Contents 1 Overview 1.1 Footnotes in action 2 Footnotes: the basics 3 Reference lists: the basics 4 Footnotes: using a source more than once 5 Reference lists: columns 6 List-defined references 7 Footnotes: embedding references 8 Footnotes: groups 9 Footnotes: predefined groups 9.1 Template use by reference group type 9.2 Issues 10 Reference lists: automatically generated 11 Footnotes: page numbers 12 Previewing edits 13 RefToolbar 14 Issues and limitations 15 Flagging inadequate referencing 16 See also


Overview[edit] Instructions on this page may not work with VisualEditor. If you have opted in, you can use either VisualEditor or classic editing through wiki markup (wikitext) to edit most pages. The directions on this page, especially about what codes to type to produce formatting effects, are predominantly geared toward wikitext editing. For instructions on editing with VisualEditor, see Wikipedia:VisualEditor/User guide. The Footnotes system shows two elements on the page: A Footnote marker is displayed in the article's content as a bracketed, superscripted number, letter, or word. Examples shown respectively are: [1][a][Note 1]. This footnote label is linked to the full footnote. Clicking on the footnote marker jumps the page down to the footnote and highlights the citation. Hovering over a footnote marker will, depending on the user's settings, show a pop-up box containing the footnote. A Footnote displays the full citation for the source. Together the footnotes are displayed in an ordered list wherever the reference list markup {{reflist}} is placed. Each entry begins with the footnote label in plain text. The entire reference list is formatted in a slightly smaller font. Each successive footnote label is automatically incremented. Thus the first footnote marker would be [1], the second would be [2] and so on. Custom labels are also incremented: [a][b][c], [Note 1] [Note 2] [Note 3]. For a single use footnote, the label is followed by a caret (^) that is a backlink to the matching footnote marker. For example: 1. ^ Citation If a named footnote is used in the text multiple times, then the footnote has multiple backlinks shown as letters: 2. ^ a b c Citation Clicking on the backlink or pressing backspace ← returns to the footnote marker. Footnotes in action[edit] The superscript numeral "1" in square brackets at the end of this sentence is an example of a footnote marker.[1] ^ This is a footnote that contains a citation or note.


Footnotes: the basics[edit] To create the footnote marker, determine the point in the page content where the marker is desired and enter the markup with the citation or note inside the <ref>...</ref> tags. For example: Markup Renders as This is page content.<ref>''LibreOffice For Starters'', First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18</ref> {{reflist}} This is page content.[1] ^ LibreOffice For Starters, First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18 The {{reflist}} template will be explained in the next section. The content inside the <ref>...</ref> will show in the reference list. The ref tags can be added anywhere a citation or note is needed. There must be content inside the tags, else an error will show. Ref tags should follow any punctuation (usually a period), not precede it; see WP:REFPUNC. There should be no space between the punctuation and the tag: Markup Renders as ...text.<ref>Content of the reference</ref> {{reflist}} ...text.[1]     Right ^ Content of the reference ...text<ref>Content of the reference</ref>. {{reflist}} ...text[1].     Wrong (tag before punctuation) ^ Content of the reference ...text. <ref>Content of the reference</ref> {{reflist}} ...text. [1]     Wrong (space before tag) ^ Content of the reference The content of the ref tags can be formatted using most wikimarkup or HTML markup, although techniques such as the pipe trick and template substitution will not work in footnotes. For example: Markup Renders as This is page content.<ref>''LibreOffice For Starters'', First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18</ref> {{reflist}} This is page content.[1] ^ LibreOffice For Starters, First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18 The ref tag content may also contain an internal or external link: Markup Renders as This is page content.<ref>''[http://www.example.org LibreOffice For Starters]'', First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18</ref> {{reflist}} This is page content.[1] ^ LibreOffice For Starters, First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18 URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported. If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with: sp " ' < > [ ] { | }  %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.


