Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Early Paleo-Eskimo cultures 2.2 Norse settlement 2.3 The Thule Culture (1300 – present) 2.4 1500–1814 2.5 Treaty of Kiel to World War II 2.6 Home rule and self-rule 3 Geography and climate 3.1 Postglacial glacier advances on the peninsula Nugssuaq 4 Biodiversity 5 Politics 5.1 Political system 5.2 Government 5.3 Administrative divisions 6 Economy 6.1 Economics and business 6.2 Transportation 7 Population 7.1 Demographics 7.2 Languages 7.3 Religion 7.4 Social issues 7.5 Education 8 Culture 8.1 Sports 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 11.1 Footnotes 11.2 Bibliography 11.3 Works cited 12 External links 12.1 Overviews and data 12.2 Government 12.3 Maps 12.4 News and media 12.5 Trade 12.6 Travel 12.7 Other


Etymology[edit] The early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls (i.e. slaves or serfs), he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland (translated as "Greenland"), supposedly in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers.[18][19][20] The Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."[21] The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat ("land of the Kalaallit").[22] The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people who inhabit the country's western region. Maps showing the different cultures in Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland and the Canadian arctic islands in the years 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500. Green: Dorset Culture; blue: Thule Culture; red: Norse Culture; yellow: Innu; orange: Beothuk.


History[edit] Main article: History of Greenland Early Paleo-Eskimo cultures[edit] In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today primarily through archaeological finds. The earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named.[23][24] From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland. It was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition.[25][26][27] Towns, including Deltaterrasserne, started to appear. Around 800 BC, the Saqqaq culture disappeared and the Early Dorset culture emerged in western Greenland and the Independence II culture in northern Greenland.[28] The Dorset culture was the first culture to extend throughout the Greenlandic coastal areas, both on the west and east coasts. It lasted until the total onset of the Thule culture in 1500 AD. The Dorset culture population lived primarily from hunting of whales and caribou.[29][30][31][32] Norse settlement[edit] See also: Herjolfsnes (Norse Greenland) Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle ages) From 986, Greenland's west coast was settled by Icelanders and Norwegians, through a contingent of 14 boats led by Erik the Red. They formed three settlements—known as the Eastern Settlement, the Western Settlement and the Middle Settlement—on fjords near the southwestern-most tip of the island.[9][33] They shared the island with the late Dorset culture inhabitants who occupied the northern and western parts, and later with the Thule culture that entered from the north. Norse Greenlanders submitted to Norwegian rule in the 13th century under the Norwegian Empire. Later the Kingdom of Norway entered into a personal union with Denmark in 1380, and from 1397 was a part of the Kalmar Union.[34] Erik the Red's recruitment of others to colonize Greenland has been characterized recently as a land scam, the scam (and the name) portraying Greenland as better farm land than in Iceland.[35] The Norse settlements, such as Brattahlíð, thrived for centuries but disappeared sometime in the 15th century, perhaps at the onset of the Little Ice Age.[36] Apart from some runic inscriptions, no contemporary records or historiography survives from the Norse settlements. Medieval Norwegian sagas and historical works mention Greenland's economy as well as the bishops of Gardar and the collection of tithes. A chapter in the Konungs skuggsjá (The King's Mirror) describes Norse Greenland's exports and imports as well as grain cultivation. Icelandic saga accounts of life in Greenland were composed in the 13th century and later, and do not constitute primary sources for the history of early Norse Greenland.[20] Modern understanding therefore mostly depends on the physical data from archeological sites. Interpretation of ice core and clam shell data suggests that between 800 and 1300, the regions around the fjords of southern Greenland experienced a relatively mild climate several degrees Celsius higher than usual in the North Atlantic,[37] with trees and herbaceous plants growing, and livestock being farmed. Barley was grown as a crop up to the 70th parallel.[38] What is verifiable is that the ice cores indicate Greenland has had dramatic temperature shifts many times over the past 100,000 years.[39] Similarly the Icelandic Book of Settlements records famines during the winters, in which "the old and helpless were killed and thrown over cliffs".