Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Early Paleo-Eskimo cultures 2.2 Norse settlement 2.3 The Thule Culture (1300 – present) 2.4 1500–1814 2.5 Treaty of Kiel to World War II 2.6 Home rule and self-rule 3 Geography and climate 3.1 Postglacial glacier advances on the peninsula Nugssuaq 4 Biodiversity 5 Politics 5.1 Political system 5.2 Government 5.3 Administrative divisions 6 Economy 6.1 Economics and business 6.2 Transportation 7 Population 7.1 Demographics 7.2 Languages 7.3 Religion 7.4 Social issues 7.5 Education 8 Culture 8.1 Sports 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 11.1 Footnotes 11.2 Bibliography 11.3 Works cited 12 External links 12.1 Overviews and data 12.2 Government 12.3 Maps 12.4 News and media 12.5 Trade 12.6 Travel 12.7 Other

Etymology[edit] The early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls (i.e. slaves or serfs), he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland (translated as "Greenland"), supposedly in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers.[18][19][20] The Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."[21] The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat ("land of the Kalaallit").[22] The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people who inhabit the country's western region. Maps showing the different cultures in Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland and the Canadian arctic islands in the years 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500. Green: Dorset Culture; blue: Thule Culture; red: Norse Culture; yellow: Innu; orange: Beothuk.

History[edit] Main article: History of Greenland Early Paleo-Eskimo cultures[edit] In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today primarily through archaeological finds. The earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named.[23][24] From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland. It was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition.[25][26][27] Towns, including Deltaterrasserne, started to appear. Around 800 BC, the Saqqaq culture disappeared and the Early Dorset culture emerged in western Greenland and the Independence II culture in northern Greenland.[28] The Dorset culture was the first culture to extend throughout the Greenlandic coastal areas, both on the west and east coasts. It lasted until the total onset of the Thule culture in 1500 AD. The Dorset culture population lived primarily from hunting of whales and caribou.[29][30][31][32] Norse settlement[edit] See also: Herjolfsnes (Norse Greenland) Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle ages) From 986, Greenland's west coast was settled by Icelanders and Norwegians, through a contingent of 14 boats led by Erik the Red. They formed three settlements—known as the Eastern Settlement, the Western Settlement and the Middle Settlement—on fjords near the southwestern-most tip of the island.[9][33] They shared the island with the late Dorset culture inhabitants who occupied the northern and western parts, and later with the Thule culture that entered from the north. Norse Greenlanders submitted to Norwegian rule in the 13th century under the Norwegian Empire. Later the Kingdom of Norway entered into a personal union with Denmark in 1380, and from 1397 was a part of the Kalmar Union.[34] Erik the Red's recruitment of others to colonize Greenland has been characterized recently as a land scam, the scam (and the name) portraying Greenland as better farm land than in Iceland.[35] The Norse settlements, such as Brattahlíð, thrived for centuries but disappeared sometime in the 15th century, perhaps at the onset of the Little Ice Age.[36] Apart from some runic inscriptions, no contemporary records or historiography survives from the Norse settlements. Medieval Norwegian sagas and historical works mention Greenland's economy as well as the bishops of Gardar and the collection of tithes. A chapter in the Konungs skuggsjá (The King's Mirror) describes Norse Greenland's exports and imports as well as grain cultivation. Icelandic saga accounts of life in Greenland were composed in the 13th century and later, and do not constitute primary sources for the history of early Norse Greenland.[20] Modern understanding therefore mostly depends on the physical data from archeological sites. Interpretation of ice core and clam shell data suggests that between 800 and 1300, the regions around the fjords of southern Greenland experienced a relatively mild climate several degrees Celsius higher than usual in the North Atlantic,[37] with trees and herbaceous plants growing, and livestock being farmed. Barley was grown as a crop up to the 70th parallel.[38] What is verifiable is that the ice cores indicate Greenland has had dramatic temperature shifts many times over the past 100,000 years.[39] Similarly the Icelandic Book of Settlements records famines during the winters, in which "the old and helpless were killed and thrown over cliffs".[37] One of the last contemporary written mentions of the Norse Greenlanders records a marriage which took place in 1408 in the church of Hvalsey—today the best-preserved Nordic ruins in Greenland. These Icelandic settlements vanished during the 14th and early 15th centuries.[40] The demise of the Western Settlement coincides with a decrease in summer and winter temperatures. A study of North Atlantic seasonal temperature variability during the Little Ice Age showed a significant decrease in maximum summer temperatures beginning in the late 13th century to early 14th century—as much as 6 to 8 °C (11 to 14 °F) lower than modern summer temperatures.[41] The study also found that the lowest winter temperatures of the last 2000 years occurred in the late 14th century and early 15th century. The Eastern Settlement was likely abandoned in the early to mid-15th century, during this cold period. Theories drawn from archeological excavations at Herjolfsnes in the 1920s, suggest that the condition of human bones from this period indicates that the Norse population was malnourished, maybe due to soil erosion resulting from the Norsemen's destruction of natural vegetation in the course of farming, turf-cutting, and wood-cutting. Malnutrition may also have resulted from widespread deaths due to pandemic plague;[42] the decline in temperatures during the Little Ice Age; and armed conflicts with the Skrælings (Norse word for Inuit). In 1379, the Inuit attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman.[36] Recent archeological studies somewhat challenge the general assumption that the Norse colonisation had a dramatic negative environmental effect on the vegetation. Data support traces of a possible Norse soil amendment strategy.[43] More recent evidence suggests that the Norse, who never numbered more than about 2,500, gradually abandoned the Greenland settlements over the 1400s as walrus ivory,[44] the most valuable export from Greenland, decreased in price due to competition with other sources of higher-quality ivory, and that there was actually little evidence of starvation or difficulties.[45] Other theories about the disappearance of the Norse settlement have been proposed; Lack of support from the homeland.[42] Ship-borne marauders (such as Basque, English, or German pirates) rather than Skraelings, could have plundered and displaced the Greenlanders.[46] They were "the victims of hidebound thinking and of a hierarchical society dominated by the Church and the biggest land owners. In their reluctance to see themselves as anything but Europeans, the Greenlanders failed to adopt the kind of apparel that the Inuit employed as protection against the cold and damp or to borrow any of the Eskimo hunting gear."[9] The Thule Culture (1300 – present)[edit] The Thule people are the ancestors of the current Greenlandic population. No genes from the Paleo-Eskimos have been found in the present population of Greenland.[47] The Thule Culture migrated eastward from what is now known as Alaska around 1000, reaching Greenland around 1300. The Thule culture was the first to introduce to Greenland such technological innovations as dog sleds and toggling harpoons. 