Contents 1 History 2 Name in English 3 Use in writing systems 3.1 English 3.2 Other languages 3.3 Other systems 4 Related characters 4.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 4.2 Ancestors, siblings and descendants in other alphabets 4.3 Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations 5 Computing codes 6 Other representations 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History Egyptian hieroglyph  fence Old Semitic ħ Phoenician heth Greek heta Etruscan H | Latin H The original Semitic letter Heth most likely represented the voiceless pharyngeal fricative (ħ). The form of the letter probably stood for a fence or posts. The Greek eta 'Η' in Archaic Greek alphabets still represented /h/ (later on it came to represent a long vowel, /ɛː/). In this context, the letter eta is also known as heta to underline this fact. Thus, in the Old Italic alphabets, the letter heta of the Euboean alphabet was adopted with its original sound value /h/. While Etruscan and Latin had /h/ as a phoneme, almost all Romance languages lost the sound—Romanian later re-borrowed the /h/ phoneme from its neighbouring Slavic languages, and Spanish developed a secondary /h/ from /f/, before losing it again; various Spanish dialects have developed [h] as an allophone of /s/ or /x/ in most Spanish-speaking countries, and various dialects of Portuguese use it as an allophone of /ʀ/. 'H' is also used in many spelling systems in digraphs and trigraphs, such as 'ch', which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish, Galician, Old Portuguese and English, /ʃ/ in French and modern Portuguese, /k/ in Italian, French and English, /x/ in German, Czech, Polish, Slovak, one native word of English and a few loanwords into English, and /ç/ in German.

Name in English For most English speakers, the name for the letter is pronounced as /eɪtʃ/ and spelled 'aitch'[1] or occasionally 'eitch'. The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ and the associated spelling 'haitch' is often considered to be h-adding and is considered nonstandard in England.[3] It is, however, a feature of Hiberno-English.[4] The perceived name of the letter affects the choice of indefinite article before initialisms beginning with H: for example "an H-bomb" or "a H-bomb". The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ may be a hypercorrection formed by analogy with the names of the other letters of the alphabet, most of which include the sound they represent.[5] The haitch pronunciation of h has spread in England, being used by approximately 24% of English people born since 1982[6] and polls continue to show this pronunciation becoming more common among younger native speakers. Despite this increasing number, the pronunciation without the /h/ sound is still considered to be standard in England, although the pronunciation with /h/ is also attested as a legitimate variant.[3] Authorities disagree about the history of the letter's name. The Oxford English Dictionary says the original name of the letter was [ˈaha] in Latin; this became [ˈaka] in Vulgar Latin, passed into English via Old French [atʃ], and by Middle English was pronounced [aːtʃ]. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language derives it from French hache from Latin haca or hic. Anatoly Liberman suggests a conflation of two obsolete orderings of the alphabet, one with H immediately followed by K and the other without any K: reciting the former's ..., H, K, L,... as [...(h)a ka el ...] when reinterpreted for the latter ..., H, L,... would imply a pronunciation [(h)a ka] for H.[7]