Reference lists: the basics[edit] Once any number of footnotes have been inserted into the content, the reference list must be generated. For the basic reference list, add {{reflist}} wherever the list is desired. Once the page is published and viewed, the footnotes will be automatically generated and numbered and the reference list will be generated. The main reference list is placed in a separate section, usually titled "References", "Notes" or the like. Markup Renders as This is page content.<ref>''LibreOffice For Starters'', First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18</ref> ==References== {{reflist}} This is page content.[1] References ^ LibreOffice For Starters, First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18 Notes Shortcut HELP:MULTIREF In some cases, a page has more than one reference list. Until 2014, multiple uses of {{reflist}} on the same page required use of a |close= parameter; that bug has been fixed and the|close= parameter may safely be removed. When editing, <references /> may be seen instead of {{reflist}}. This is valid, but <references /> does not offer the advanced features of {{reflist}}.


Footnotes: using a source more than once[edit] Shortcuts WP:REFNAME WP:NAMEDREFS See also: Wikipedia:Citing sources § Citing multiple pages of the same source You can cite the same source more than once on a page by using named footnotes. The syntax to define a named footnote is: <ref name="name">content</ref> To invoke the named footnote: <ref name="name" /> Names for footnotes and groups must follow these rules: Names are case-sensitive Names MUST NOT be purely numeric; they should have semantic value so that they can be more easily distinguished from each other by human editors. Names must be unique—you may not use the same name to define different groups or footnotes Quotation marks are optional if the only characters used are letters A–Z, a–z, digits 0–9, and the symbols ! $ % & ( ) * , - . : ; < @ [ ] ^ _ ` { | } ~. The forbidden printable ASCII characters are # " ' / = > ? \ . Inclusion of any other characters, including spaces, requires that the reference name be enclosed in quotes: name="John Smith". The quote marks must be the standard straight keyboard marks ("); curly or other quotes will be parsed as part of the reference name. Quote-enclosed reference names may not include a less-than sign (<) or a double straight quote symbol ("). These may be escaped with &lt; and &quot;, respectively. Please consider keeping reference names simple and restricted to the standard English alphabet and numerals. You may optionally provide reference names even when the reference name is not required. This makes later re-use of the sourced reference easier. Markup Renders as This is page content.<ref name=manchester2002>''LibreOffice for Starters'', First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18</ref> This is more content.<ref name=manchester2002 /> {{reflist}} This is page content.[1] This is more content.[1] ^ a b LibreOffice for Starters, First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18 The actual name used can be almost anything, but it is recommended that it have a connection to the citation or note. A common practice is to use the author-year or publisher-year for the reference name. This helps editors remember the name, by associating it with the information that is visible to the reader. Note that the footnote labels are incremented in the order they are used, and that they use the same label when reused, thus the labels can seem out of order: Markup Renders as This is starter content.<ref name=manchester2002>''LibreOffice for Starters'', First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18</ref> This is expert content.<ref name=lexington2004>''OpenOffice for Experts'', Lexington, 2004, p. 18</ref> And more starter content.<ref name=manchester2002 /> And more expert content.<ref name=lexington2004 /> {{reflist}} This is starter content.[1] This is expert content.[2] And more starter content.[1] And more expert content.[2] ^ a b LibreOffice for Starters, First Edition, Flexible Minds, Manchester, 2002, p. 18 ^ a b OpenOffice for Experts, Lexington, 2004, p. 18 When using both names and groups, the syntax is: <ref name=name group=groupname>Content</ref> Care should be taken when deleting references to avoid creating a cite error. See Avoiding common mistakes


Reference lists: columns[edit] Shortcut H:REFCOLS Columns are not supported by Internet Explorer 9 and below; see {{reflist}} for technical details When using {{reflist}}, the list can be split into columns. {{reflist|xxem}} where xx is the column width in em. By setting the width in em, the number of columns will automatically be adjusted to the width of the display. The set columns feature is now deprecated in favor of the option described above, which is better suited to flexible formatting for a variety of display screen sizes, ranging from mobile phones and tablets to wide-screen "cinema" displays. Forcing a fixed number of columns has been disabled in mobile view. The number of columns to use is up to the editor, but some major practices include: {{Reflist}} - 1 column (default): Where there are only a few Footnotes; see Silver State Arena (23:05, 28 December 2012) {{Reflist|30em}}: Where there are many footnotes plus a page-width Bibliography subsection: see Ebola virus disease (06:28, 23 June 2013) {{Reflist|20em}}: Where Shortened footnotes are used; see NBR 224 and 420 Classes (13:32, 1 August 2011). For example: Using {{Reflist|30em}} will create columns with a minimum width of 30 em, 30em wide columns Markup Renders as Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref> Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref> ==References== {{Reflist|30em}} Lorem ipsum.[1] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[2] References ^ Source name, access date, etc. ^ Source name, access date, etc.