1500–1814[edit] In 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal sent Gaspar Corte-Real to Greenland in search of a Northwest Passage to Asia which, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas, was part of Portugal's sphere of influence. In 1501, Corte-Real returned with his brother, Miguel Corte-Real. Finding the sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador and Newfoundland. Upon the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented to Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, by Alberto Cantino in 1502. The Cantino planisphere, made in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern coastline of Greenland.[48] In 1605–1607, King Christian IV of Denmark sent a series of expeditions to Greenland and Arctic waterways to locate the lost eastern Norse settlement and assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland. The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful, partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice and weather conditions, and partly because the expedition leaders were given instructions to search for the Eastern Settlement on the east coast of Greenland just north of Cape Farewell, which is almost inaccessible due to southward drifting ice. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. A 1747 map based on Egede's descriptions and misconceptions After the Norse settlements died off, Greenland came under the de facto control of various Inuit groups, but the Danish government never forgot or relinquished the claims to Greenland that it had inherited from the Norse. When it re-established contact with Greenland in the early 18th century, Denmark asserted its sovereignty over the island. In 1721, a joint mercantile and clerical expedition led by Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland, not knowing whether a Norse civilization remained there. This expedition is part of the Dano-Norwegian colonization of the Americas. After 15 years in Greenland, Hans Egede left his son Paul Egede in charge of the mission there and returned to Denmark, where he established a Greenland Seminary. This new colony was centred at Godthåb ("Good Hope") on the southwest coast. Gradually, Greenland was opened up to Danish merchants, and closed to those from other countries. Treaty of Kiel to World War II[edit] Eirik Raudes Land When the union between the crowns of Denmark and Norway was dissolved in 1814, the Treaty of Kiel severed Norway's former colonies and left them under the control of the Danish monarch. Norway occupied then-uninhabited eastern Greenland as Erik the Red's Land in July 1931, claiming that it constituted terra nullius. Norway and Denmark agreed to submit the matter in 1933 to the Permanent Court of International Justice, which decided against Norway.[49] Main article: Greenland in World War II Greenland's connection to Denmark was severed on 9 April 1940, early in World War II, after Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany. On 8 April 1941, the United States occupied Greenland to defend it against a possible invasion by Germany.[50] The United States occupation of Greenland continued until 1945. Greenland was able to buy goods from the United States and Canada by selling cryolite from the mine at Ivittuut. The major air bases were Bluie West-1 at Narsarsuaq and Bluie West-8 at Søndre Strømfjord (Kangerlussuaq), both of which are still used as Greenland's major international airports. Bluie was the military code name for Greenland. During this war, the system of government changed: Governor Eske Brun ruled the island under a law of 1925 that allowed governors to take control under extreme circumstances; Governor Aksel Svane was transferred to the United States to lead the commission to supply Greenland. The Danish Sirius Patrol guarded the northeastern shores of Greenland in 1942 using dogsleds. They detected several German weather stations and alerted American troops, who destroyed the facilities. After the collapse of the Third Reich, Albert Speer briefly considered escaping in a small aeroplane to hide out in Greenland, but changed his mind and decided to surrender to the United States Armed Forces.[51] Greenland had been a protected and very isolated society until 1940. The Danish government had maintained a strict monopoly of Greenlandic trade, allowing only small scale troaking with Scottish whalers. In wartime Greenland developed a sense of self-reliance through self-government and independent communication with the outside world. Despite this change, in 1946 a commission including the highest Greenlandic council, the Landsrådene, recommended patience and no radical reform of the system. Two years later, the first step towards a change of government was initiated when a grand commission was established. A final report (G-50) was presented in 1950: Greenland was to be a modern welfare state with Denmark as sponsor and example. In 1953 Greenland was made an equal part of the Danish Kingdom. Home rule was granted in 1979. Home rule and self-rule[edit] See also: Greenlandic independence The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language is governed by Oqaasileriffik, the Greenlandic language secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland, Nuuk. Following World War II, the United States developed a geopolitical interest in Greenland, and in 1946 the United States offered to buy the island from Denmark for $100,000,000. Denmark refused to sell it.[52][53] In the 21st century, the United States, according to Wikileaks, remains highly interested in investing in the resource base of Greenland and in tapping hydrocarbons off the Greenlandic coast.[54][55] In 1950 Denmark agreed to allow the US to reestablish Thule Air Base in Greenland; it was greatly expanded between 1951 and 1953 as part of a unified NATO Cold War defense strategy. The local population of three nearby villages was moved more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) away in the winter. The United States tried to construct a subterranean network of secret nuclear missile launch sites in the Greenlandic ice cap, named Project Iceworm. It managed this project from Camp Century from 1960 to 1966 before abandoning it as unworkable. The Danish government did not become aware of the program's mission until 1997, when they discovered it while looking for records related to the crash of a nuclear-equipped B-52 bomber at Thule in 1968. With the 1953 Danish constitution, Greenland's colonial status ended as the island was incorporated into the Danish realm as an amt (county). Danish citizenship was extended to Greenlanders. Danish policies toward Greenland consisted of a strategy of cultural assimilation—or de-Greenlandification. During this period, the Danish government promoted the exclusive use of the Danish language in official matters, and required Greenlanders to go to Denmark for their post-secondary education. Many Greenlandic children grew up in boarding schools in southern Denmark, and a number lost their cultural ties to Greenland. While the policies "succeeded" in the sense of shifting Greenlanders from being primarily subsistence hunters into being urbanized wage earners, the Greenlandic elite began to reassert a Greenlandic cultural identity. A movement developed in favour of independence, reaching its peak in the 1970s.[56] As a consequence of political complications in relation to Denmark's entry into the European Common Market in 1972, Denmark began to seek a different status for Greenland, resulting in the Home Rule Act of 1979. This gave Greenland limited autonomy with its own legislature taking control of some internal policies, while the Parliament of Denmark maintained full control of external policies, security, and natural resources. The law came into effect on 1 May 1979. The Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, remains Greenland's Head of state. In 1985, Greenland left the European Economic Community (EEC) upon achieving self-rule, as it did not agree with the EEC's commercial fishing regulations and an EEC ban on seal skin products.[57] Greenland voters approved a referendum on greater autonomy on 25 November 2008.[58][59] On 21 June 2009, Greenland gained self-rule with provisions for assuming responsibility for self-government of judicial affairs, policing, and natural resources. Also, Greenlanders were recognized as a separate people under international law. (One country, two systems)[60] Denmark maintains control of foreign affairs and defence matters. Denmark upholds the annual block grant of 3.2 billion Danish kroner, but as Greenland begins to collect revenues of its natural resources, the grant will gradually be diminished. This is generally considered to be a step toward eventual full independence from Denmark.[61] Greenlandic was declared the sole official language of Greenland at the historic ceremony.[3][8][62][63][64]

