Contents 1 United States 2 England and Wales 3 Canada 4 Australia 4.1 Uniform Evidence Act 5 Malaysia 6 New Zealand 7 Norway 8 Sri Lanka 9 Sweden 10 Hong Kong 11 See also 12 References

United States[edit] Main article: Hearsay in United States law The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right ... to be confronted with the witnesses against him". "Hearsay is a statement, other than one made by the declarant while testifying at the trial or hearing, offered in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted."[1] Per Federal Rule of Evidence 801(d)(2)(a), a statement made by a defendant is admissible as evidence only if it is inculpatory; exculpatory statements made to an investigator are hearsay and therefore may not be admitted as evidence in court, unless the defendant testifies.[3] When an out-of-court statement offered as evidence contains another out-of-court statement it is called double hearsay, and both layers of hearsay must be found separately admissible.[4] There are several exceptions to the rule against hearsay in U.S. law.[1] Federal Rule of Evidence 803 lists the following: Statement against interest Present sense impressions and Excited utterances Then existing mental, emotional, or physical condition[when defined as?] Medical diagnosis or treatment Recorded recollection Records of regularly conducted activity Public records and reports, as well as absence of entry in records Records of vital statistics Absence of public record or entry Records of religious organizations Marriage, baptismal, and similar certificates, and Family and Property records Statements in documents affecting an interest in property Statements in ancient documents the authenticity of which can be established. Market reports, commercial publications "Learned treatises" Reputation concerning personal or family history, boundaries, or general history, or as to character Judgment of previous conviction, and as to personal, family or general history, or boundaries.[1] Also, some documents are self-authenticating under Rule 902, such as (1) domestic public documents under seal, (2) domestic public documents not under seal, but bearing a signature of a public officer, (3) foreign public documents, (4) certified copies of public records, (5) official publications, (6) newspapers and periodicals, (7) trade inscriptions and the like, (8) acknowledged documents (i.e. by a notary public), (9) commercial paper and related documents, (10) presumptions under Acts of Congress, (11) certified domestic records of regularly conducted activity, (12) certified foreign records of regularly conducted activity.[1]

England and Wales[edit] Main article: Hearsay in English law In England and Wales, hearsay is generally admissible in civil proceedings,[5] but is only admissible in criminal proceedings if it falls within a statutory or a preserved common law exception,[6] all of the parties to the proceedings agree, or the court is satisfied that it is in the interests of justice that the evidence is admissible.[7] Section 116 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 provides that, where a witness is unavailable, hearsay is admissible where a) the relevant person is dead; b) the relevant person is unfit to be a witness because of his bodily or mental condition; c) the relevant person is outside the UK and it is not reasonably practicable to secure his attendance; d) the relevant person cannot be found; e) through fear, the relevant person does not give oral evidence in the proceedings and the court gives leave for the statement to be given in evidence. The two main common law exceptions to the rule that hearsay is inadmissible are res gestae and confessions.

Canada[edit] Hearsay evidence is generally inadmissible in Canada unless it falls within one of the established common law exceptions. As a result of the Supreme Court's decision in R. v. Khan and subsequent cases, hearsay evidence that does not fall within the established exceptions can be admitted where established that such evidence is both "necessary and reliable". Additionally, hearsay evidence that would otherwise be admissible as an exception can nonetheless be excluded if it is not necessary and reliable, as in R. v. Starr.