[37] One of the last contemporary written mentions of the Norse Greenlanders records a marriage which took place in 1408 in the church of Hvalsey—today the best-preserved Nordic ruins in Greenland. These Icelandic settlements vanished during the 14th and early 15th centuries.[40] The demise of the Western Settlement coincides with a decrease in summer and winter temperatures. A study of North Atlantic seasonal temperature variability during the Little Ice Age showed a significant decrease in maximum summer temperatures beginning in the late 13th century to early 14th century—as much as 6 to 8 °C (11 to 14 °F) lower than modern summer temperatures.[41] The study also found that the lowest winter temperatures of the last 2000 years occurred in the late 14th century and early 15th century. The Eastern Settlement was likely abandoned in the early to mid-15th century, during this cold period. Theories drawn from archeological excavations at Herjolfsnes in the 1920s, suggest that the condition of human bones from this period indicates that the Norse population was malnourished, maybe due to soil erosion resulting from the Norsemen's destruction of natural vegetation in the course of farming, turf-cutting, and wood-cutting. Malnutrition may also have resulted from widespread deaths due to pandemic plague;[42] the decline in temperatures during the Little Ice Age; and armed conflicts with the Skrælings (Norse word for Inuit). In 1379, the Inuit attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman.[36] Recent archeological studies somewhat challenge the general assumption that the Norse colonisation had a dramatic negative environmental effect on the vegetation. Data support traces of a possible Norse soil amendment strategy.[43] More recent evidence suggests that the Norse, who never numbered more than about 2,500, gradually abandoned the Greenland settlements over the 1400s as walrus ivory,[44] the most valuable export from Greenland, decreased in price due to competition with other sources of higher-quality ivory, and that there was actually little evidence of starvation or difficulties.[45] Other theories about the disappearance of the Norse settlement have been proposed; Lack of support from the homeland.[42] Ship-borne marauders (such as Basque, English, or German pirates) rather than Skraelings, could have plundered and displaced the Greenlanders.[46] They were "the victims of hidebound thinking and of a hierarchical society dominated by the Church and the biggest land owners. In their reluctance to see themselves as anything but Europeans, the Greenlanders failed to adopt the kind of apparel that the Inuit employed as protection against the cold and damp or to borrow any of the Eskimo hunting gear."[9] The Thule Culture (1300 – present)[edit] The Thule people are the ancestors of the current Greenlandic population. No genes from the Paleo-Eskimos have been found in the present population of Greenland.[47] The Thule Culture migrated eastward from what is now known as Alaska around 1000, reaching Greenland around 1300. The Thule culture was the first to introduce to Greenland such technological innovations as dog sleds and toggling harpoons. 1500–1814[edit] In 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal sent Gaspar Corte-Real to Greenland in search of a Northwest Passage to Asia which, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas, was part of Portugal's sphere of influence. In 1501, Corte-Real returned with his brother, Miguel Corte-Real. Finding the sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador and Newfoundland. Upon the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented to Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, by Alberto Cantino in 1502. The Cantino planisphere, made in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern coastline of Greenland.[48] In 1605–1607, King Christian IV of Denmark sent a series of expeditions to Greenland and Arctic waterways to locate the lost eastern Norse settlement and assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland. The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful, partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice and weather conditions, and partly because the expedition leaders were given instructions to search for the Eastern Settlement on the east coast of Greenland just north of Cape Farewell, which is almost inaccessible due to southward drifting ice. