout This SoundAlveolar And Postalveolar ApproximantsAbout This SoundRetroflex ApproximantAbout This SoundVoiced Uvular FricativeAbout This SoundParisBernhard RiemannVoiceless Alveolar FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Postalveolar FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Retroflex FricativeAbout This SoundShaolin MonasteryAlexander PushkinVoiceless Dental And Alveolar StopsAbout This SoundVoiceless Retroflex StopAbout This SoundVoiceless Alveolar AffricateAbout This SoundVoiceless Palato-alveolar AffricateAbout This SoundVoiceless Alveolo-palatal AffricateAbout This SoundAbout This SoundVoiceless Retroflex AffricateAbout This SoundClose Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundClose Back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundRocquencourtMichael SchumacherNear-close Near-back Rounded VowelAbout This SoundClose Central Rounded VowelAbout This SoundLabialized Palatal ApproximantAbout This SoundClose Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundVoiced Labiodental FricativeAbout This SoundLabiodental ApproximantAbout This SoundVarunaClose-mid Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundVoiced Velar FricativeAbout This SoundOpen-mid Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundVoiced Labio-velar ApproximantAbout This SoundLabializationVoiceless Labialized Velar ApproximantAbout This SoundClose Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundScottish GaelicVoiced Velar ApproximantAbout This SoundVoiceless Velar FricativeAbout This SoundJohann Sebastian BachVoiceless Uvular FricativeAbout This SoundDutch PhonologyScheveningenClose Front Rounded VowelAbout This SoundClose Front Rounded VowelAbout This SoundBernhard Von BülowNear-close Near-front Rounded VowelAbout This SoundDüsseldorfVoiced Velar FricativeAbout This SoundClose-mid Back Unrounded VowelAbout This SoundHenanScottish GaelicPalatal Lateral ApproximantAbout This SoundLabialized Palatal ApproximantAbout This SoundVoiced Alveolar FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Postalveolar FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Alveolo-palatal FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Retroflex FricativeAbout This SoundVoiced Dental And Alveolar Lateral FricativesAbout This SoundVoiceless Dental FricativeAbout This SoundVoiceless Bilabial FricativeAbout This SoundMount FujiWharenuiGlottal StopAbout This SoundVoiced Pharyngeal FricativeAbout This SoundTenuis Dental ClickAbout This SoundWelshman NcubeCetshwayo KaMpandeTenuis Alveolar Lateral ClickAbout This SoundXhosa PeopleTenuis Alveolar ClickAbout This SoundInternational Phonetic AlphabetNasal VowelNasalizationCentral VowelCentral VowelDiphthongVoicelessnessSyllabic ConsonantDental ConsonantAspirated ConsonantEjective ConsonantLength (phonetics)Length (phonetics)Stress (linguistics)Secondary StressSyllableSyllablePhonemePhoneticsMorphophonologyOrthographyTransliterationTemplate:Angle BracketTemplate:AngbrTimes New RomanOperating SystemsGentiumSummer Institute Of LinguisticsCharis SILDoulos SILDejaVu FontsBitstream CyberbitFree Software Unicode TypefacesBrill PublishersLucida Sans UnicodeArial Unicode MSMicrosoftWeb BrowserRepresentation In The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)ArialArial Unicode MSLinux LibertineBitstream CyberbitCambria (typeface)CalibriCharis SILCode2000DejaVu SansDoulos SILEverson MonoGentiumGentiumAltGentium PlusHelveticaHelvetica NeueLinux LibertineLucida GrandeLucida Sans UnicodeQuivira (typeface)STIX Fonts ProjectSegoe UITimes New RomanTITUS Cyberbit BasicUnifontArialArial Unicode MSLinux LibertineBitstream CyberbitCambria (typeface)CalibriCharis SILCode2000DejaVu SansDoulos SILEverson MonoGentiumGentiumAltGentium PlusHelveticaHelvetica NeueLinux LibertineLucida GrandeLucida Sans UnicodeQuivira (typeface)STIX Fonts ProjectSegoe UITimes New RomanTITUS Cyberbit BasicUnifontArialArial Unicode MSLinux LibertineBitstream CyberbitCambria (typeface)CalibriCharis SILCode2000DejaVu SansDoulos SILEverson MonoGentiumGentiumAltGentium PlusHelveticaHelvetica NeueLinux LibertineLucida GrandeLucida Sans UnicodeQuivira (typeface)STIX Fonts ProjectSegoe UITimes New RomanTITUS Cyberbit BasicUnifontExtensions To The International Phonetic AlphabetDipthongWikipedia:Manual Of Style (pronunciation)Screen ReaderJAWS (screen Reader)Portal:Contents/PortalsPortal:HelpPortal:LanguagePortal:WritingTemplate:IPA KeysTemplate Talk:IPA KeysInternational Phonetic 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