Contents 1 Editing articles 1.1 Content protocols 1.2 Edit screen(s) 1.2.1 Minor edits 1.2.2 Major edits 1.3 Adding references 1.4 Adding images, sounds and videos 2 Article creation 3 Talk pages 4 Protected pages and source code 5 Policies and conventions 6 See also


Editing articles See also: Wikipedia:FAQ/Editing and Help:Editing with VisualEditor Content protocols Further information: Wikipedia:Core content policies When adding content and creating new articles an encyclopedic style with a formal tone is important. Instead of essay-like, argumentative, or opinionated writing, Wikipedia articles should have a straightforward, just-the-facts style. The goal of a Wikipedia article is to create a comprehensive and neutrally written summary of existing mainstream knowledge about a topic. Accordingly, Wikipedia does not publish original research. An encyclopedia is, by its nature, a tertiary source that provides a survey of information already the subject of publication in the wider world. Ideally all information should be cited and verifiable by reliable sources. Sourcing requirements are significantly stricter in articles on living persons. Edit screen(s) See also: Wikipedia:Tutorial/Editing Editing most Wikipedia pages is quite simple. Wikipedia uses two methods of editing: classic editing through wiki markup (wikitext) and through a new VisualEditor (VE). Wiki markup editing is chosen by clicking the Edit tab at the top of a Wikipedia page (or on a section-edit link). This will take you to a new page containing the editable contents of the current page. Wiki markup is used extensively throughout Wikipedia for such things as hyperlinks, tables and columns, footnotes, inline citation, special characters and so on. The VisualEditor option is intended as a user-friendly, "What You See Is What You Get" (WYSIWYG) editing aid allowing one to edit pages without the need to learn wikitext markup. It is only available to registered logged-in users through an opt-in choice available through personal preferences, see the VisualEditor user guide for more information. Two editing environments: wikitext and VisualEditor Edit box showing the wikitext markup (screenshot from 2012). You can change the formatting and contents of the page by changing what is written in this box. Screenshot showing the same article in VisualEditor. Unlike the wiki markup display, VisualEditor will show the text being edited almost as if it were already published. The Wikipedia community has developed style guidelines to make articles and facts appear in a standardized form, and Wikipedia easier to use as a whole. A basic list of wiki markup can be found on the cheatsheet. An "edit toolbar" is provided just above the edit box (pictured below), which will allow logged-in users (by selecting the option in personal preferences) to automatically place and format various aspects of wiki code. See Help:Wiki markup for more information, remember that you can't break Wikipedia, and, although there are many protocols, perfection is not required, as Wikipedia is a work in progress. When you have finished editing, you should write a short edit summary in the small field below the edit box (pictured below). You may use shorthand to describe your changes, as described in the legend. To see how the page looks with your edits, press the "Show preview" button. To see the differences between the page with your edits and the previous version of the page, press the "Show changes" button. If you're satisfied with what you see, be bold and press the "Publish changes" button. Your changes will immediately be visible to all Wikipedia users. Edit summary (Briefly describe your changes)   ☐ This is a minor edit ☑ Watch this page By publishing changes, you agree to the Terms of Use, and you irrevocably agree to release your contribution under the CC BY-SA 3.0 License and the GFDL. You agree that a hyperlink or URL is sufficient attribution under the Creative Commons license. Publish changes Show preview Show changes Cancel Note: Do not sign the edit summary line with your ~~~~ signature, as it does not work there. Minor edits Further information: Help:Minor edit The "minor edit" checkbox (circled) in the wikitext editor A check to the "minor edit" box signifies that only superficial differences exist between the version with your edit and the previous version: typo corrections, formatting and presentational changes, rearranging of text without modifying content, etc. A minor edit is a version that the editor believes requires no review and could never be the subject of a dispute. The "minor edit" option is one of several options available only to registered users. Editors should not feel that marking a change as minor devalues their effort. Major edits Further information: Wikipedia:Editing policy § Talking and editing All editors are encouraged to be bold, but there are several things that a user can do to ensure that major edits are performed smoothly. Before engaging in a major edit, a user should consider discussing proposed changes on the article discussion/talk page. During the edit, if doing so over an extended period, the {{In use}} tag can reduce the likelihood of an edit conflict. Once the edit has been completed, the inclusion of an