Geography and climate[edit] Greenland map of Köppen climate classification Main article: Geography of Greenland See also: Administrative divisions of Greenland, Territorial claims in the Arctic, Climate change in the Arctic, Climate of the Arctic § Greenland, and Retreat of glaciers since 1850 § Greenland Map of Greenland Greenland is the world's largest non-continental island[65] and the third largest country in North America.[66] It is between latitudes 59° and 83°N, and longitudes 11° and 74°W. The Atlantic Ocean borders Greenland's southeast; the Greenland Sea is to the east; the Arctic Ocean is to the north; and Baffin Bay is to the west. The nearest countries are Canada, to the west and southwest across Baffin Bay, and Iceland, east of Greenland in the Atlantic Ocean. Greenland also contains the world's largest national park, and it is the largest dependent territory by area in the world, as well as the fourth largest country subdivision in the world, after Sakha Republic in Russia, Australia's state of Western Australia, and Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai, and the largest in North America. Southeast coast of Greenland The average daily temperature of Nuuk, Greenland varies over the seasons from −8 to 7 °C (18 to 45 °F). The total area of Greenland is 2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi) (including other offshore minor islands), of which the Greenland ice sheet covers 1,755,637 km2 (677,855 sq mi) (81%) and has a volume of approximately 2,850,000 km3 (680,000 cu mi).[67] The highest point on Greenland is Gunnbjørn Fjeld at 3,700 m (12,139 ft) of the Watkins Range (East Greenland mountain range). The majority of Greenland, however, is less than 1,500 m (4,921 ft) in elevation. The weight of the ice sheet has depressed the central land area to form a basin lying more than 300 m (984 ft) below sea level,[68][69] while elevations rise suddenly and steeply near the coast.[70] The ice flows generally to the coast from the centre of the island. A survey led by French scientist Paul-Emile Victor in 1951 concluded that, under the ice sheet, Greenland is composed of three large islands.[71] This is disputed, but if it is so, they would be separated by narrow straits, reaching the sea at Ilulissat Icefjord, at Greenland's Grand Canyon and south of Nordostrundingen. All towns and settlements of Greenland are situated along the ice-free coast, with the population being concentrated along the west coast. The northeastern part of Greenland is not part of any municipality, but it is the site of the world's largest national park, Northeast Greenland National Park.[72] View of mountains on Greenland from the air At least four scientific expedition stations and camps had been established on the ice sheet in the ice-covered central part of Greenland (indicated as pale blue in the map to the right): Eismitte, North Ice, North GRIP Camp and The Raven Skiway. Currently, there is a year-round station Summit Camp on the ice sheet, established in 1989. The radio station Jørgen Brønlund Fjord was, until 1950, the northernmost permanent outpost in the world. Southern Greenland lives up to its name as it is truly a green land. Agriculture thrives here with many farms and luxuriant vegetables, in contrast to a barren ice world that covers much of Greenland. Hay is harvested in Igaliku, Kujalleq. The extreme north of Greenland, Peary Land, is not covered by an ice sheet, because the air there is too dry to produce snow, which is essential in the production and maintenance of an ice sheet. If the Greenland ice sheet were to melt away completely, the world's sea level would rise by more than 7 m (23 ft).[73] Between 1989 and 1993, US and European climate researchers drilled into the summit of Greenland's ice sheet, obtaining a pair of 3 km (1.9 mi) long ice cores. Analysis of the layering and chemical composition of the cores has provided a revolutionary new record of climate change in the Northern Hemisphere going back about 100,000 years and illustrated that the world's weather and temperature have often shifted rapidly from one seemingly stable state to another, with worldwide consequences.[74] The glaciers of Greenland are also contributing to a rise in the global sea level faster than was previously believed.[75] Between 1991 and 2004, monitoring of the weather at one location (Swiss Camp) showed that the average winter temperature had risen almost 6 °C (11 °F).[76] Other research has shown that higher snowfalls from the North Atlantic oscillation caused the interior of the ice cap to thicken by an average of 6 cm or 2.36 in/y between 1994 and 2005.[77] However, a recent study suggests a much warmer planet in relatively recent geological times:[78] Scientists who probed 2 km (1.2 mi) through a Greenland glacier to recover the oldest plant DNA on record said that the planet was far warmer hundreds of thousands of years ago than is generally believed. DNA of trees, plants, spiders and insects including butterflies from beneath the southern Greenland glacier was estimated to date to 450,000 to 900,000 years ago, according to the remnants retrieved from this long-vanished boreal forest. That view contrasts sharply with the prevailing one that a lush forest of this kind could not have existed in Greenland any later than 2.4 million years ago. These DNA samples suggest that the temperature probably reached 10 °C (50 °F) in the summer and −17 °C (1.4 °F) in the winter. They also indicate that during the last interglacial period, 130,000–116,000 years ago, when local temperatures were on average 5 °C (9 °F) higher than now, the glaciers on Greenland did not completely melt away. View of Kangertittivaq in eastern Greenland, one of the largest sund-fjord systems in the world Greenland bedrock, at current elevation above sea level In 2003, a small island, 35 by 15 metres (115 by 49 feet) in length and width, was discovered by arctic explorer Dennis Schmitt and his team at the coordinates of 83-42. Whether this island is permanent is not confirmed as of yet. If it is, it is the northernmost permanent known land on Earth. In 2007 the existence of a new island was announced. Named "Uunartoq Qeqertaq" (English: Warming Island), this island has always been present off the coast of Greenland, but was covered by a glacier. This glacier was discovered in 2002 to be shrinking rapidly, and by 2007 had completely melted away, leaving the exposed island.[79] The island was named Place of the Year by the Oxford Atlas of the World in 2007.[80] Ben Keene, the atlas's editor, commented: "In the last two or three decades, global warming has reduced the size of glaciers throughout the Arctic and earlier this year, news sources confirmed what climate scientists already knew: water, not rock, lay beneath this ice bridge on the east coast of Greenland. More islets are likely to appear as the sheet of frozen water covering the world's largest island continues to melt".[81] Some controversy surrounds the history of the island, specifically over whether the island might have been revealed during a brief warm period in Greenland during the mid-20th century.[82] See also: Greenland's Grand Canyon Postglacial glacier advances on the peninsula Nugssuaq[edit] The 1310 m-high Qaqugdluit-mountain-land on the south-side of the peninsula Nugssuaq, situated 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of the Greenland inland ice at 70°07’50.92"N 51°44’30.52"W, is exemplary of the numerous mountain areas of West-Greenland. Up to the year 1979 (Stage 0) it shows Historical to Holocene, i.e. Postglacial glacier stages dating back at least 7000 and at most about 10 000 years.[83][84] In 1979 the glacier tongues came to an end – according to the extent and height of the glacier nourishing area – between 660 and 140 metres (2,170 and 460 feet) above sea level. The pertinent climatic glacier snowline (ELA) ran at about 800 metres (2,600 feet) in height. The snowline of the oldest (VII) of the three Holocene glacier stages (V–VII) ran about 230 metres (750 feet) deeper, i.e. at about 570 metres (1,870 feet) in height.[85] The four youngest glacier stages (IV-I) are of a Historical age. They have to be classified as belonging to the global glacier advances in the years 1811 to 1850 and 1880 to 1900 ("Little Ice Age"), 1910 to 1930, 1948 and 1953.[84] Their snowlines rose step by step up to the level of 1979. The current snowline (Stage 0) runs nearly unchanged. During the oldest Postglacial Stage VII an ice-stream-network from valley glaciers joining each other, has completely covered the landscape. Its nourishing areas consisted of high-lying plateau-glaciers and local ice caps. Due to the uplift of the snowline about that about 230 metres (750 feet) – what corresponds to a warming about 1.5 °C (2.7 °F), since 1979 there exists a plateau-glaciation with small glacier tongues hanging down on the margins that nearly did not reach the main valley bottoms any more.[85]

