Contents 1 Terminology and its historical development 2 History 3 Constitution 4 Direct democracy 5 List 6 Half-cantons 7 Names in national languages 8 Admission of new cantons 9 See also 10 Notes and references 10.1 Notes 10.2 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links


Terminology and its historical development[edit] The term canton, now also used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for "edge, corner" (recorded in Fribourg in 1475). After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy.[2] English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy (as opposed to the heraldic sense) dates to the early 17th century.[citation needed] In German Switzerland, the term Ort (plural: Orte; lit.: lieu/place; referring to "sovereign territory", "community") was in use from the early 15th century as a generic term uniting the towns and rural allies previously named separately as Städte ("towns") and Länder ("countries; countrysides"), or even just Stett/Statt (plural: Stätte, "(forested) site/settlement") prior and during the early constitution of the Ancient Swiss Confederacy.[2][4] It was increasingly prominent and replaced by Stand (plural: Stände, "estate") after 1550 while pronouncing the idea of freedom and sovereignty.[2] The French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic. Only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.[2] The term Stand remains in synonymous usage (in French état) and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament, the Council of States (German: Ständerat, French: Conseil des États, Italian: Consiglio degli Stati, Romansh: Cussegl dals Stadis). "Republic" Some cantonal constitutions provide for a longer formal name of the state. Most of Romandy's cantons (Geneva, Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais[5] and Vaud[6]) and Ticino[7] call themselves république/Repubblica ("republics") officially, at least within their constitutions. For example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève ("Republic and canton of Geneva").


History[edit] Main articles: Eight Cantons, Thirteen Cantons, Restoration and Regeneration in Switzerland, and Switzerland as a federal state Further information: Flags and coats of arms of cantons of Switzerland The "Thirteen-Canton Confederation" of the Old Swiss Confederacy (1513–1798) In the 16th century, the Old Swiss Confederacy was composed of 13 sovereign confederate allies (German: Dreizehn Alten Orte), and there were two different kinds: five rural states – Uri, Schwyz (which became eponymous of the confederacy), Unterwalden, Glarus, Appenzell – and eight urban states – Zürich, Bern, Luzern, Zug, Basel, Fribourg, Solothurn, Schaffhausen. Though they were technically part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach.[8] In the early modern period, the individual confederate allies came to be seen as republics; while the six traditional allies had a tradition of direct democracy in the form of the Landsgemeinde, the urban states operated via representation in city councils, de facto oligarchic systems dominated by families of the patriciate.[Note 1][clarification needed] The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798. The cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803. The status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons (the six accessions to the early modern Thirteen Cantons being composed of former associates and subject territories: St. Gallen, Grisons, Aargau, Thurgau, Ticino, Vaud). Three additional western cantons, Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815. The process of "Restoration", completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution. This tension, paired with religious issues ("Jesuit question") escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the radical party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain individual standing armies or international relations. As the revolutions of 1848 in Western Europe had failed elsewhere, Switzerland during the later 19th century (and with the exception of the French Third Republic, until the end of World War I) found itself as an isolated democratic republic, surrounded by the restored monarchies of France, Italy, Austria-Hungary and Germany.


Constitution[edit] The 22 cantonal coats of arms (all but Jura, with the half-cantons represented jointly) in stained glass set in the dome of the Federal Palace of Switzerland (c. 1900) Each canton has its own constitution, legislature, government and courts.[9] Most of the cantons' legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats. A few legislatures are general assemblies known as Landsgemeinden. The cantonal governments consist of either five or seven members, depending on the canton.[10] For the names of the institutions, see List of legislative and executive councils of the Cantons of Switzerland. The Swiss Federal Constitution declares the cantons to be sovereign to the extent that their sovereignty is not limited by federal law.[9] The cantons also retain all powers and competencies not delegated to the Confederation by the Constitution. Most significantly, the cantons are responsible for healthcare, welfare, law enforcement and public education; they also retain the power of taxation. The cantonal constitutions determine the degree of autonomy accorded to the municipalities, which varies but almost always includes the power to levy taxes and pass municipal laws. The areas of the cantons vary from 37 km2 to 7,105 km2; the populations vary from 15,471 to 1,244,400.