edit summary will assist in documenting the changes. These steps will help all to ensure that major edits are well received by the Wikipedia community. A major edit should be reviewed to confirm that it is consensual to all concerned editors. Therefore, any change that affects the meaning of an article is major (not minor), even if the edit is a single word. There are no necessary terms to which you have to agree when doing major edits, but the preceding recommendations have become best practice. If you do it your own way, the likelihood of your edits being reedited may be higher. When performing a large edit, it is suggested that you periodically, and before pressing "Publish changes", copy your edits into an external text editor (preferably one without formatting, such as Notepad). This ensures that in the case of a browser crash you will not lose your work. If you are adding substantial amounts of work, it is also a good idea to publish changes in stages. Adding references Further information: Wikipedia:Referencing for beginners and Wikipedia:Citing sources Introductions: Help:Introduction to referencing (Wiki Markup) and Help:Introduction to referencing (VisualEditor) Play media A screencast that walks through the essentials needed in citing your sources. (2:01 min) Play media A screencast that walks through how to use the various features of RefTools. (5:03 min) Generally sources are added directly after the facts they support at the end of the sentence and after any punctuation. Wikipedia permits editors to use any citation system that allows the reader to understand where the information came from, and strongly encourages use of inline citations to do so. Common methods of placing inline citations include footnotes, shortened footnotes and parenthetical references. Inline citations are most commonly placed by inserting a reference between <ref> ... </ref> tags, directly in the text of an article. The reference is a footnote, appearing as an inline link (e.g. [1][2]) to a particular item in a collated, numbered list of footnotes, found wherever a {{Reflist}} template or <references /> tag is present, usually in a section titled "References" or "Notes". If you are creating a new page, or adding references to a page that didn't previously have any, don't forget to add a references section with this display markup. There are a number of tools available to help with citation placement and formatting, some of which are internal tools and scripts while others are available from external sites. For an example of the former, RefToolbar is a JavaScript toolbar displayed above the edit box that provides the ability to automatically fill out various citation templates and insert them in the text already formatting inside <ref> ... </ref> tags. For an example of the latter, the Wikipedia citation tool for Google Books converts a Google Books address (URL) into a filled-out {{cite book}} template ready to be pasted into an article. See Help:Citation tools for many others. Adding images, sounds and videos Main page: Wikipedia:Creation and usage of media files Introductions: Help:Introduction uploading images and Help:Introduction to images (VisualEditor) A file that is already hosted on Wikipedia or the Wikimedia Commons can be inserted with the basic code [[File:FILENAME|thumb|DESCRIPTION]]. (Image: can be substituted for File: with no change in effect; the choice between the two is purely a matter of editorial preference.) Using thumb generates a thumbnail of an image (the most common placement option), which is typically sized differently from the original image. The Wikimedia Commons' File Upload Wizard and Wikipedia's File Upload Wizard, will guide you through the process of submitting media. All files uploaded are mirrored between Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons, and searchable from either one. There are various file formats available.


Article creation Main page: Wikipedia:Your first article Play media A screencast demonstrating how to create a Wikipedia article manually. (7:50 min) Before starting a new article please understand Wikipedia's notability requirements. In short, the topic of an article must have already been the subject of publication in reliable sources, such as books published by major publishing houses, newspapers, magazines, peer-reviewed scholarly journals and websites that meet the same requirements as reputable print-based sources. Information on Wikipedia must be verifiable; if no reliable third-party sources can be found on a topic, then it should not have a separate article. Wikipedia's concept of notability applies this basic standard to avoid indiscriminate inclusion of topics. An Article Wizard is available to help you create articles — it is not required but will help you construct better articles. Only registered users may create articles directly, though people editing by their IP address can submit a proposed article through the Articles for Creation process, where it will be reviewed and considered for publication. Before creating an article, please search Wikipedia first to make sure that an article does not already exist on the subject, and please also review the article titling policy for guidance on what to name the article.