Biodiversity[edit] muskox See also: Flora and fauna of Greenland, Reindeer hunting in Greenland, and Fishing industry in Greenland There are approximately 700 known species of insects in Greenland, which is low compared with other countries (over one million species have been described worldwide). The sea is rich in fish and invertebrates, especially in the milder West Greenland Current, and a large part of the Greenland fauna associated with marine production, including large colonies of seabirds. The few native land mammals in Greenland include the polar bear, reindeer, arctic fox, arctic hare, musk ox, collared lemming, ermine, and arctic wolf. The last four are found naturally only in East Greenland, having immigrated from Ellesmere Island. There are dozens of species of seals and whales along the coast. Land fauna consists predominantly of animals that have spread from North America or for a lot of birds and insects coming from Europe. There are no native or free-living reptiles or amphibians on the island.[86] Phytogeographically, Greenland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. The island is sparsely populated in vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland and small bushes, which is regularly grazed by livestock. The most common tree native to Greenland is the European white birch (Betula pubescens) along with gray-leaf willow (Salix glauca), rowans (Sorbus aucuparia), common junipers (Juniperus communis) and other smaller trees, mainly willows. Greenland's flora comprises about 500 species of higher plants, i.e. flowering plants, ferns, horsetails and lycopodiophyta. Of the other groups, the lichens are the largest with about 950 species; of major fungal species are known 600–700; mosses and algae anything less. Most of Greenland's higher plants are widespread, particularly in arctic and alpine regions, and only a dozen species of particular saxifrage and hawkweed is endemic. A few species were introduced by the Norsemen, such as cow vetch. The animals of Greenland include the Greenland dog, which was introduced by the Inuit, as well as European-introduced species such as Greenlandic sheep, goats, cattle, reindeer, horse, chicken and sheepdog, all descendants of animals imported by Europeans. Marine mammals include the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) as well as the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).[87] Whales frequently pass very close to Greenlandic shores in the late summer and early autumn. Species represented include the beluga whale, blue whale, Greenland whale, fin whale, humpback whale, minke whale, narwhal, pilot whale, sperm whale.[88] Approximately 225 species of fish are known from the waters surrounding Greenland, and the fishing industry is a major part of Greenland's economy, accounting for the majority of the country's total exports. Birds, especially seabirds, are an important part of Greenland's animal life. On steep mountainsides breed large colonies of auks, puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes. By common ducks include eiders, long-tailed ducks and the king eider and in West Greenland white-fronted goose and in East Greenland pink-footed goose and barnacle goose. Breeding migratory birds are also including snow bunting, lapland bunting, ringed plover, red-throated loon and red-necked phalarope. Of land birds that are usually sedentary, can be highlighted arctic redpoll, ptarmigan, short-eared owl, snowy owl, gyrfalcon and in West Greenland the white-tailed eagle.[86]

Politics[edit] Margrethe II, Queen since 1972 Kim Kielsen, Premier since 2014 Lars Løkke Rasmussen, Prime Minister since 2015 Main article: Politics of Greenland See also: Politics of Denmark and Politics of the Faroe Islands Map of the European Union in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which Queen Margrethe II is the head of state. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State (privy council).[89][90] However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial,[91] such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government. The monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and the monarch's person is sacrosanct.[92] Political system[edit] The party system is currently dominated by the social democratic Forward Party (14 MPs), and the democratic socialist Inuit Community Party (11 MPs), both of which broadly argue for greater independence from Denmark. While the 2009 election saw the unionist—and largely Danish—Democrat Party (2 MPs) decline greatly, the 2013 election consolidated the power of the two main parties at the expense of the smaller groups, and saw the far-left Inuit Party (2 MPs) elected to the Parliament for the first time. The non-binding 2008 referendum on self-governance favoured increased self-governance 21,355 votes to 6,663. In 1985, Greenland left the European Economic Community (EEC), unlike Denmark, which remains a member. The EEC later became the European Union (EU, renamed and expanded in scope in 1992). Greenland retains some ties with the EU via Denmark. However, EU law largely does not apply to Greenland except in the area of trade. Greenland is a member state of the Council of Europe.[93] Government[edit] Main article: Politics of Greenland Municipalities of Greenland Greenland's head of state is Margrethe II, Queen regnant of Denmark. The Queen's government in Denmark appoints a High Commissioner (Rigsombudsmand) to represent it on the island. The current commissioner is Mikaela Engell. Greenlanders elect two representatives to the Folketing, Denmark's parliament, out of a total of 179. The current representatives are Aleqa Hammond of the Siumut Party and Aaja Chemnitz Larsen of the Inuit Community Party.[94] Greenland also has its own Parliament, which has 31 members. The government is the Naalakkersuisut whose members are appointed by the Premier. The head of government is the Premier, usually the leader of the majority party in Parliament. The current Premier is Kim Kielsen of the Siumut Party. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Greenland Formerly consisting of three counties comprising a total of 18 municipalities, Greenland abolished these in 2009 and has since been divided into large territories known as "municipalities" (Greenlandic: kommuneqarfiit, Danish: kommuner): Sermersooq ("Much Ice") around the capital Nuuk and also including all East Coast communities; Kujalleq ("South") around Cape Farewell; Qeqqata ("Centre") north of the capital along the Davis Strait; Qeqertalik ("The one with islands") surrounding Disko Bay; and Avannaata ("Northern") in the northwest; the latter two having come into being as a result of the Qaasuitsup municipality, one of the original four, being partitioned in 2018. The northeast of the island composes the unincorporated Northeast Greenland National Park. Thule Air Base is also unincorporated, an enclave within Avannaata municipality administered by the United States Air Force. During its construction, there were as many as 12,000 American residents but in recent years the number has been below 1,000.