Direct democracy[edit] As on the federal level, all cantons provide for some forms of direct democracy. Citizens may demand a popular vote to amend the cantonal constitution or laws, or to veto laws or spending bills passed by the parliament. General popular assemblies (Landsgemeinde) are now limited to the cantons of Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus. In all other cantons democratic rights are exercised by secret ballot.


List[edit] The cantons are listed in their order of precedence given in the federal constitution.[Note 2] This reflects the historical order of precedence of the Eight Cantons in the 15th century, followed by the remaining cantons in the order of their historical accession to the confederacy.[11] Coat of arms Code Canton of Since Capital Population[Note 3] GDP per capita (2014)[12]in CHF Area (km2) Density (per km2)[Note 4] No. munic. Official languages ZH Zürich 1351 Zürich 1,487,969[13] 96,411 1,729 701 168 German BE Bern 1353 Bern 1,026,513[14] 76,307 5,960 158 352 German, French LU Luzern 1332 Lucerne 403,397[15] 65,119 1,494 233 83 German UR Uri 1291[Note 5] Altdorf 36,145[16] 51,332 1,077 33 20 German SZ Schwyz 1291[Note 5] Schwyz 155,863[17] 58,788 908 143 30 German OW Obwalden 1291[Note 5] or 1315 (as part of Unterwalden) Sarnen 37,378[18] 64,253 491 66 7 German NW Nidwalden 1291[Note 5] (as Unterwalden) Stans 42,556[19] 69,559 276 138 11 German GL Glarus 1352 Glarus 40,147[20] 67,379 685 51 3 German ZG Zug 1352 Zug 123,948[21] 150,613 239 416 11 German FR Fribourg 1481 Fribourg 311,914[22] 58,369 1,671 141 150 French, German SO Solothurn 1481 Solothurn 269,441[23] 65,588 790 308 109 German BS Basel-Stadt 1501 (as Basel until 1833/1999) Basel 198,249[24] 163,632 37 5,072 3 German BL Basel-Landschaft 1501 (as Basel until 1833/1999) Liestal 286,848[25] 68,537 518 502 86 German SH Schaffhausen 1501 Schaffhausen 80,769[26] 85,529 298 246 26 German AR Appenzell Ausserrhoden 1513 (as Appenzell until 1597/1999) Herisau[Note 6] 54,954[27] 56,663 243 220 20 German AI Appenzell Innerrhoden 1513 (as Appenzell until 1597/1999) Appenzell 16,003[28] 61,067 172 87 6 German SG St. Gallen 1803[Note 7] St. Gallen 502,552[29] 72,624 2,031 222 77 German GR Grisons 1803[Note 8] Chur 197,550[30] 70,968 7,105 26 114 German, Romansh, Italian AG Aargau 1803 Aarau 663,462[31] 61,959 1,404 388 213 German TG Thurgau 1803[Note 9] Frauenfeld[Note 10] 270,709[32] 60,533 992 229 80 German TI Ticino 1803[Note 11] Bellinzona 354,375[33] 82,438 2,812 110 130 Italian VD Vaud 1803[Note 12] Lausanne 784,822[34] 68,084 3,212 188 318 French VS Valais 1815[Note 13] Sion 339,176[35] 52,532 5,224 53 134 French, German NE Neuchâtel 1815/1857[Note 14] Neuchâtel 178,567[36] 83,835 802 206 36 French GE Geneva 1815 Geneva 489,524[37] 102,113 282 1,442 45 French JU Jura 1979[Note 15] Delémont 73,122[38] 64,606 839 82 57 French CH Switzerland Bern 8,419,550[39] 78,619 41,291 174 2,289 German, French, Italian, Romansh The two-letter abbreviations for Swiss cantons are widely used, e.g., on car license plates. They are also used in the ISO 3166-2 codes of Switzerland with the prefix "CH-" (Confœderatio Helvetica—Helvetian Confederation—Helvetia having been the ancient Roman name of the region). CH-SZ, for example, is used for the canton of Schwyz.