Talk pages Further information: Help:Using talk pages, Wikipedia:Talk page guidelines, and Wikipedia:Notifications Play media A screencast demonstrating how to use a talk page. (2:43 min) Every article on Wikipedia has a talk page, reached by clicking the "Talk" tab just above the title (for example, Talk:Alexander the Great). There, editors can discuss improvements to the content of an article. If you ever make a change that gets reverted by another editor, discuss the change on the talk page! The BOLD, revert, discuss cycle is a popular method of reaching consensus. It is very important that you conduct yourself with civility and assume good faith on the part of others. Edit warring (repeatedly overriding or reimplementing contributions) is highly discouraged. Most other types of pages on Wikipedia also have associated talk pages, including the User page each editor is assigned once they sign up. When other editors need to contact you, they will usually do this by leaving a message on your talk page. When someone has left you a message that way, you will see a notice the next time you log in or view a page on Wikipedia. Sign your contributions to a Talk page by using four tildes (~~~~), which produces your username and a time/date stamp.


Protected pages and source code Further information: Wikipedia:Rough guide to semi-protection, Wikipedia:Protection policy, Wikipedia:Requests for page protection, and Wikipedia:Lists of protected pages Some pages are protected from editing. These pages have a "View source" tab instead of an "Edit" tab. You can still edit these pages indirectly by submitting an edit request—an editor with the permission to edit the protected page will respond to it. To submit an edit request, click on the protected page's "View source" tab and then the "Submit an edit request" link at the bottom right.


Policies and conventions Further information: Wikipedia:Simplified ruleset and Wikipedia:Simplified Manual of Style Policies, guidelines, and formatting norms are developed by the community to describe the best practices, to clarify principles, resolve conflicts, and otherwise further our goals. Make sure that you submit information which is relevant to Wikipedia's specific purpose, or your content might be deleted. You can always use the talk pages to ask questions or check to see if your idea will be accepted. Please make note of which license will cover your contributions.


See also Helpful tips Wikipedia: The Missing Manual—Editing for the first time Wikipedia:Page size § If you have problems editing a long article Smartphone editing (User essay): a Wikipedia administrator's personal experiences and advice about phone editing Naming and moving Wikipedia:Article titles Moving a page to a new name Wikipedia:Namespace Contents portal Help portal Wikipedia portal Style and layout Wikipedia:Annotated article Wikipedia:Layout Wikipedia:Manual of Style Tools Help desk Draft:Sandbox Wikipedia:Text editor support Wikipedia:Tools Meta has related information at: Editing Related Wikipedia:WikiProject: if you are writing an article about something that belongs to a group of topics, check here first! Wikimedia Bookshelf: learning materials, videos, and handouts Wikipedia:Glossary: a glossary for Wikipedia editors Find this page confusing? Just use this link to ask for help on your talk page; a volunteer will visit you there shortly! v t e Wikipedia help pages Visit the Teahouse if you are a new editor looking for interactive help, or the Help desk for an interactive Q & A forum. FAQs (?) Reference desks (?) Noticeboards (?) Missing Manual (?) Cheatsheet (?) Directories (?) About Wikipedia Administration Purpose Principles Wikipedia in brief Policies and guidelines What Wikipedia is not Disclaimer (parental advice) Making requests where to ask questions contact Wikipedia directly Who writes Wikipedia? Why create an account? Help for readers FAQ Books Copyright Glossary Mobile access Navigation Other languages Searching Students Viewing media Contributing to Wikipedia A plain and simple overview A primer for newcomers Advice for young editors Avoiding common mistakes Etiquette (community expectations) Learning the ropes Instructional material Simplified Manual of Style Simplified rule-set "Ignore all rules" "The rules are principles" Style-tips Tip of the day Task Center Your first article (article wizard) Vandalism Getting started Wikipedia intro Wikipedia tutorial The Wikipedia Adventure Manual of Style intro Graphics tutorials Picture tutorial (Uploading intro) IRC (live chat) tutorial Navigating intro Policies intro Referencing intro