Economy[edit] Tasiilaq is a town in the Sermersooq municipality in southeastern Greenland Royal Greenland fishing vessel "Akamalik", anchored at Sisimiut port Graphical depiction of Greenland's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories Main article: Economy of Greenland The Greenlandic economy is highly dependent on fishing. Fishing accounts for more than 90% of Greenland's exports.[95] The shrimp and fish industry is by far the largest income earner.[2] Greenland is abundant in minerals.[95] Mining of ruby deposits began in 2007. Other mineral prospects are improving as prices are increasing. These include iron, uranium, aluminium, nickel, platinum, tungsten, titanium, and copper. Despite resumption[when?] of several hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities, it will take several years before hydrocarbon production can materialize. The state oil company Nunaoil was created to help develop the hydrocarbon industry in Greenland. The state company Nunamineral has been launched on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange to raise more capital to increase the production of gold, started in 2007. Electricity has traditionally been generated by oil or diesel power plants, even if there is a large surplus of potential hydropower. There is currently a programme to build hydro power plants. The first, and still the largest, is Buksefjord hydroelectric power plant. There are also plans to build a large aluminium smelter, using hydropower to create an exportable product. It is expected that much of the labour needed will be imported.[96] The European Union has urged Greenland to restrict People's Republic of China development of rare-earth projects, as China accounts for 95% of the world's current supply. In early 2013, the Greenland government said that it had no plans to impose such restrictions.[97] The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays a dominant role in Greenland's economy. About half the government revenues come from grants from the Danish government, an important supplement to the gross domestic product (GDP). Gross domestic product per capita is equivalent to that of the average economies of Europe. Greenland suffered an economic contraction in the early 1990s. But, since 1993, the economy has improved. The Greenland Home Rule Government (GHRG) has pursued a tight fiscal policy since the late 1980s, which has helped create surpluses in the public budget and low inflation. Since 1990, Greenland has registered a foreign-trade deficit following the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine that year. More recently,[when?] new sources of ruby in Greenland have been discovered, promising to bring new industry and a new export to the country. (See Gemstone industry in Greenland). Economics and business[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) About half of public spending on Greenland is funded by block grants from Denmark which in 2007 totalled over 3.2 billion kr. Additional proceeds from the sale of fishing licences and the annual compensation from the EU represents 280 million DKK per year. Greenland's economy is based on a narrow professional basis with the fishing industry as the dominant sector with some 90% of its exports. In a few years, quarrying and tourism could complement the fisheries that depend on the changing prices of fish and fishing opportunities. The long distances and lack of roads divides the domestic market into many small units that have high operating costs. Most of the fish factories are owned by Royal Greenland. Transportation[edit] Main articles: Transport in Greenland and List of airports in Greenland Air Greenland Airbus A330-200 in-flight Air transportation exists both within Greenland and between the island and other nations. There is also scheduled boat traffic, but the long distances lead to long travel times and low frequency. There are no roads between cities because the coast has many fjords that would require ferry service to connect a road network.[citation needed] In addition, the lack of agriculture, forestry and similar countryside activities has meant that very few countryside roads have been built. All civil aviation matters are handled by the Danish Transport Authority. Most airports including Nuuk Airport have short runways and can only be served by special fairly small aircraft on fairly short flights. Kangerlussuaq Airport around 100 kilometres (62 miles) inland from the west coast is the major airport of Greenland and the hub for domestic flights. Intercontinental flights connect mainly to Copenhagen. Travel between international destinations (except Iceland) and any city in Greenland requires a plane change. Air Iceland operates flights from Reykjavík to a number of airports in Greenland, and the company promotes the service as a day-trip option from Iceland for tourists.[98] There are no direct flights to USA or Canada, although there have been flights Kangerlussuaq – Baltimore,[99] and Nuuk – Iqaluit.,[100] which were cancelled because of too few passengers and financial losses.[101] An alternative between Greenland and USA/Canada is Air Iceland/Icelandair with a plane change in Iceland.[102] Sea passenger and freight transport is served by the coastal ferries operated by Arctic Umiaq Line. It makes a single round trip per week, taking 80 hours each direction.

Population[edit] Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Greenland See also: List of Greenlanders Greenland has a population of 56,370 (January 2013 estimate),[6] of whom 88% are Greenlandic Inuit (including mixed persons). The remaining 12% are of European descent, mainly Greenland Danes. Several thousand Greenlandic Inuit reside in the Danish Penisula. The majority of the population is Lutheran. Nearly all Greenlanders live along the fjords in the south-west of the main island, which has a relatively mild climate.[103] More than 17,000 people reside in Nuuk, the capital city.   v t e Largest cities or towns in Greenland Statistics Greenland, Greenland in Figures 2013 and Population in localities (2013) Rank Name Municipality Pop. Rank Name Municipality Pop. Nuuk Sisimiut 1 Nuuk Sermersooq 16,464 11 Uummannaq Avannaata 1,282 Ilulissat Qaqortoq 2 Sisimiut Qeqqata 5,598 12 Upernavik Avannaata 1,181 3 Ilulissat Avannaata 4,541 13 Qasigiannguit Qeqertalik 1,171 4 Qaqortoq Kujalleq 3,229 14 Qeqertarsuaq Qeqertalik 845 5 Aasiaat Qeqertalik 3,142 15 Qaanaaq Avannaata 656 6 Maniitsoq Qeqqata 2,670 16 Kangaatsiaq Qeqertalik 558 7 Tasiilaq Sermersooq 2,017 17 Kangerlussuaq Qeqqata 512 8 Paamiut Sermersooq 1,515 18 Ittoqqortoormiit Sermersooq 452 9 Narsaq Kujalleq 1,503 19 Kullorsuaq Avannaata 448 10 Nanortalik Kujalleq 1,337 20 Kangaamiut Qeqqata 353 Languages[edit] A bilingual sign in Nuuk, displaying the Danish and Kalaallisut for "Parking forbidden for all vehicles" Both Greenlandic (an Eskimo–Aleut language) and Danish have been used in public affairs since the establishment of home rule in 1979; the majority of the population can speak both languages. Greenlandic became the sole official language in June 2009,[104] In practice, Danish is still widely used in the administration and in higher education, as well as remaining the first or only language for some Danish immigrants in Nuuk and other larger towns. Debate about the roles of Greenlandic and Danish in the country's future is ongoing. The orthography of Greenlandic was established in 1851[105] and revised in 1973. The country has a 100% literacy rate.