Use in writing systems English In English, ⟨h⟩ occurs as a single-letter grapheme (being either silent or representing the voiceless glottal fricative (/h/) and in various digraphs, such as ⟨ch⟩ /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /k/, or /x/), ⟨gh⟩ (silent, /ɡ/, /k/, /p/, or /f/), ⟨ph⟩ (/f/), ⟨rh⟩ (/r/), ⟨sh⟩ (/ʃ/), ⟨th⟩ (/θ/ or /ð/), ⟨wh⟩ (/hw/[8]). The letter is silent in a syllable rime, as in ah, ohm, dahlia, cheetah, pooh-poohed, as well as in certain other words (mostly of French origin) such as hour, honest, herb (in American but not British English) and vehicle. Initial /h/ is often not pronounced in the weak form of some function words including had, has, have, he, her, him, his, and in some varieties of English (including most regional dialects of England and Wales) it is often omitted in all words (see '⟨h⟩'-dropping). It was formerly common for an rather than a to be used as the indefinite article before a word beginning with /h/ in an unstressed syllable, as in "an historian", but use of a is now more usual (see English articles § Indefinite article). Other languages In the German language, the name of the letter is pronounced /haː/. Following a vowel, it often silently indicates that the vowel is long: In the word erhöhen ('heighten'), the second ⟨h⟩ is mute for most speakers outside of Switzerland. In 1901, a spelling reform eliminated the silent ⟨h⟩ in nearly all instances of ⟨th⟩ in native German words such as thun ('to do') or Thür ('door'). It has been left unchanged in words derived from Greek, such as Theater ('theater') and Thron ('throne'), which continue to be spelled with ⟨th⟩ even after the last German spelling reform. In Spanish and Portuguese, ⟨h⟩ ("hache" in Spanish, pronounced Spanish pronunciation: ['atʃe], or agá in Portuguese, pronounced [aˈɣa] or [ɐˈɡa]) is a silent letter with no pronunciation, as in hijo [ˈixo] ('son') and húngaro [ˈũɡaɾu] ('Hungarian'). The spelling reflects an earlier pronunciation of the sound /h/. It is sometimes pronounced with the value [h], in some regions of Andalusia, Extremadura, Canarias, Cantabria and the Americas in the beginning of some words. ⟨h⟩ also appears in the digraph ⟨ch⟩, which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish and northern Portugal, and /ʃ/ in oral traditions that merged both sounds (the latter originarily represented by ⟨x⟩ instead) e.g. in most of the Portuguese language and some Spanish-speaking places, prominently Chile, as well as ⟨nh⟩ /ɲ/ and ⟨lh⟩ /ʎ/ in Portuguese, whose spelling is inherited from Occitan. In French, the name of the letter is pronounced /aʃ/. The French orthography classifies words that begin with this letter in two ways, one of which can affect the pronunciation, even though it is a silent letter either way. The H muet, or "mute" ⟨h⟩, is considered as though the letter were not there at all, so for example the singular definite article le or la, which is elided to l' before a vowel, elides before an H muet followed by a vowel. For example, le + hébergement becomes l'hébergement ('the accommodation'). The other kind of ⟨h⟩ is called h aspiré ("aspirated '⟨h⟩'", though it is not normally aspirated phonetically), and does not allow elision or liaison. For example in le homard ('the lobster') the article le remains unelided, and may be separated from the noun with a bit of a glottal stop. Most words that begin with an H muet come from Latin (honneur, homme) or from Greek through Latin (hécatombe), whereas most words beginning with an H aspiré come from Germanic (harpe, hareng) or non-Indo-European languages (harem, hamac, haricot); in some cases, an orthographic ⟨h⟩ was added to disambiguate the [v] and semivowel [ɥ] pronunciations before the introduction of the distinction between the letters ⟨v⟩ and ⟨u⟩: huit (from uit, ultimately from Latin octo), huître (from uistre, ultimately from Greek through Latin ostrea). In Italian, ⟨h⟩ has no phonological value. Its most important uses are in the digraphs 'ch' /k/ and 'gh' /ɡ/, as well as to differentiate the spellings of certain short words that are homophones, for example some present tense forms of the verb avere ('to have') (such as hanno, 'they have', vs. anno, 'year'), and in short interjections (oh, ehi). Some languages, including Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, and Finnish, use ⟨h⟩ as a breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ], often as an allophone of otherwise voiceless /h/ in a voiced environment. In Hungarian, the letter has five independent pronunciations, perhaps more than in any other language, with an additional three uses as a productive and non-productive member of a digraph. H may represent /h/ as in the name of the Székely town Hargita; intervocalically it represents /ɦ/ as in "tehéz"; it represents /x/ in the word "doh"; it represents /ç/ in "ihlet"; and it is silent in "Cseh". As part of a diphthong, it represents, in archaic spelling, /t͡ʃ/ with the letter C as in the name "Széchényi; it represents, again, with the letter C, /x/ in "pech" (which is pronounced [pɛx]); in certain environments it breaks palatalization of a consonant, as in the name "Horthy" which is pronounced [hɔrti] (without the intervening H, the name "Horty" would be pronounced [hɔrc]); and finally, it acts as a silent component of a diphthong, as in the name "Vargha", pronounced [vɒrgɒ]. In Ukrainian and Belarusian, when written in the Latin alphabet, ⟨h⟩ is also commonly used for /ɦ/, which is otherwise written with the Cyrillic letter ⟨г⟩. In Irish, ⟨h⟩ is not considered an independent letter, except for a very few non-native words, however ⟨h⟩ placed after a consonant is known as a "séimhiú" and indicates lenition of that consonant; ⟨h⟩ began to replace the original form of a séimhiú, a dot placed above the consonant, after the introduction of typewriters. In most dialects of Polish, both ⟨h⟩ and the digraph ⟨ch⟩ always represent /x/. Other systems As a phonetic symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), it is used mainly for the so-called aspirations (fricative or trills), and variations of the plain letter are used to represent two sounds: the lowercase form ⟨h⟩ represents the voiceless glottal fricative, and the small capital form ⟨ʜ⟩ represents the voiceless epiglottal fricative (or trill). With a bar, minuscule ⟨ħ⟩ is used for a voiceless pharyngeal fricative. Specific to the IPA, a hooked ⟨ɦ⟩ is used for a voiced glottal fricative, and a superscript ⟨ʰ⟩ is used to represent aspiration.