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. A 1747 map based on Egede's descriptions and misconceptions After the Norse settlements died off, Greenland came under the de facto control of various Inuit groups, but the Danish government never forgot or relinquished the claims to Greenland that it had inherited from the Norse. When it re-established contact with Greenland in the early 18th century, Denmark asserted its sovereignty over the island. In 1721, a joint mercantile and clerical expedition led by Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland, not knowing whether a Norse civilization remained there. This expedition is part of the Dano-Norwegian colonization of the Americas. After 15 years in Greenland, Hans Egede left his son Paul Egede in charge of the mission there and returned to Denmark, where he established a Greenland Seminary. This new colony was centred at Godthåb ("Good Hope") on the southwest coast. Gradually, Greenland was opened up to Danish merchants, and closed to those from other countries. Treaty of Kiel to World War II[edit] Eirik Raudes Land When the union between the crowns of Denmark and Norway was dissolved in 1814, the Treaty of Kiel severed Norway's former colonies and left them under the control of the Danish monarch. Norway occupied then-uninhabited eastern Greenland as Erik the Red's Land in July 1931, claiming that it constituted terra nullius. Norway and Denmark agreed to submit the matter in 1933 to the Permanent Court of International Justice, which decided against Norway.[49] Main article: Greenland in World War II Greenland's connection to Denmark was severed on 9 April 1940, early in World War II, after Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany. On 8 April 1941, the United States occupied Greenland to defend it against a possible invasion by Germany.[50] The United States occupation of Greenland continued until 1945. Greenland was able to buy goods from the United States and Canada by selling cryolite from the mine at Ivittuut. The major air bases were Bluie West-1 at Narsarsuaq and Bluie West-8 at Søndre Strømfjord (Kangerlussuaq), both of which are still used as Greenland's major international airports. Bluie was the military code name for Greenland. During this war, the system of government changed: Governor Eske Brun ruled the island under a law of 1925 that allowed governors to take control under extreme circumstances; Governor Aksel Svane was transferred to the United States to lead the commission to supply Greenland. The Danish Sirius Patrol guarded the northeastern shores of Greenland in 1942 using dogsleds. They detected several German weather stations and alerted American troops, who destroyed the facilities. After the collapse of the Third Reich, Albert Speer briefly considered escaping in a small aeroplane to hide out in Greenland, but changed his mind and decided to surrender to the United States Armed Forces.[51] Greenland had been a protected and very isolated society until 1940. The Danish government had maintained a strict monopoly of Greenlandic trade, allowing only small scale troaking with Scottish whalers. In wartime Greenland developed a sense of self-reliance through self-government and independent communication with the outside world. Despite this change, in 1946 a commission including the highest Greenlandic council, the Landsrådene, recommended patience and no radical reform of the system. Two years later, the first step towards a change of government was initiated when a grand commission was established. A final report (G-50) was presented in 1950: Greenland was to be a modern welfare state with Denmark as sponsor and example. In 1953 Greenland was made an equal part of the Danish Kingdom. Home rule was granted in 1979. Home rule and self-rule[edit] See also: Greenlandic independence The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language is governed by Oqaasileriffik, the Greenlandic language secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland, Nuuk. Following World War II, the United States developed a geopolitical interest in Greenland, and in 1946 the United States offered to buy the island from Denmark for $100,000,000. Denmark refused to sell it.[52][53] In the 21st century, the United States, according to Wikileaks, remains highly interested in investing in the resource base of Greenland and in tapping hydrocarbons off the Greenlandic coast.[54][55] In 1950 Denmark agreed to allow the US to reestablish Thule Air Base in Greenland; it was greatly expanded between 1951 and 1953 as part of a unified NATO Cold War defense strategy. The local population of three nearby villages was moved more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) away in the winter. The United States tried to construct a subterranean network of secret nuclear missile launch sites in the Greenlandic ice cap, named Project Iceworm. It managed this project from Camp Century from 1960 to 1966 before abandoning it as unworkable. The Danish government did not become aware of the program's mission until 1997, when they discovered it while looking for records related to the crash of a nuclear-equipped B-52 bomber at Thule in 1968. With the 1953 Danish constitution, Greenland's colonial status ended as the island was incorporated into the Danish realm as an amt (county). Danish citizenship was extended to Greenlanders. Danish policies toward Greenland consisted of a strategy of cultural assimilation—or de-Greenlandification. During this period, the Danish government promoted the exclusive use of the Danish language in official matters, and required Greenlanders to go to Denmark for their post-secondary education. Many Greenlandic children grew up in boarding schools in southern Denmark, and a number lost their cultural ties to Greenland. While the policies "succeeded" in the sense of shifting Greenlanders from being primarily subsistence hunters into being urbanized wage earners, the Greenlandic elite began to reassert a Greenlandic cultural identity. A movement developed in favour of independence, reaching its peak in the 1970s.