[2] A majority of the population speaks Greenlandic, most of them bilingually. It is spoken by about 50,000 people, making it the most populous of the Eskimo–Aleut language family, spoken by more people than all the other languages of the family combined. Kalaallisut is the Greenlandic dialect of West Greenland, which has long been the most populous area of the island. This has led to its de facto status as the official "Greenlandic" language, although the northern dialect Inuktun remains spoken by 1,000 or so people around Qaanaaq, and the eastern dialect Tunumiisut by around 3,000.[106] Each of these dialects is almost unintelligible to the speakers of the other and are considered by some linguists to be separate languages.[citation needed] A UNESCO report has labelled the other dialects as endangered, and measures are now being considered to protect the East Greenlandic dialects.[107] About 12% of the population speak Danish as a first or sole language, particularly Danish immigrants in Greenland, many of whom fill positions such as administrators, professionals, academics, or skilled tradesmen. While Greenlandic is dominant in all smaller settlements, a part of the population of Inuit or mixed ancestry, especially in towns, speaks Danish. Most of the Inuit population speaks Danish as a second language. In larger towns, especially Nuuk and in the higher social strata, this is still a large group. While one strategy aims at promoting Greenlandic in public life and education, developing its vocabulary and suitability for all complex contexts, there are opponents of this.[citation needed]. English is another important language for Greenland, taught in schools from the first school year.[108] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Greenland Religion in Greenland (2010)[109][110]   Protestantism (95.5%)   Roman Catholicism (0.2%)   Other Christian (0.4%)   Inuit spiritual beliefs (0.8%)   Agnostic (2.3%)   Atheist (0.2%)   Bahai and Other Religion (0.6%) Most Greenlandic villages, including Nanortalik, have their own church. The nomadic Inuit people were traditionally shamanistic, with a well-developed mythology primarily concerned with appeasing a vengeful and fingerless sea goddess who controlled the success of the seal and whale hunts. The first Norse colonists worshipped the Norse gods, but Erik the Red's son Leif was converted to Christianity by King Olaf Trygvesson on a trip to Norway in 999 and sent missionaries back to Greenland. These swiftly established sixteen parishes, some monasteries, and a bishopric at Garðar. Rediscovering these colonists and spreading ideas of the Protestant Reformation among them was one of the primary reasons for the Danish recolonization in the 18th century. Under the patronage of the Royal Mission College in Copenhagen, Norwegian and Danish Lutherans and German Moravian missionaries searched for the missing Norse settlements, but no Norse were found, and instead they began preaching to the Inuit. The principal figures in the Christianization of Greenland were Hans and Poul Egede and Matthias Stach. The New Testament was translated piecemeal from the time of the very first settlement on Kangeq Island, but the first translation of the whole Bible was not completed until 1900. An improved translation using the modern orthography was completed in 2000.[111] Today, the major religion is Protestant Christianity, represented mainly by the Church of Denmark, which is Lutheran in orientation. While there are no official census data on religion in Greenland, the Bishop of Greenland Sofie Petersen[112] estimates that 85% of the Greenlandic population are members of her congregation.[113] The Church of Denmark is the established church through the Constitution of Denmark: The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State. — Section IV of Constitution of Denmark[114] This applies to all of the Kingdom of Denmark, except for the Faroe Islands, as the Church of the Faroe Islands became independent in 2007. The Roman Catholic minority is pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Copenhagen. There are still Christian missionaries on the island, but mainly from charismatic movements proselytizing fellow Christians.[115][116][117][118] Social issues[edit] The rate of suicide in Greenland is very high. According to a 2010 census, Greenland holds the highest suicide rate in the world.[119][120] Other significant social issues faced by Greenland are high rates of unemployment, alcoholism, and HIV/AIDS.[121] Alcohol consumption rates in Greenland reached their height in the 1980s, when it was twice as high as in Denmark, and had by 2010 fallen slightly below the average level of consumption in Denmark (which is the 12th highest in the world). But at the same time alcohol prices are much higher, meaning that consumption has a high social impact.[122][123] Education[edit] There is a 10-year compulsory schooling for children. Secondary education is available in several places in the country. There are many higher schools in Greenland, including the University of Greenland in Nuuk. Traditionally many Greenlanders have received higher education in Denmark.

Culture[edit] Nive Nielsen, Greenlandic singer and songwriter Panel discussion with Greenlandic movie maker Inuk Silis Høegh at the launch of his movie about groundbreaking Greenlandic band Sumé. Journalist and Sumé's record producer Karsten Sommer is speaking. Main articles: Culture of Greenland and Music of Greenland Greenland's culture began with settlement in the second millennium BC by the Dorset Culture, shortly after the end of the ice age. In the 10th century, Icelandic and Norwegian Vikings settled in the southern part of the island, while the Thule Inuit culture was introduced in the north of the island and expanded southward. Inuit culture dominated the island from the end of the Middle Ages to the recolonization in the early 18th century, where European culture was reintroduced. Today Greenlandic culture is a blending of traditional Inuit (Kalaallit) and Scandinavian culture. Inuit, or Kalaallit, culture has a strong artistic tradition, dating back thousands of years. The Kalaallit are known for an art form of figures called tupilak or a "spirit object." Traditional art-making practices thrive in the Ammassalik.[124] Sperm whale ivory remains a valued medium for carving.[125] Greenland also has a successful, albeit small, music culture. Some popular Greenlandic bands and artists include Sume (classic rock), Chilly Friday (rock), Nanook (rock), Siissisoq (rock), Nuuk Posse (hip hop) and Rasmus Lyberth (folk), who performed in the Danish Eurovision Song Contest 1979, performing in Greenlandic. The singer-songwriter Simon Lynge is the first musical artist from Greenland to have an album released across the United Kingdom, and to perform at the UK's Glastonbury Festival. The music culture of Greenland also includes traditional Inuit music, largely revolving around singing and drums. Sports[edit] Sports are an important part of Greenlandic culture, as the population is generally quite active.