List-defined references[edit] Shortcut WP:LDR Main page: Help:List-defined references Some or all of the footnotes can also be defined within the reference section/list, and invoked in the page content. This keeps those citations in one central location and avoids cluttering the text (and any infobox). This is purely a source code change – the actual display of the citation in the text to a reader is unaffected. For a more detailed evaluation of this method, see WP:LDRHOW. The syntax is: {{reflist|refs= <ref name=name1>Content</ref> <ref name=name2>Content</ref> <ref name=name...n>Content</ref> }} or, alternatively, <references> <ref name=name1>Content</ref> <ref name=name2>Content</ref> <ref name=name...n>Content</ref> </references> The footnote markers are included as usual for a named footnote. For example: Markup Renders as The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.<ref name=LazyDog/> Amazingly few discotheques provide jukeboxes.<ref name=Jukeboxes/> How razorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts.<ref name=JumpingFrogs/> ==References== {{reflist| refs= <ref name=Jukeboxes>This is the jukeboxes reference.</ref> <ref name=LazyDog>This is the lazy dog reference.</ref> <ref name=JumpingFrogs>This is the jumping frogs reference.</ref> }} The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.[1] Amazingly few discotheques provide jukeboxes.[2] How razorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts.[3] References ^ This is the lazy dog reference. ^ This is the jukeboxes reference. ^ This is the jumping frogs reference. The references will be numbered, and appear in the output, in the order that they are first referred to in the content, regardless of their order within the list. All references in reference list must be referenced in the content, otherwise an error message will be shown.


Footnotes: embedding references[edit] Shortcut WP:REFNEST See also: WP:Nesting footnotes Explanatory notes may need to be referenced. Because of limitations in the Cite software, reference tags cannot be nested; that is, a set of <ref>...</ref> tags cannot be placed inside another pair of <ref>...</ref> tags. Attempting to do so will result in a cite error. The template {{refn}} may be used to nest references. The markup is: {{refn|name=name|group=group|content}} where name and group are optional. The content may include <ref> tags. The other templates listed below in Predefined groups are variants of {{refn}} that include a styled group and have a matching styled reference list template. Example: Markup Renders as The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.{{refn|group=nb|A footnote.<ref>A reference for the footnote.</ref>}} ==Notes== {{reflist|group=nb}} ==References== {{reflist}} The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.[nb 1] Notes ^ A footnote.[1] References ^ A reference for the footnote. The use of the magic word #tag:ref is valid, but the sequence of parameters is invariant and nonintuitive. {{refn}} and its variants use this markup internally. {{#tag:ref|refcontent|name=name|group=groupname}}


Footnotes: groups[edit] Shortcuts WP:REFGROUP WP:CITELABEL Sometimes it is useful to group the footnotes into separate lists, for example to separate explanatory notes from references, or to list references for tables, image captions, infoboxes and navboxes. The sequence of footnote labels is independent in each group. The syntax to define a footnote with a group is: <ref group=groupname>Content</ref> The footnote marker group name must be enclosed in quotes if the group name includes a space, else a cite error will occur, otherwise quotes are optional. The syntax for the reference list with a group is: {{reflist|group=groupname}} The reference list group name does not need to be enclosed in quotes. Example: Markup Renders as This part of the text requires clarification,<ref group=note>Listed separately from the citation</ref> whereas the entire text is cited.<ref>Citation.</ref> And this needs even more clarification.<ref group=note>Another note</ref> ==Notes== {{reflist|group=note}} ==References== {{reflist}} This part of the text requires clarification,[note 1] whereas the entire text is cited.[1] And this needs even more clarification.[note 2] Notes ^ Listed separately from the citation ^ Another note References ^ Citation. Note that the footnote labels in the reference list show only the numbers and not the group name. When using both names and groups, the syntax is: <ref name=name group=groupname>Content</ref> For the repeated note: <ref name=name group=groupname />