[56] As a consequence of political complications in relation to Denmark's entry into the European Common Market in 1972, Denmark began to seek a different status for Greenland, resulting in the Home Rule Act of 1979. This gave Greenland limited autonomy with its own legislature taking control of some internal policies, while the Parliament of Denmark maintained full control of external policies, security, and natural resources. The law came into effect on 1 May 1979. The Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, remains Greenland's Head of state. In 1985, Greenland left the European Economic Community (EEC) upon achieving self-rule, as it did not agree with the EEC's commercial fishing regulations and an EEC ban on seal skin products.[57] Greenland voters approved a referendum on greater autonomy on 25 November 2008.[58][59] On 21 June 2009, Greenland gained self-rule with provisions for assuming responsibility for self-government of judicial affairs, policing, and natural resources. Also, Greenlanders were recognized as a separate people under international law. (One country, two systems)[60] Denmark maintains control of foreign affairs and defence matters. Denmark upholds the annual block grant of 3.2 billion Danish kroner, but as Greenland begins to collect revenues of its natural resources, the grant will gradually be diminished. This is generally considered to be a step toward eventual full independence from Denmark.[61] Greenlandic was declared the sole official language of Greenland at the historic ceremony.[3][8][62][63][64]


Geography and climate[edit] Greenland map of Köppen climate classification Main article: Geography of Greenland See also: Administrative divisions of Greenland, Territorial claims in the Arctic, Climate change in the Arctic, Climate of the Arctic § Greenland, and Retreat of glaciers since 1850 § Greenland Map of Greenland Greenland is the world's largest non-continental island[65] and the third largest country in North America.[66] It is between latitudes 59° and 83°N, and longitudes 11° and 74°W. The Atlantic Ocean borders Greenland's southeast; the Greenland Sea is to the east; the Arctic Ocean is to the north; and Baffin Bay is to the west. The nearest countries are Canada, to the west and southwest across Baffin Bay, and Iceland, east of Greenland in the Atlantic Ocean. Greenland also contains the world's largest national park, and it is the largest dependent territory by area in the world, as well as the fourth largest country subdivision in the world, after Sakha Republic in Russia, Australia's state of Western Australia, and Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai, and the largest in North America. Southeast coast of Greenland The average daily temperature of Nuuk, Greenland varies over the seasons from −8 to 7 °C (18 to 45 °F). The total area of Greenland is 2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi) (including other offshore minor islands), of which the Greenland ice sheet covers 1,755,637 km2 (677,855 sq mi) (81%) and has a volume of approximately 2,850,000 km3 (680,000 cu mi).[67] The highest point on Greenland is Gunnbjørn Fjeld at 3,700 m (12,139 ft) of the Watkins Range (East Greenland mountain range). The majority of Greenland, however, is less than 1,500 m (4,921 ft) in elevation. The weight of the ice sheet has depressed the central land area to form a basin lying more than 300 m (984 ft) below sea level,[68][69] while elevations rise suddenly and steeply near the coast.[70] The ice flows generally to the coast from the centre of the island. A survey led by French scientist Paul-Emile Victor in 1951 concluded that, under the ice sheet, Greenland is composed of three large islands.[71] This is disputed, but if it is so, they would be separated by narrow straits, reaching the sea at Ilulissat Icefjord, at Greenland's Grand Canyon and south of Nordostrundingen. All towns and settlements of Greenland are situated along the ice-free coast, with the population being concentrated along the west coast. The northeastern part of Greenland is not part of any municipality, but it is the site of the world's largest national park, Northeast Greenland National Park.[72] View of mountains on Greenland from the air At least four scientific expedition stations and camps had been established on the ice sheet in the ice-covered central part of Greenland (indicated as pale blue in the map to the right): Eismitte, North Ice, North GRIP Camp and The Raven Skiway. Currently, there is a year-round station Summit Camp on the ice sheet, established in 1989. The radio station Jørgen Brønlund Fjord was, until 1950, the northernmost permanent outpost in the world. Southern Greenland lives up to its name as it is truly a green land. Agriculture thrives here with many farms and luxuriant vegetables, in contrast to a barren ice world that covers much of Greenland. Hay is harvested in Igaliku, Kujalleq. The extreme north of Greenland, Peary Land, is not covered by an ice sheet, because the air there is too dry to produce snow, which is essential in the production and maintenance of an ice sheet. If the Greenland ice sheet were to melt away completely, the world's sea level would rise by more than 7 m (23 ft).