Related characters Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet H with diacritics: Ĥ ĥ Ȟ ȟ Ħ ħ Ḩ ḩ Ⱨ ⱨ ẖ ẖ Ḥ ḥ Ḣ ḣ Ḧ ḧ Ḫ ḫ ꞕ IPA-specific symbols related to H: ʜ ꟸ ɦ ʰ ʱ ɥ ᶣ[9] ᴴ : Modifier letter H is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet[10] ₕ : Subscript small h was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902[11] ʰ : Modifier letter small h is used in Indo-European studies[12] ʮ and ʯ : Turned H with fishhook and turned H with fishhook and tail are used in Sino-Tibetanist linguistics[13] Ƕ ƕ : Latin letter hwair, derived from a ligature of the digraph hv, and used to transliterate the Gothic letter 𐍈 (which represented the sound [hʷ]) Ⱶ ⱶ : Claudian letters[14] Ancestors, siblings and descendants in other alphabets 𐤇 : Semitic letter Heth, from which the following symbols derive Η η : Greek letter Eta, from which the following symbols derive 𐌇 : Old Italic H, the ancestor of modern Latin H ᚺ, ᚻ : Runic letter haglaz, which is probably a descendant of Old Italic H Һ һ : Cyrillic letter Shha, which derives from Latin H 𐌷 : Gothic letter haal Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations h : Planck constant ℏ : reduced Planck constant ℍ: Double-struck capital H

Computing codes Character H h Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H     LATIN SMALL LETTER H Encodings decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 72 U+0048 104 U+0068 UTF-8 72 48 104 68 Numeric character reference H H h h EBCDIC family 200 C8 136 88 ASCII 1 72 48 104 68 1 and all encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations NATO phonetic Morse code Hotel ···· Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille dots-125

See also American Sign Language grammar List of hieroglyphs/H

References ^ a b "H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op. cit. ^ "the definition of h". Retrieved 28 September 2017.  ^ a b "'Haitch' or 'aitch'? How do you pronounce 'H'?". BBC News. Retrieved 3 September 2016.  ^ Dolan, T. P. (1 January 2004). "A Dictionary of Hiberno-English: The Irish Use of English". Gill & Macmillan Ltd. Retrieved 3 September 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Todd, L. & Hancock I.: "International English Ipod", page 254. Routledge, 1990. ^ John C Wells, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, page 360, Pearson, Harlow, 2008 ^ Liberman, Anatoly (7 August 2013). "Alphabet soup, part 2: H and Y". Oxford Etymologist. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 October 2013.  ^ In many dialects, /hw/ and /w/ have merged ^ Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF).  ^ Anderson, Deborah; Everson, Michael (2004-06-07). "L2/04-191: Proposal to encode six Indo-Europeanist phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Cook, Richard; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). "L2/01-347: Proposal to add six phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Everson, Michael (2005-08-12). "L2/05-193R2: Proposal to add Claudian Latin letters to the UCS" (PDF). 