Footnotes: predefined groups[edit] Shortcuts H:PREGROUP WP:EXPLNOTE For technical details, see Help:Cite link labels. For Shortened footnotes with explanatory footnotes, see Help:Shortened footnotes § Explanatory notes. See also: Wikipedia:Citing sources § Variation in citation methods, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Layout § Notes and references There are several predefined groups that can have a reference list styled so that the label (a character within square brackets with all superscripted, e.g., [1]) of a note or citation (aka footnote, reference) matches and links to the note marker label located in the main text and the label in front of the note's text in the appropriate group's list. There can be more than one of these groups' lists in the Notes, References and other similarly purposed sections. These predefined note and citation groups have templates that make the wikitext markup simpler. These templates also allow a standard reference to be inserted, so that an explanatory note can have a reference, or citations can be nested. Note: If the note's text has a reference name that is used more than once, the labels will still match, but the clickable alpha characters that toggle the note's display will be next to the note's label, with links to the multiple locations of its marker in the main text. See WP:REFNAME and the first point below in § Issues. Template use by reference group type[edit] Group type Footnote marker template or markup Reference list template Sample labels none <ref>...</ref> {{reflist}} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 none {{refn}} (for nested references) {{reflist}} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 lower-alpha {{efn}} {{notelist}} a b c d e f g h i j upper-alpha {{efn-ua}} {{notelist-ua}} A B C D E F G H I J lower-roman {{efn-lr}} {{notelist-lr}} i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x upper-roman {{efn-ur}} {{notelist-ur}} I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X lower-greek[a] {{efn-lg}} {{notelist-lg}} α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ Note {{NoteTag}} {{NoteFoot}} Note 1 Note 2 Note 3 ^ Not supported by Internet Explorer 7 and below {{efn}} supports |name= and |group=, which work the same as the parameters in <ref>. Do not enclose values in quotes. {{notelist}} supports the column parameter, |refs= and |group=, which work the same as the parameters in {{reflist}}. Do not enclose values in quotes. In these examples, the footnote labels match between the footnote marker and the reference list: With lower-alpha labels Markup Renders as Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.{{efn|Footnote 1}} Consectetur adipisicing elit.{{efn|Footnote 2}} Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.{{efn|Footnote 3}} {{notelist}} Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[a] Consectetur adipisicing elit.[b] Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.[c] ^ Footnote 1 ^ Footnote 2 ^ Footnote 3 With lower-roman labels Markup Renders as Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.{{efn-lr|Footnote 1}} Consectetur adipisicing elit.{{efn-lr|Footnote 2}} Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.{{efn-lr|Footnote 3}} {{notelist-lr}} Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[i] Consectetur adipisicing elit.[ii] Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.[iii] ^ Footnote 1 ^ Footnote 2 ^ Footnote 3 With named references Markup Renders as Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.{{efn|name=fn1|Footnote 1}} Consectetur adipisicing elit.{{efn|Footnote 2}} Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.{{efn|name=fn1}} {{notelist}} Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[a] Consectetur adipisicing elit.[b] Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.[a] ^ a b Footnote 1 ^ Footnote 2 Named references can also be defined in the notelist Markup Renders as Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.{{efn|name=fn1}} Consectetur adipisicing elit.{{efn|name=fn2}} Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.{{efn|name=fn1}} {{notelist|refs= {{efn|name=fn1|Very long footnote 1}} {{efn|name=fn2|Very long footnote 2}} }} Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[a] Consectetur adipisicing elit.[b] Sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.[a] ^ a b Very long footnote 1 ^ Very long footnote 2 Issues[edit] Multiple backlink labels (see WP:REFNAME) are always styled as lower-alpha. This can be confusing when {{efn}} is used. See the note in the introduction of this section, above. The entries in the reference list will show the default decimal styling if: The value for |group= in {{reflist}} or <references /> does not exactly match one of the predefined values; use {{efn}} or variant as |group= will not be needed. The value for |group= in {{reflist}} or <references /> is enclosed by quotes; use {{efn}} or variant as |group= will not be needed. {{reflist}} is indented with the : markup. <references /> is used instead of {{reflist}} The entries in the reference list will have no styling if: A reference is included in {{navbox}} or one of the variants and the style is set to bodyclass=hlist; to resolve this, replace the style with listclass=hlist. Including external link markup will result in an error. Use the {{URL}} template instead: {{URL|1=url name|2=optional display text}}.