Half-cantons[edit] Six of the 26 cantons are traditionally, but no longer officially, called "half-cantons" (German: Halbkanton, French: demi-canton, Italian: semicantone, Romansh: mez-chantun), reflecting a history of mutual association or partition. The half-cantons are identified in the first article of the Swiss Federal Constitution of 1999 by being joined to their other "half" with the conjunction "and": The People and the cantons of Zürich, Bern, Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Obwalden and Nidwalden, Glarus, Zug, Fribourg, Solothurn, Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft, Schaffhausen, Appenzell Ausserrhoden and Appenzell Innerrhoden, St. Gallen, Graubünden, Aargau, Thurgau, Ticino, Vaud, Valais, Neuchâtel, Geneva, and Jura form the Swiss Confederation. — Article 1 of the Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (underlining not in original)[40] The 1999 constitutional revision retained this distinction, on the request of the six cantonal governments, as a way to mark the historic association of the half-cantons to each other.[41] In contrast, the first article of the 1848 and 1874 constitutions constituted the Confederation as the union of "twenty-two sovereign cantons",[Note 16] referring to the half-cantons as "Unterwalden (ob und nid dem Wald [‘above and beneath the woods’])", "Basel (Stadt und Landschaft [‘city and country’])" and "Appenzell (beider Rhoden [‘both Rhoden’])".[42] While the older constitutions referred to these states as "half-cantons", a term that remains in popular use, the 1999 revision and official terminology since then use the appellation "cantons with half of a cantonal vote".[43] With their mutual association a purely historical matter, the half-cantons are since 1848 equal to the other cantons in all but two respects:[44] They elect only one member of the Council of States instead of two (Cst. art. 150 par. 2). In popular referendums about constitutional amendments, which require for adoption a national popular majority as well as the assent of a majority of the cantons (Ständemehr / majorité des cantons), the result of the half-cantons' popular vote counts only one half of that of the other cantons (Cst. arts. 140, 142). This means that for purposes of a constitutional referendum, at least 12 out of a total of 23 cantonal popular votes must support the amendment.[45] Caricature of the division of Basel, 1833 The reasons for the association between the three pairs of half-cantons are varied: Unterwalden never consisted of a single unified jurisdiction. Originally, Obwalden, Nidwalden, and the Abbey of Engelberg formed distinct communities. The collective term Unterwalden remains in use, however, for the area that partook in the creation of the original Swiss confederation in 1291 with Uri and Schwyz. The Federal Charter of 1291 called for representatives from each of the three "areas".[46][47] The canton of Appenzell divided itself into an "inner" and "outer" half (Rhoden) as a consequence of the Reformation in Switzerland in 1597:[48] Appenzell Innerrhoden (Catholic) and Appenzell Ausserrhoden (Protestant). The canton of Basel was divided in 1833 after the Basel countryside (now the canton of Basel-Landschaft) declared its independence from the city of Basel (now the canton of Basel-Stadt), following a period of protest and armed conflict about the under-representation of the more populous countryside in the canton's political system. In the 20th century, some Jurassic separatists suggested a new canton of Jura to be divided into half-cantons of North Jura and South Jura.[49] Instead, North Jura became the (full) canton of Jura while South Jura remains in the canton of Bern as the region of Bernese Jura.