External links Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article H. Wikimedia Commons has media related to H. The dictionary definition of H at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of h at Wiktionary Lubliner, Coby. 2008. "The Story of H." (essay on origins and uses of the letter "h") v t e Latin script History Spread Romanization Roman numerals Alphabets (list) Classical Latin alphabet ISO basic Latin alphabet phonetic alphabets International Phonetic Alphabet X-SAMPA Spelling alphabet Letters (list) Letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Letter H with diacritics Ĥĥ Ȟȟ Ḧḧ Ḣḣ Ḩḩ Ḥḥ Ḫḫ H̱ẖ Ħħ Ⱨⱨ Ɦɦ ꞕ Multigraphs Digraphs ch cz dž dz gh ij ll ly nh ny sh sz th Trigraphs dzs eau Tetragraphs ough Pentagraphs tzsch Keyboard layouts (list) QWERTY QWERTZ AZERTY Standards ISO/IEC 646 Unicode Western Latin character sets Lists precomposed Latin characters in Unicode letters used in mathematics Diacritics Palaeography Retrieved from "" Categories: ISO basic Latin lettersHidden categories: Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse dmy dates from July 2016Articles containing German-language text

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AcèhAfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐAsturianuAvañe'ẽAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهBân-lâm-gúБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаČeštinaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFøroysktFrançaisFryskFurlanGaeilgeGaelgGàidhligGalego贛語Хальмг한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiIdoIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתქართულიKernowekKiswahiliКомиKreyòl ayisyenKurdîЛезгиLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLumbaartMagyarМакедонскиMalagasyमराठीBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄မြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlNederlands日本語NordfriiskNorskNorsk nynorskNouormandOccitanОлык марийOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀPolskiPortuguêsRomânăRuna SimiРусскийScotsSeelterskSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaSranantongoСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogТатарча/tatarçaไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükWalonWinarayייִדישYorùbá粵語ZazakiŽemaitėška中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 7 February 2018, at 19:58. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.748","walltime":"0.961","ppvisitednodes":{"value":10671,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":116996,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":7914,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":22,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":5,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 833.534 1 -total"," 19.52% 162.718 1 Template:Charmap"," 18.07% 150.622 3 Template:Lang"," 11.77% 98.107 1 Template:Reflist"," 10.59% 88.244 1 Template:Latin_alphabet"," 10.30% 85.848 2 Template:Navbox"," 10.25% 85.456 1 Template:Latin_alphabet/main"," 10.25% 85.432 1 Template:Charmap/head"," 8.74% 72.874 10 Template:Cite_web"," 8.52% 71.032 36 Template:Hex2dec"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.324","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":18731306,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1343","timestamp":"20180221142420","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":97,"wgHostname":"mw1267"});});