Reference lists: automatically generated[edit] Main page: Help:Automatically generated reference list A page with <ref> tags but no reference list markup used to display an error, except on talk and user pages. In recent versions of Wikipedia, the error no longer appears; instead an automatically generated reference list (AGRL) is displayed at the bottom of the page. Compared to the reference lists on properly formatted pages, an AGRL can be confusing to both readers and editors. But it is easily corrected by adding reference list markup such as the following. Add it at the position where the reference list would normally appear. ==References== {{reflist}} On talk pages, the {{reflist-talk}} template can be used to add a reference list to a specific discussion.


Footnotes: page numbers[edit] Main page: Help:References and page numbers Suppose you would like to cite one book, but different facts appear on different pages. You would like to cite the book again and again, but point each fact to the proper page. Suppose one fact is on page 8, a different fact on page 12, a third fact on page 18, a fourth fact on page 241. You could put a line in the "pages" parameter saying "see pages 8, 12, 18, 241" but a fact-checker might have to check all of them before figuring out the right one. Or, you could duplicate the entire citation for the book in each instance, but that would be redundant. One common approach is to use shortened citations, which requires the use of a References section following the footnotes section. A less common approach is to attach a {{rp|8}} right after the footnote marker and replace the "8" with the appropriate page number. For example: Markup Renders as Schudson said the Constitution shaped citizenship in fundamental ways.<ref name="Schudson">{{Cite book | last = Schudson | first = Michael | title = The Good Citizen: A Brief History of American Civic Life | publisher = Simon & Schuster | date = 1998 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=aawMAQAAMAAJ | isbn =0-684-82729-8 }}</ref>{{rp|8}} But elections in early American politics did not generate much interest<ref name="Schudson"/>{{rp|12}} while "open discussion of differences" was generally avoided.<ref name="Schudson"/>{{rp|18}} Citizenship later shifted to a polity of essentially "self-absorbed citizens", according to his analysis.<ref name="Schudson"/>{{rp|241}} Schudson said the Constitution shaped citizenship in fundamental ways.[1]:8 But elections in early American politics did not generate much interest[1]:12 while "open discussion of differences" was generally avoided.[1]:18 Citizenship later shifted to a polity of essentially "self-absorbed citizens", according to his analysis.[1]:241 References ^ a b c d Schudson, Michael (1998). The Good Citizen: A Brief History of American Civic Life. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-82729-8.  When using list-defined references, {{r}} can be used for the same style of in-text page references.


Previewing edits[edit] When you edit a single section of a page, the footnotes list will be visible when you preview your edits under the heading "Preview of references", although you will still not be able to see named references that were defined in other sections. Tools that can be used are the user:js/ajaxPreview or User:Anomie/ajaxpreview.js scripts or the wikEd gadget.


RefToolbar[edit] Main page: Wikipedia:RefToolbar/2.0 Using the citation toolbar to name the first reference. Using the citation toolbar to insert additional references to the first source. You can use the citation toolbar to name references. When you first create a reference, you can enter a value in the "Ref name" box. When you want to reuse this reference, click the "Named references" button on the citation toolbar and choose which reference you would like to insert.