Australia[edit] The rules of evidence differ among the states and the Commonwealth; the Commonwealth, Victoria, NSW, Tasmania, and the ACT all share similar hearsay provisions in their Uniform Evidence Acts;[8] the other states rely upon the common law. As elsewhere, hearsay is usually inadmissible, outside of interlocutory proceedings, unless it falls within one of the hearsay exceptions. Uniform Evidence Act[edit] Hearsay is dealt with under Part 3.2. There are several local peculiarities with its treatment. s 59 defines the 'fact' of a hearsay statement as being something 'that it can reasonably be supposed that the person intended to assert by the representation'. Hearsay rule confines the potentially broad number of assertions it might cover by this broad definition of representation to only intended representations adduced to prove existence of the asserted facts. In Lee v Queen,[9] the term 'representation' was used to apply to statements and to conduct and was used to encompass all those statements or that conduct would convey to the observer. The extraordinary s 60 allows a statement's use as hearsay if it is admitted for a non-hearsay purpose, although the application of s 60 may be limited by s 137 (which is essentially the discretion formerly known as Christie.) s 72 excepts 'evidence of a representation about ... the traditional laws and customs of an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander group', although this arguably would have fallen into the 'public right' exception at common law. Confessions are called 'admissions' by the Act (which quite foreseeably led to the confusion whereby counsel apply for the 'admission of the admission'.) They are dealt with separately under Part 3.4, which lifts the hearsay rule. The Act's dictionary defines 'admission' broadly enough to include anything that might be used against the accused. The other sections in the Part for the most part codify, roughly, the common-law rules.

Malaysia[edit] In Malaysia, hearsay evidence is generally not allowed. However, the Evidence Act 1950 permitted a few exceptions, such as section 6, 73A, etc.

New Zealand[edit] Hearsay evidence is covered by sections 16-22 of the Evidence Act 2006. Previously inadmissible, the 1989 decision of the Court of Appeal in R v Baker created a common law exception to the hearsay rule based on reliability, which was codified in the Evidence Act. Pursuant to s 4(1) of the Act, a hearsay statement is a statement made by someone other than a witness (in the proceedings) that is offered to prove the truth of its contents. Under section 17 of this Act a hearsay statement is generally not admissible in any court proceeding. Though section 18 states when a hearsay statement may be able to be given in court. This is when the statement is reliable, the statement maker is unavailable to be called as a witness or it would provide undue expense and delay if that person was required to be a witness. There are also a number of specific exceptions such as statements in business records. Other exceptions include state of mind evidence (see R v Blastland) and whether the statement is tendered to prove the fact it was uttered or made, rather than to prove the truth of its contents (see DPP v Subramaniam).

Norway[edit] Even if Norway has a maxim of "free evidence" (any statement, object, forensics or other matters that may apply) to be entered and admitted in court, hearsay is in conflict with the defense cousel's or prosecution's ability to cross examine, as the witness who relayed the original statement is not present in court. In practise, hearsay is then not allowed.

Sri Lanka[edit] In Sri Lanka, hearsay evidence is generally not allowed. However, the Evidence Ordinance recognizes a few exceptions such as res gestae (recognised under Section 6) and common intention (recognised under Section 10)and some other exceptions from section 17 to section 39. Some other exceptions are provided by case law (see Subramaniam v. DPP [1956] 1 WLR 956 (PC)).

Sweden[edit] Sweden allows hearsay evidence.[10] This has to be trustworthy. For example, a police officer can testify what another person said.

Hong Kong[edit] In Hong Kong, hearsay is generally admissible in civil proceedings under the statutory regime.[11] Section 46 of the Evidence Ordinance provides that evidence shall not be excluded on the ground that it is hearsay in civil proceedings unless: the party against whom the evidence is to be adduced objects to the admission of the evidence; as well as: the court is satisfied, having regard to the circumstances of the case, that the exclusion of the evidence is not prejudicial to the interests of justice. Sections 47A to 51 provides for safeguards in relation to hearsay evidence admissible under section 46 so as to avoid abuses of the general admission: the obligation to give notice and particulars to other parties when proposing to adduce hearsay evidence (Section 47A); the power to call witness for cross-examination on hearsay statement with the leave of the court (Section 48); consideration relevant to weighing of hearsay evidence (Section 49); competence and credibility (Section 50); and, previous statement of witness (Section 51). The courts shall draw inferences from the circumstances as to the weight attached to hearsay evidence, in particular:[12] whether it would have been reasonable and practicable for the party by whom the evidence was adduced to have produced the maker of the original statement as a witness; whether the original statement was made contemporaneously with the occurrence or existence of the matters stated; whether the evidence involves multiple hearsay; whether any person involved had any motive to conceal or misrepresent matters; whether the original statement was an edited account, or was made in collaboration with another or for a particular purpose; whether the circumstances in which the evidence is adduced as hearsay are such as to suggest an attempt to prevent proper evaluation of its weight; whether or not the evidence adduced by the party is consistent with any evidence previously adduced by the party. The new civil regime also preserves a number of common law exceptions that are unaffected by the statutory safeguards except for the section 47A safeguard relating to notice.[13] In criminal proceedings, the law relating to hearsay has not been substantially changed in Hong Kong, and the common law regime remains the rules followed by the Hong Kong criminal courts. Hearsay evidence is inadmissible in all criminal cases except for common law and statutory exemptions, which include: admissions and confessions, dying declarations, declarations in the course of duty, declarations against interest, co-conspirator's rule, statements in public documents, out-of-court statements, evidence in former proceedings, and Res gestae. Statutory exceptions in criminal cases include: negative assertions (s.17A Evidence Ordinance), bank records (ss.19B and 20 Evidence Ordinance), documentary records compiled by a person under a duty (s.22 Evidence Ordinance), computer records (s.22A Evidence Ordinance), and agreed written statements (s.65B Criminal Procedure Ordinance).