H - Photos and All Basic Informations

H More Links

This Article Is Semi-protected.H (disambiguation)Aitch (surname)Aitch, PennsylvaniaHISO Basic Latin AlphabetABCDEFGIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZTemplate:Latin Alphabet SidebarTemplate Talk:Latin Alphabet SidebarEnlargeEnglish AlphabetHelp:IPA/EnglishLetter (alphabet)ISO Basic Latin AlphabetNorthwest Semitic AbjadHethEuboean AlphabetHeta (letter)𐌇HethVoiceless Pharyngeal FricativeVoiceless Pharyngeal FricativeGreek AlphabetEta (letter)Archaic Greek AlphabetsHeta (letter)Old Italic AlphabetsEuboean AlphabetEtruscan LanguageLatinPhonemeRomance LanguagesRomanian LanguageSpanish LanguageAllophonePortuguese LanguageDigraph (orthography)Trigraph (orthography)Galician LanguageEnglish LanguageFrench LanguageItalian LanguageGerman LanguageCzech LanguagePolish LanguageHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishH-droppingHiberno-EnglishA And AnInitialismHypercorrectionHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishOxford English DictionaryHelp:IPA/LatinThe American Heritage Dictionary Of The English LanguageAnatoly LibermanGraphemeSilent LetterVoiceless Glottal FricativeHelp:IPA/EnglishDigraph (orthography)Help:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishVoiceless Labialized Velar ApproximantSyllable RimeAmerican EnglishBritish EnglishWeak And Strong Forms In EnglishFunction WordsH-droppingStress (linguistics)English ArticlesGerman LanguageSpelling ReformHelp:IPA/SpanishHelp:IPA/SpanishHelp:IPA/PortugueseHelp:IPA/SpanishHelp:IPA/PortugueseOccitan LanguageArticle (grammar)Elision (French)Aspirated HLiaison (French)PhonologyDigraph (orthography)HomophonePresent TenseInterjectionsCzech LanguageSlovak LanguageHungarian LanguageFinnish LanguageVoiced Glottal FricativeHungarian PhonologyVoiceless Palato-alveolar AffricateHarghitaVoiced Glottal FricativeVoiceless Velar FricativeVoiceless Palatal FricativeVoiceless Palato-alveolar AffricateSzéchényiVoiceless Velar FricativeUkrainian LanguageBelarusian LanguageIrish LanguageLenitionInternational Phonetic AlphabetVoiceless Glottal FricativeVoiceless Glottal FricativeVoiceless Epiglottal TrillVoiceless Epiglottal FricativeVoiceless Pharyngeal FricativeVoiceless Pharyngeal FricativeVoiced Glottal FricativeVoiced Glottal FricativeAspirated ConsonantAspiration (phonetics)DiacriticĤȞĦCedillaMacron (diacritic)Dot (diacritic)Dot (diacritic)International Phonetic AlphabetVoiceless Epiglottal TrillVoiced Glottal FricativeAspirated ConsonantBreathy VoiceLabialized Palatal ApproximantLabio-palatalizationUralic Phonetic AlphabetIndo-European StudiesʮʯHwairGothic AlphabetClaudian LettersPhoenician AlphabetHethGreek AlphabetEta (letter)Old Italic ScriptRunesHaglazCyrillicShhaGothic AlphabetPlanck ConstantReduced Planck ConstantUnicodeUTF-8Numeric Character ReferenceEBCDICASCIIICAO Spelling AlphabetMorse CodeInternational Maritime Signal FlagsFlag SemaphoreAmerican Manual AlphabetAmerican Sign LanguageFingerspellingBrailleBraille Pattern Dots-125American Sign Language GrammarList Of Hieroglyphs/HOxford English DictionaryJohn C WellsMichael EversonWikisourceEncyclopædia Britannica Eleventh EditionWiktionary:HWiktionary:hTemplate:Latin Alphabet/mainTemplate Talk:Latin Alphabet/mainLatin ScriptHistory Of The Latin ScriptSpread Of The Latin ScriptRomanizationRoman NumeralsLatin-script AlphabetList Of Latin-script AlphabetsClassical Latin AlphabetISO Basic Latin AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetX-SAMPASpelling AlphabetList Of Latin-script LettersISO Basic Latin AlphabetABCDEFGIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZDiacriticĤȞH With StrokeLatin-script MultigraphList Of Latin-script DigraphsCh (digraph)Cz (digraph)Dz (digraph)Gh (digraph)IJ (digraph)LlHungarian LyNh (digraph)Ny (digraph)Sh (digraph)Sz (digraph)Th (digraph)List Of Latin-script TrigraphsHungarian DzsEau (trigraph)List Of Latin-script TetragraphsOugh (orthography)List Of Latin-script PentagraphsTzschList Of Latin-script Keyboard LayoutsQWERTYQWERTZAZERTYISO/IEC 646Latin Script In UnicodeWestern Latin Character Sets (computing)List Of Precomposed Latin Characters In UnicodeLatin Letters Used In MathematicsDiacriticPalaeographyHelp:CategoryCategory:ISO Basic Latin LettersCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Semi-protected PagesCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Move-protected PagesCategory:Use Dmy Dates From July 2016Category:Articles Containing German-language TextDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link