Issues and limitations[edit] Cite bug list subst: does not work within <ref> tags. T4700 The pipe trick does not work within <ref> tags. T4700


Flagging inadequate referencing[edit] See also: Template: Unreferenced/doc § Usage The template {{Refimprove}} should be added to articles where there are some, but insufficient, inline citations to support the material currently in the article. For biographies of living persons, use {{BLP sources}} instead. The template {{Unreferenced}} should be added to articles with no references at all. For biographies of living persons, use {{BLP unsourced}} instead. The template {{Unreferenced section}} is for individual sections that have no citations in articles that have at least one citation somewhere else. For biographies of living persons, use {{BLP unsourced section}} instead. The template {{Medref}} is specifically for articles needing additional medical references.


See also[edit] Template:Harvard citation#Using CITEREF directly and {{sfnref}} Wikipedia:Citing sources/Further considerations—a how-to article with some additional considerations for citing sources Wikipedia:Help desk—to ask questions about using footnotes in articles if you were not able to find the information you need on this help page. Template:Editor tools—{{Editor tools}} v t e Wikipedia referencing Policies and guidelines Verifiability Biographies of living persons Identifying reliable sources Medicine Citing sources Scientific citations General advice Citation needed Find sources Combining sources Offline sources Referencing styles Citing sources Citation Style 1 Citation Style 2 Citation Style Vancouver LSA Comics Citation templates Reflist template Inline citations Footnotes Parenthetical referencing Punctuation and footnotes Shortened footnotes Nesting footnotes Help for beginners Reference-tags Citations quick reference Introduction to referencing Referencing with citation templates Referencing without using templates Referencing dos and don'ts Citing Wikipedia Advanced help Cite link labels Citation tools Cite errors Cite messages Converting between references formats Reference display customization References and page numbers Template documentation {{Edit refs}} {{Refref}} {{Refref2}} {{Refstart}} Tools Wikipedia Library v t e Wikipedia help pages Visit the Teahouse if you are a new editor looking for interactive help, or the Help desk for an interactive Q & A forum. FAQs (?) Reference desks (?) Noticeboards (?) Missing Manual (?) Cheatsheet (?) Directories (?) About Wikipedia Administration Purpose Principles Wikipedia in brief Policies and guidelines What Wikipedia is not Disclaimer (parental advice) Making requests where to ask questions contact Wikipedia directly Who writes Wikipedia? Why create an account? Help for readers FAQ Books Copyright Glossary Mobile access Navigation Other languages Searching Students Viewing media Contributing to Wikipedia A plain and simple overview A primer for newcomers Advice for young editors Avoiding common mistakes Etiquette (community expectations) Learning the ropes Instructional material Simplified Manual of Style Simplified rule-set "Ignore all rules" "The rules are principles" Style-tips Tip of the day Task Center Your first article (article wizard) Vandalism Getting started Wikipedia intro Wikipedia tutorial The Wikipedia Adventure Manual of Style intro Graphics tutorials Picture tutorial (Uploading intro) IRC (live chat) tutorial Navigating intro Policies intro Referencing intro Tables intro Talk pages intro VisualEditor user guide Dos and don'ts Accessibility Bio's Categorization Disambiguation Images Links Lists References Tables Talks How-to pages and information pages Appealing blocks Article deletion Categories Citations / references Referencing for beginners Citation Style 1 Cite errors References and page numbers Convert Diff Editing toolbar edit conflict Email confirmation Find sources Files Footnotes Image deletion Infoboxes Linking (link color) Logging in Merging Namespaces Page name Redirect Renaming pages Passwords Reverting Talk pages (archiving) URL User contributions User page design center Coding wiki markup Wiki markup Barcharts Calculations Characters Citation templates Columns Hidden text HTML Lists Magic words (introduction) Music symbols Sections Sounds Tables (introduction) Templates documentation messages cleanup messages Transclusion Visual files Wiki tools Directories Abbreviations Departments Editor's index Essays FAQs Glossary Guidelines Help menu Manual of Style Policies Shortcuts Tasks Tips Ask for help on your talk page Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Footnotes&oldid=815856240" Categories: Wikipedia how-toWikipedia editor helpWikipedia citation administration


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