[126] The main traditional sport in Greenland is Arctic sports, a form of wrestling thought to have originated in medieval times. Popular sports include association football, track and field, handball and skiing. Handball is often referred to as the national sport,[127] and Greenland's men's national team was ranked among the top 20 in the world in 2001. Greenland has excellent conditions for skiing, fishing, snowboarding, ice climbing and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public. Although the country's environment is generally ill-suited for golf, there are nevertheless golf courses on the island. Greenland hosts a biennial international the world's largest multisport and cultural event for young people of the Arctic for the second time in 2016.[128] The Football Association of Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaanni Arsaattartut Kattuffiat), is not yet a member of FIFA because of ongoing disagreements with FIFA leadership and an inability to grow grass for regulation grass pitches.[citation needed] However, it is the 17th member of the N.F.-Board. The FIFA Goal programme sponsored the Qaqortoq Stadium in Qaqortoq, which has an artificial grass pitch. The oldest sport association in Greenland is the Greenland Ski Federation (GIF), founded in 1969. This happened when the then-President of the GIF Daniel Switching took the initiative to found federations and institute reforms. Greenland Ski Federation is further divided into Alpine and cross-country selection committees. The federation is not a member of the International Ski Federation (FIS), but Greenland skiers participated in the Olympics and World Championships under the Danish flag at the 1968, 1994, 1998 and 2014 Games.[129] Greenland took part in the 2007 World Men's Handball Championship in Germany, finishing 22nd in a field of 24 national teams. Greenland competes in the biennial Island Games, as well as the biennial Arctic Winter Games (AWG). In 2002, Nuuk hosted the AWG in conjunction with Iqaluit, Nunavut.[130] In 1994 and again in 2002, they won the Hodgson Trophy for fair play.[131]

See also[edit] Outline of Greenland Index of Greenland-related articles

Notes[edit] ^ Nuna asiilasooq has equal status as a national anthem but is generally used only on the self-government of Greenland.[1]

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Fodor's. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ "Greenland". Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "Danish doubts over Greenland vote". BBC News. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Kleinschmidt, Samuel 1968 (1851): Grammatik der grønlændischen Sprache : mit teilweisem Einschluss des Labradordialekts. Hildesheim : Olms, 1968. ^ Mennecier, Philippe (1978). Le tunumiisut, dialecte inuit du Groenland oriental: description et analyse, Collection linguistique, 78, Societé de linguistique de Paris. ^ "Sermersooq will secure Eastern Greenlandic" (in Danish). Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.  ^ "Travelling in Greenland". Greenland Representation to the EU, Greenland Home Rule Government. Archived from the original on 16 May 2014.  ^ "Greenland, Religion and Social Profile | National Profiles | International Data". 2009-06-21. Retrieved 2016-06-18.  ^ ^ Sørensen, Leif Kiil (29 November 2000). "Grønlandsk bibel præsenteret | Kristeligt Dagblad". Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "Bells ring a wake-up call for climate justice." World Council of Churches. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010 ^ "Grønland, Grundloven og Gejstligheden" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ "Constitution of Denmark" (PDF).  ^ Faheem. "Ramadan in Greenland". Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "Muslim in Greenland who Fasts for 21 hours". Malaysia News Hub. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Wetaka, Ahmed. "The only Muslim in Greenland who fasts for 21 hours". Uganda Muslims. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "Ramadan in Greenland: The only Muslim in the island fasts for 21 hours". 12 August 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "The Suicide Capital of the World". Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Rising suicide rate baffles Greenland". Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Greenland profile – Overview". BBC News. ^ Aage, H. (2012). "Alcohol in Greenland 1951–2010: consumption, mortality, prices". International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 71: 18444. doi:10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18444. PMC 3525923 . PMID 23256091.  ^ Madsen, M. H.; Grønbæk, M.; Bjerregaard, P.; Becker, U. (2005). "Urbanization, migration and alcohol use in a population of Greenland Inuit". International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 64 (3): 234–45. doi:10.3402/ijch.v64i3.17987. PMID 16050317.  ^ Hessel, p. 20 ^ Hessel, p. 21 ^ Wilcox and Latif, p. 109 ^ Wilcox and Latif, p. 110 ^ Wilcox and Latif, p. 111 ^ "Ski forbundet". Archived from the original on 2015-02-11.  ^ "Arctic Winter Games". Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2011.  ^ "Hodgson Trophy Winners". Retrieved 6 August 2011.  Bibliography[edit] Hessel, Ingo (2006). Arctic Spirit. Vancouver, BC: Douglas and McIntyre. ISBN 978-1-55365-189-5.  Stern, Pamela (2004). Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-5058-3. OCLC 54768167.  Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-2074-3.  Works cited[edit] Bardarson, I. (ed. Jónsson, F.) "Det gamle Grønlands beskrivelse af Ívar Bárðarson (Ivar Bårdssön)", (Copenhagen, 1930). CIA World Factbook, 2000. Conkling, P. W. et al. 2011. The Fate of Greenland: Lessons from Abrupt Climate Change, co-authored with Richard Alley, Wallace Broecker and George Denton, with photographs by Gary Comer, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Lund S (1959). "The Marine Algae of East Greenland. 1. Taxonomical Part". Meddr Gronland. 156 (1): 1–245.  Lund S (1959). "The Marine Algae of East Greenland. 11. Geographic Distribution". Meddr Gronland. 156: 1–70.  Steffen, Konrad, N. Cullen, and R. Huff (2005). "Climate variability and trends along the western slope of the Greenland Ice Sheet during 1991–2004", Proceedings of the 85th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting (San Diego). Sowa F (2013). "Indigenous Peoples and the Institutionalization of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Greenland". Arctic Anthropology. 50 (1): 72–88. doi:10.3368/aa.50.1.72.  Sowa, F. 2013. Relations of Power & Domination in a World Polity: The Politics of Indigeneity & National Identity in Greenland. In: Heininen, L. Arctic Yearbook 2013. The Arctic of regions vs. the globalized Arctic. Akureyri: Northern Research Forum, pp. 184– Sowa, F. 2014. Greenland. in: Hund, A. Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth's Polar Regions. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, pp. 312–316.