Tables intro Talk pages intro VisualEditor user guide Dos and don'ts Accessibility Bio's Categorization Disambiguation Images Links Lists References Tables Talks How-to pages and information pages Appealing blocks Article deletion Categories Citations / references Referencing for beginners Citation Style 1 Cite errors References and page numbers Convert Diff Editing toolbar edit conflict Email confirmation Find sources Files Footnotes Image deletion Infoboxes Linking (link color) Logging in Merging Namespaces Page name Redirect Renaming pages Passwords Reverting Talk pages (archiving) URL User contributions User page design center Coding wiki markup Wiki markup Barcharts Calculations Characters Citation templates Columns Hidden text HTML Lists Magic words (introduction) Music symbols Sections Sounds Tables (introduction) Templates documentation messages cleanup messages Transclusion Visual files Wiki tools Directories Abbreviations Departments Editor's index Essays FAQs Glossary Guidelines Help menu Manual of Style Policies Shortcuts Tasks Tips Ask for help on your talk page v t e Wikipedia technical help Get personal technical help at the Teahouse, Help desk, Village pump (technical), talk pages or IRC. General technical help Editing Edit toolbar CharInsert Edit conflict Reverting VisualEditor User guide Create a page Page history Page information Page name Introduction Browser notes Keyboard shortcuts Troubleshooting Bypass cache Mobile access Multilingual support Special Characters Entering Printing User access levels Software notices Editnotice IRC Tutorial Special page related Special page help Searching Advanced search Linksearch Logging in Reset passwords Notifications/Echo FAQ Moving a page Fixing cut-and-paste moves Watching pages User contributions Emailing users Random pages Logs What links here Related changes Recent changes Pending changes Page Curation Page import Edit filter Tags Wikitext Wikitext main page Cheatsheet Colours use Columns Line-break handling Lists Magic words For beginners Conditional expressions Switch parser function Time function Redirects Sections and TOCs Tables Introduction Basics Conditional tables Sorting Collapsing Advanced table formatting Links and diffs URLs Links Permanent link Interwikimedia links Interlanguage links Link color Pipe trick Colon trick Magic links Diffs Simplest diff guide Simple diff and link guide Complete diff and link guide Media files: images, videos and sounds Media help Options to hide an image Uploading images Introduction Files Creation and usage Moving files to Commons Visual file markup Images Preparing images for upload Picture tutorial Extended image syntax Gallery tag Graphics tutorials Basic bitmap image editing How to improve image quality Graphics Lab resources Sound file markup SVG help Other graphics Family trees Graphs and charts How to create To scale charts Barcharts Math formula Math symbols Rendering math LaTeX symbols Musical scores Musical symbols Timeline EasyTimeline syntax WikiHiero syntax Templates and Lua modules Templates Template messages Citation templates Transclusion Labeled section Substitution Advanced template coding Template limits Template sandbox and test cases Template documentation Purge Job queue Lua help Lua project To do Resources Guide to Scribbling Data structure Namespaces Main/Article Talk namespaces Archiving User User page design Project/Wikipedia File File description page MediaWiki Bug reports and feature requests System message Template Help Category Portal Book Draft Education Program TimedText Module/Lua Topic/Flow Special Media HTML and CSS HTML in wikitext Markup validation Span tags Cascading Style Sheets Catalogue of CSS classes Useful styles Classes used in microformats Ambox classes Common.js and common.css User CSS for monospaced coding font Customisation and tools Preferences Skins Customizing watchlists Hide pages Gadgets Beta Features User scripts Guide Techniques IRC Scripts User styles Tools Navigation shortcuts Browser tools Alternative browsing Editing tools Optimum tool set Cleaning up vandalism tools Citation tools Wikimedia Cloud Services Automating editing Bots Creating Twinkle HotCat WPCleaner igloo AutoWikiBrowser Navigation popups STiki AfC helper script Huggle See also: Category:Wikipedia information pages Category:Wikipedia how-to Further navigation at: Help pages Administrators Templates Referencing Citation metadata Accessibility Bots User scripts Accounts v t e Wikipedia community For a listing of current collaborations, tasks, and news, see the Community portal. 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