Names in national languages[edit] The name of each canton in its own official language is shown in bold. Abbr English[Note 17] German French Italian Romansh AG Aargau; Argovia  Aargau (help·info) Argovie Argovia Argovia AI Appenzell Innerrhoden; Appenzell Inner-Rhodes  Appenzell Innerrhoden (help·info) Appenzell Rhodes-Intérieures Appenzello Interno Appenzell dadens AR Appenzell Ausserrhoden; Appenzell Outer-Rhodes  Appenzell Ausserrhoden (help·info) Appenzell Rhodes-Extérieures Appenzello Esterno Appenzell dador BS Basel-Stadt; Basle-City  Basel-Stadt (help·info) Bâle-Ville Basilea Città Basilea-Citad BL Basel-Landschaft; Basle-Country  Basel-Landschaft (help·info) Bâle-Campagne Basilea Campagna Basilea-Champagna BE Bern; Berne  Bern (help·info) Berne Berna Berna FR Fribourg; Friburg[citation needed]  Freiburg (help·info) Fribourg Friburgo Friburg GE Geneva  Genf (help·info) Genève Ginevra Genevra GL Glarus; Glaris[citation needed]  Glarus (help·info) Glaris Glarona Glaruna GR Graubünden; Grisons  Graubünden (help·info) Grisons Grigioni Grischun JU Jura  Jura (help·info) Jura Giura Giura LU Lucerne  Luzern (help·info) Lucerne Lucerna Lucerna NE Neuchâtel  Neuenburg (help·info) Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Neuchâtel NW Nidwalden; Nidwald[citation needed]  Nidwalden (help·info) Nidwald Nidvaldo Sutsilvania OW Obwalden; Obwald[citation needed]  Obwalden (help·info) Obwald Obvaldo Sursilvania SH Schaffhausen; Schaffhouse  Schaffhausen (help·info) Schaffhouse Sciaffusa Schaffusa SZ Schwyz  Schwyz (help·info) Schwyz (or Schwytz) Svitto Sviz SO Solothurn; Soleure  Solothurn (help·info) Soleure Soletta Soloturn SG St. Gallen; St Gall  St. Gallen (help·info) Saint-Gall San Gallo Son Gagl TG Thurgau; Thurgovia  Thurgau (help·info) Thurgovie Turgovia Turgovia TI Ticino; Tessin  Tessin (help·info) Tessin Ticino Tessin UR Uri  Uri (help·info) Uri Uri Uri VS Valais; Wallis  Wallis (help·info) Valais Vallese Vallais VD Vaud  Waadt (help·info) Vaud Vaud Vad ZG Zug; Zoug  Zug (help·info) Zoug Zugo Zug ZH Zürich; Zurich  Zürich (help·info) Zurich Zurigo Turitg


Admission of new cantons[edit] Main article: Enlargement of Switzerland The enlargement of Switzerland by way of the admission of new cantons ended in 1815. The latest formal attempt considered by Switzerland was of Vorarlberg in 1919 but subsequently rejected. A few representatives submitted in 2010 a parliamentary motion to consider enlargement although it was widely seen as anti-EU rhetoric rather than a serious proposal.[50] The motion was eventually dropped and not even examined by the parliament.[51]


See also[edit] Switzerland portal List of legislative and executive councils of the Cantons of Switzerland Data codes for Switzerland § Cantons List of cantons of Switzerland by elevation Flags of Swiss cantons Cantonal bank, a commercial bank (at least partially) owned by the canton Municipalities of Switzerland


Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit] ^ Zug was the exception in this, in being an urban state and still holding a Landsgemeinde. Jackson Spielvogel, Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715, (Cengage 2008), p. 386 ^ This is the order generally used in Swiss official documents. At the head of the list are the three city cantons that were considered preeminent in the Old Swiss Confederacy; the other cantons are listed in order of accession to the Confederation. This traditional order of precedence among the cantons has no practical relevance in the modern federal state, in which the cantons are equal to one another, although it still determines formal precedence among the cantons' officials (see Swiss order of precedence). ^ See references for dates ^ Per km2, based on 2000 population ^ a b c d founding forest-canton, foundation date traditionally given as either 1307, 1304 or 1291 (see Foundation of the Old Swiss Confederacy). ^ Seat of government and parliament is Herisau, the seat of the judicial authorities is Trogen ^ Act of Mediation, formed out of the Canton of Säntis and the northern half of the Canton of Linth. ^ Act of Mediation; formerly the Canton of Raetia, comprising the earlier Three Leagues. ^ coterminous with the canton of Thurgau of the Helvetic Republic (1798), formerly a condominium. ^ Seat of parliament half-yearly alternates between Frauenfeld and Weinfelden ^ combining the former cantons of Bellinzona and Lugano; see Ennetbirgische Vogteien. ^ Act of Mediation, formerly Canton of Léman. ^ Restoration, formerly the Simplon département ^ claimed by Frederick William III of Prussia until the Neuchâtel Crisis of 1856–1857. ^ seceded from Berne ^ Twenty-three after the creation of the Canton of Jura in 1978. ^ The most commonly used forms in English are mostly adopted from either French on German; in some cases, there may have been a historical shift in preference, e.g. from the French form Berne to the German form Bern; in individual cases, the Latin form may be current, certainly in the case of Geneva and arguably for Argovia, Thurgovia. Actual anglicized forms exist in the cases of Basle, Lucerne and St. Gall. References[edit] ^ a b "Chronology". Bern, Switzerland: The Swiss Federal Administration. Retrieved 2016-10-09.  ^ a b c d e Andreas Kley: Kantone in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2016-04-13. ^ François Schifferdecker, François Kohler: Jura (canton) in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2015-07-20. ^ Josef Wiget: Waldstätte in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2014-12-27. ^ Constitution du Canton du Valais: "Le Valais est une république démocratique, souveraine […] incorporée comme Canton à la Confédération suisse." ^ Constitution du canton de Vaud: "Le Canton de Vaud est une république démocratique [… qui] est l'un des États de la Confédération suisse." ^ "Costituzione della Repubblica e Cantone del Ticino, del 4 luglio 1830" (in Italian). Swiss Federal Council. Le canton du Tessin est une république démocratique [… qui] est membre de la Confédération suisse et sa souveraineté n'est limitée que par la constitution fédérale."  ^ "Switzerland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911. p. 251. Retrieved 11 November 2008.  ^ a b Cantons, In the Federal State since 1848 in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. ^ Swiss Government website Archived 19 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. with links to each cantonal government, accessed 11 November 2008 ^ "Regional Portraits: Cantons". Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2011. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2015.  ^ Office, Federal Statistical. "Cantonal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita". www.bfs.admin.ch. Retrieved 2017-08-22.  ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Canton of Basel-Stadt Statistics, MS Excel document – T01.0.01 - Bevölkerungsstand 30 June 2017 numbers (in German) accessed 22 August 2017 ^ Canton of Basel-Land Statistics, Wohnbevölkerung nach Nationalität und Konfession per 31. März 2017 (in German) accessed 15 June 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017] ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017 ^ Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation of 18 April 1999, SR/RS 101 (E·D·F·I), art. 1 (E·D·F·I) ^ Felix Hafner / Rainer J. Schweizer in Ehrenzeller, Art. 1 N 2; Häfelin, N 966. ^ Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft vom 29. Mai 1874, Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft vom 12. September 1848 (in German); author's translation. ^ Felix Hafner / Rainer J. Schweizer in Ehrenzeller, Art. 1 N 10; Häfelin, N 963 ^ Häfelin, N 963, 967 ^ Häfelin, N 950 ^ Pacte fédéral du 1er Archived 30 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. août 1291] sur Admin.ch "vallée inférieure d'Unterwald" signifie Nidwald. ^ Pacte fédéral du 1er août 1291 sur Cliotexte ^ Réforme catholique, Contre-Réforme et scission Article du dictionnaire historique de la Suisse ^ Bassand, Michel (1975). "The Jura Problem". Journal of Peace Research. Sage Publications. 12 (2: Peace Research in Switzerland): 139–150: 142. doi:10.1177/002234337501200206. JSTOR 423158. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Renz, Fabian (2010-06-11). "SVP will der Schweiz Nachbargebiete einverleiben". Tages-Anzeiger. Retrieved 2017-07-11.  ^ Baettig, Dominique (2010-03-18). "Pour une intégration facilitée de régions limitrophes en qualité de nouveaux cantons suisses". The Federal Assembly — The Swiss Parliament. Retrieved 2017-07-11. L'intervention est classée, l'auteur ayant quitté le conseil 


Bibliography[edit] Bernhard Ehrenzeller, Philipp Mastronardi, Rainer J. Schweizer, Klaus A. Vallender (eds.) (2002). Die schweizerische Bundesverfassung, Kommentar (in German). ISBN 3-905455-70-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) . Cited as Ehrenzeller. Häfelin, Ulrich; Haller, Walter; Keller, Helen (2008). Schweizerisches Bundesstaatsrecht (in German) (7th ed.). Zürich: Schulthess. ISBN 978-3-7255-5472-0.  Cited as Häfelin.