See also[edit] Gossip List of objections (law) Moral certainty Probable cause Reasonable person Reasonable suspicion Scuttlebutt

References[edit] ^ a b c d e Federal Rules of Evidence, December 1st2009 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-08. Retrieved 2010-09-30.  ^ "HEARSAY RULE: FRE 801(a)-(c); 805, 806 - PART F: HEARSAY".  ^ Federal Rules of Evidence  ^ "Federal Rule of Evidence 801(a)-(c); 805, 806 PART F: HEARSAY".  ^ Civil Evidence Act 1995, s. 1. ^ The preserved common law exceptions are held in Criminal Justice Act 2003, s.118 ^ Criminal Justice Act 2003, s. 114 (1) (d). ^ "Evidence Act 1995 (Cth)".  ^ "Lee v R [1998] HCA 60".  ^ Terrill, Richard J. (2009). World Criminal Justice Systems: A Survey (7 ed.). Elsevier. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-59345-612-2.  ^ "Evidence Ordinance (Cap. 8), ss 46-55B".  ^ "Evidence Ordinance (Cap. 8), s 49".  ^ "Evidence Ordinance (Cap. 8), s 47(4)".  v t e Law Core subjects Administrative law Constitutional law Contract Criminal law Deed Equity Evidence International law Law of obligations Procedure Civil Criminal Property law Public law Restitution Statutory law Tort Other subjects Agricultural law Aviation law Banking law Bankruptcy Commercial law Competition law Conflict of laws Construction law Consumer protection Corporate law Cyberlaw Election law Energy law Entertainment law Environmental law Family law Financial regulation Health law Immigration law Intellectual property International criminal law International human rights International slavery laws Labour Law of war Legal archaeology Legal fiction Maritime law Media law Military law Probate Estate Will and testament Product liability Public international law Space law Sports law Tax law Transport law Trust law Women in law Sources of law Charter Constitution Custom Divine right Human rights Natural and legal rights Case law Precedent Law making Ballot measure Codification Decree Edict Executive order Proclamation Legislation Delegated legislation Regulation Rulemaking Promulgation Repeal Treaty Statutory law Statute Act of Parliament Act of Congress (US) Legal systems Civil law Common law Chinese law Legal pluralism Religious law Canon law Hindu law Jain law Jewish law Sharia Roman law Socialist law Statutory law Xeer Yassa Legal theory Critical legal studies Comparative law Feminist Law and economics Legal formalism History Natural law International legal theory Principle of legality Rule of law Sociology Jurisprudence Adjudication Administration of justice Criminal justice Court-martial Dispute resolution Fiqh Lawsuit/Litigation Legal opinion Legal remedy Judge Justice of the peace Magistrate Judgment Judicial review Jurisdiction Jury Justice Practice of law Attorney Barrister Counsel Lawyer Legal representation Prosecutor Solicitor Question of fact Question of law Trial Trial advocacy Trier of fact Verdict Legal institutions Bureaucracy The bar The bench Civil society Court Election commission Executive Judiciary Law enforcement Legal education Law school Legislature Military Police Political party Tribunal Category Index Outline Portal Retrieved from "" Categories: HearsayHidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2016Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2012

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