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Greenland at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Daily updated satellite images from Greenland Greenland profile from the BBC News Key Development Forecasts for the Kingdom of Denmark from International Futures Population in Greenland Official statistical information about Greenland from Government[edit] Government Offices of Greenland Greenlandic Government Information Center, the official English-language online portal (administered by the Greenland Ministry for Foreign Affairs) Departement of Foreign Affairs of Greenland Greenland represented with the Kingdom of Denmark Embassies Summary vital statistics about Greenland from Naatsorsueqqissaartarfik. Maps[edit] Geographic data related to Greenland at OpenStreetMap Wikimedia Atlas of Greenland Satellite image of Greenland at the NASA Earth Observatory. 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NAPA – Nordic Institute of Greenland Coordinates: 72°00′N 40°00′W / 72.000°N 40.000°W / 72.000; -40.000 v t e Greenland articles Greenland is a constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark History Timeline Paleo-Eskimo Dorset culture Thule people Norse Colonization Eastern Settlement Western Settlement Language Skræling Hans Egede Treaty of Kiel Erik the Red's Land World War II Thule accident Home rule Autonomy (self-rule) Cartographic expeditions Geography Climate change Fjords Geology Glaciers Ice sheet Islands Mountains National park Rivers Straits Towns and villages Wildlife Politics Administrative divisions Elections Independence movement Foreign relations Greenland and the EU High Commissioner Inatsisartut (Greenlandic Parliament) Law enforcement LGBT rights Military Political parties Prime Minister Territorial claims Economy Bank Companies Krone (currency) Fishing industry Mining National Bank Reindeer hunting Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transport airports Society Demographics Inuit Inughuit Kalaallit Tunumiit Danes Danish Suicide Culture Art (Artists) Cuisine Greenlandic Danish Jante Law Mythology Language Greenlandic Music Public holidays Religion Sports Symbols Coat of arms Flag National (civic) anthem Royal anthem Outline Index Category Portal v t e Nordic countries Countries  Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden Dependencies  Åland Islands  Faroe Islands  Greenland Climate of the Nordic countries Comparison of the Nordic countries Nordic Council Nordic Cross flag Subdivisions of the Nordic countries v t e Dependencies of European Union states Denmark Faroe Islands Greenland France Clipperton Island French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Adélie Land Île Amsterdam Crozet Islands Îles Éparses Kerguelen Islands Île Saint-Paul New Caledonia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna Netherlands Aruba Caribbean Netherlands Curaçao Sint Maarten United Kingdom Crown dependencies Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Sovereign Base Areas Akrotiri and Dhekelia Overseas territories Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands v t e Administrative divisions of Greenland (since 2018) Municipalities Avannaata Kujalleq Qeqertalik Qeqqata Sermersooq Unincorporated Areas Pituffik (Thule Air Base) Northeast Greenland National Park International membership v t e Nordic Council Members  Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden Associates  Åland Islands  Faroe Islands  Greenland Observers  Estonia (accession)  Latvia  Lithuania v t e Outlying territories of European countries Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe (see inclusion criteria for further information). Denmark Greenland France Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna Italy Pantelleria Pelagie Islands Lampedusa Lampione Linosa Netherlands Aruba Caribbean Netherlands Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius Curaçao Sint Maarten Norway Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land Portugal Azores Madeira Spain Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera United Kingdom Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands v t e Danish overseas territories Current overseas territories Faroe Islands Greenland Former colonies Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) Danish West Indies (U.S. Virgin Islands) Danish India Tranquebar (Tharangambadi) Balasore Frederiksnagore (Serampore) Danmarksnagore (Gondalpara) Calicut (Kozhikode) Oddeway Torre (Malabar Coast) Frederiksøerne (Nicobar Islands) See also: Danish East India Company Danish West India Company v t e Polar exploration Arctic Ocean History Expeditions Research stations Farthest North North Pole Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes Polaris Polaris C. F. Hall British Arctic Expedition HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham Lady Franklin Bay Expedition Greely Lockwood Brainard 1st Fram expedition Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup Jason Amedeo F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth Airship Italia Nautilus Wilkins ANT-25 Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov "North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1 Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel NP-36 NP-37 Sedov Badygin Wiese USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007 Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov Iceland Greenland Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson Danish colonization Egede Scoresby Jason Nansen Sverdrup Peary Rasmussen Northwest Passage Northern Canada Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery Bylot Baffin Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Discovery Clerke Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper Parry HMS Hecla Lyon HMS Fury Hoppner Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom Beechey Franklin's lost expedition HMS Erebus HMS Terror Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition Rae J. Richardson Austin McClure Expedition HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel Inglefield 2nd Grinnell Expedition USS Advance Kane Fox McClintock HMS Pandora Young Fram Sverdrup Gjøa Amundsen Rasmussen Karluk Stefansson Bartlett St. Roch H. Larsen Cowper North East Passage Russian Arctic Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition Weyprecht Payer Vega Expedition A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander USS Jeannette De Long Yermak Makarov Zarya Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach Vilkitsky Maud Amundsen AARI Samoylovich Begichev Urvantsev Sadko Ushakov Glavsevmorput Schmidt Aviaarktika Shevelev Sibiryakov Voronin Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers NS Lenin Arktika class Antarctic Continent History Expeditions Southern Ocean Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Smith San Telmo Vostok Bellingshausen Mirny Lazarev Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe Dumont d'Urville United States Exploring Expedition USS Vincennes Wilkes USS Porpoise Ringgold Ross expedition HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier) Cooper Challenger expedition HMS Challenger Nares Murray Jason C. A. Larsen "Heroic Age" Belgian Antarctic Expedition Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski Southern Cross Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Discovery Discovery Hut Gauss Gauss Drygalski Swedish Antarctic Expedition Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen Scottish Antarctic Expedition Bruce Scotia Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition Nimrod French Antarctic Expeditions Pourquoi-Pas Charcot Japanese Antarctic Expedition Shirase Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim Terra Nova Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly Filchner Australasian Antarctic Expedition SY Aurora Mawson Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild James Caird Ross Sea party Mackintosh Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Quest IPY · IGY Modern research Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE Rymill New Swabia Ritscher Operation Tabarin Marr Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic Survey Operation Windmill Ketchum Ronne Expedition F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition Hillary V. Fuchs Soviet Antarctic Expeditions 1st Somov Klenova Mirny 2nd Tryoshnikov 3rd Tolstikov Antarctic Treaty System Transglobe Expedition Fiennes Burton Lake Vostok Kapitsa Farthest South South Pole HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Weddell HMS Erebus J. C. Ross HMS Terror Crozier Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Barne Nimrod Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams South Magnetic Pole Mawson David Mackay Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim Terra Nova Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold Vostok Station Pole of inaccessibility Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov Crary A. Fuchs Messner v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. v t e Countries and dependencies of North America Sovereign states Entire Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States In part Colombia San Andrés and Providencia France Guadeloupe Martinique Caribbean Netherlands Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius Dependencies Denmark Greenland France Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Netherlands Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten United Kingdom Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands United States Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands Venezuela Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta Greenland portal Kingdom of Denmark portal Arctic portal NATO portal North America portal Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137138322 GND: 4022113-1 NDL: 00562648 Retrieved from "" Categories: Former Danish coloniesGreenlandDanish dependenciesDanish-speaking countries and territoriesDependent territories in North AmericaFormer Norwegian coloniesNorwegian EmpireInuit territoriesNordic countriesIsland countriesRegions of the ArcticSpecial territories of the European UnionKingdom of DenmarkStates and territories established in 1979Christian statesHidden categories: Articles with Danish-language external linksPages with DOIs inactive since 2017Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 Kalaallisut-language sources (kl)CS1 Danish-language sources (da)Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesWikipedia pending changes protected pagesUse dmy dates from June 2016Use British English Oxford spelling from November 2013Articles containing Greenlandic-language textArticles containing Danish-language textAll articles needing additional referencesArticles needing additional references from March 2017Articles containing Old Norse-language textAll articles with vague or ambiguous timeVague or ambiguous time from January 2014Articles needing additional references from September 2013All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2009Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016Articles with Curlie linksCoordinates on WikidataWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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