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cantons of Switzerland. Swissworld.org – The cantons of Switzerland GeoPuzzle – Assemble cantons on a Swiss map Badac – Database on Swiss cantons and cities (in French) (in German) Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about The History of Switzerland. v t e Cantons of Switzerland Three Cantons Eight Cantons Thirteen Cantons Coats of arms     ZH Zurich BE Berne LU Lucerne UR Uri SZ Schwyz OW Obwald NW Nidwald GL Glaris ZG Zug FR Friburg SO Soleure BS Basle-City BL Basle-Country SH Schaffhouse AR Appenzell Outer-Rhodes AI Appenzell Inner-Rhodes SG St Gall GR Grisons AG Argovia TG Thurgovia TI Ticino VD Vaud VS Valais NE Neuchâtel GE Geneva JU Jura Historical cantons:  Unterwalden Basel Appenzell Baden Bellinzona Fricktal Léman Linth Lugano Oberland Raetia Säntis Waldstätten v t e Subdivisions of Switzerland Aargau Appenzell Ausserrhoden Appenzell Innerrhoden Basel-Stadt Basel-Landschaft Bern Fribourg Geneva Glarus Graubünden Jura Lucerne Neuchâtel Nidwalden Obwalden Schaffhausen Schwyz Solothurn St. Gallen Thurgau Ticino Uri Valais Vaud Zug Zürich Regions Cantons Districts Municipalities list former v t e Switzerland articles History Timeline Enlargement Early history Roman era Old Confederacy (Growth) Reformation Early Modern era Napoleonic era Restoration World wars Modern history Geography Cantons Cities Glaciers Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers Areas Jura Mountains Swiss Alps Swiss plateau Politics Constitution Elections Federal budget Foreign relations Neutrality Government Human rights LGBT Law enforcement Military Parliament Political parties Right of foreigners to vote Voting Economy Banking Central bank Energy Franc (currency) Pharmaceutical industry Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Trade unions Transport Society Crime Demographics Education Healthcare Immigration Languages German-speaking Switzerland French-speaking Switzerland Italian-speaking Switzerland Romansh Poverty Swiss people Culture Anthem Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Flag Folklore William Tell Helvetia Literature Media television Music Public holidays Religion Sport Outline Index Book Category Portal v t e First-level administrative divisions in European countries Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh2 Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria 1 Has part of its territory outside Europe. 2 Considered European for cultural, political and historical reasons but is geographically in Western Asia. Table of administrative divisions by country Geography portal Politics portal Switzerland portal v t e Cantons of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom States with limited recognition Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria Dependencies and other entities Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cantons_of_Switzerland&oldid=826163050#Half-canton" Categories: Cantons of SwitzerlandSubdivisions of SwitzerlandLists of subdivisions of SwitzerlandCountry subdivisions in EuropeFirst-level administrative country subdivisionsLists of populated places in SwitzerlandHidden categories: HDS different on WikidataCS1 Italian-language sources (it)Webarchive template wayback linksArticles with German-language external linksArticles containing German-language textPages containing links to subscription-only contentUse dmy dates from June 2015Use British English from February 2014Articles containing French-language textArticles containing Italian-language textArticles containing Romansh-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2016Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014Articles with hAudio microformatsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2017CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listCS1 maint: Extra text: authors listCS1 German-language sources (de)Articles with French-language external links


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German LanguageFrench LanguageItalian LanguageRomansh LanguageValaisTicinoGrisonsCanton Of GenevaVaudCanton Of NeuchâtelCanton Of JuraCanton Of BernThurgauCanton Of ZürichAargauCanton Of LucerneCanton Of SolothurnBasel-LandschaftCanton Of SchaffhausenCanton Of UriCanton Of SchwyzCanton Of GlarusCanton Of St. GallenAppenzell InnerrhodenAppenzell AusserrhodenObwaldenNidwaldenCanton Of ZugCanton Of FribourgBasel-StadtFranceItalyLiechtensteinAustriaGermanyFederated StateSwiss ConfederationCountryCanton Of Appenzell InnerrhodenCanton Of ZürichCanton Of Basel-StadtCanton Of GrisonsList Of Cantonal Executives Of SwitzerlandDistricts Of SwitzerlandCommunes Of SwitzerlandGerman LanguageFrench LanguageItalian LanguageRomansh LanguageFederated StateSwiss ConfederationWaldstätteEight CantonsThirteen CantonsOld Swiss ConfederacyGerman LanguageSovereigntyTreaty Of WestphaliaHelvetic RepublicHelvetic RepublicJurassic QuestionCanton Of JuraCanton Of BernCanton (country Subdivision)Canton 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