[73] Between 1989 and 1993, US and European climate researchers drilled into the summit of Greenland's ice sheet, obtaining a pair of 3 km (1.9 mi) long ice cores. Analysis of the layering and chemical composition of the cores has provided a revolutionary new record of climate change in the Northern Hemisphere going back about 100,000 years and illustrated that the world's weather and temperature have often shifted rapidly from one seemingly stable state to another, with worldwide consequences.[74] The glaciers of Greenland are also contributing to a rise in the global sea level faster than was previously believed.[75] Between 1991 and 2004, monitoring of the weather at one location (Swiss Camp) showed that the average winter temperature had risen almost 6 °C (11 °F).[76] Other research has shown that higher snowfalls from the North Atlantic oscillation caused the interior of the ice cap to thicken by an average of 6 cm or 2.36 in/y between 1994 and 2005.[77] However, a recent study suggests a much warmer planet in relatively recent geological times:[78] Scientists who probed 2 km (1.2 mi) through a Greenland glacier to recover the oldest plant DNA on record said that the planet was far warmer hundreds of thousands of years ago than is generally believed. DNA of trees, plants, spiders and insects including butterflies from beneath the southern Greenland glacier was estimated to date to 450,000 to 900,000 years ago, according to the remnants retrieved from this long-vanished boreal forest. That view contrasts sharply with the prevailing one that a lush forest of this kind could not have existed in Greenland any later than 2.4 million years ago. These DNA samples suggest that the temperature probably reached 10 °C (50 °F) in the summer and −17 °C (1.4 °F) in the winter. They also indicate that during the last interglacial period, 130,000–116,000 years ago, when local temperatures were on average 5 °C (9 °F) higher than now, the glaciers on Greenland did not completely melt away. View of Kangertittivaq in eastern Greenland, one of the largest sund-fjord systems in the world Greenland bedrock, at current elevation above sea level In 2003, a small island, 35 by 15 metres (115 by 49 feet) in length and width, was discovered by arctic explorer Dennis Schmitt and his team at the coordinates of 83-42. Whether this island is permanent is not confirmed as of yet. If it is, it is the northernmost permanent known land on Earth. In 2007 the existence of a new island was announced. Named "Uunartoq Qeqertaq" (English: Warming Island), this island has always been present off the coast of Greenland, but was covered by a glacier. This glacier was discovered in 2002 to be shrinking rapidly, and by 2007 had completely melted away, leaving the exposed island.[79] The island was named Place of the Year by the Oxford Atlas of the World in 2007.[80] Ben Keene, the atlas's editor, commented: "In the last two or three decades, global warming has reduced the size of glaciers throughout the Arctic and earlier this year, news sources confirmed what climate scientists already knew: water, not rock, lay beneath this ice bridge on the east coast of Greenland. More islets are likely to appear as the sheet of frozen water covering the world's largest island continues to melt".[81] Some controversy surrounds the history of the island, specifically over whether the island might have been revealed during a brief warm period in Greenland during the mid-20th century.[82] See also: Greenland's Grand Canyon Postglacial glacier advances on the peninsula Nugssuaq[edit] The 1310 m-high Qaqugdluit-mountain-land on the south-side of the peninsula Nugssuaq, situated 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of the Greenland inland ice at 70°07’50.92"N 51°44’30.52"W, is exemplary of the numerous mountain areas of West-Greenland. Up to the year 1979 (Stage 0) it shows Historical to Holocene, i.e. Postglacial glacier stages dating back at least 7000 and at most about 10 000 years.[83][84] In 1979 the glacier tongues came to an end – according to the extent and height of the glacier nourishing area – between 660 and 140 metres (2,170 and 460 feet) above sea level. The pertinent climatic glacier snowline (ELA) ran at about 800 metres (2,600 feet) in height. The snowline of the oldest (VII) of the three Holocene glacier stages (V–VII) ran about 230 metres (750 feet) deeper, i.e. at about 570 metres (1,870 feet) in height.[85] The four youngest glacier stages (IV-I) are of a Historical age. They have to be classified as belonging to the global glacier advances in the years 1811 to 1850 and 1880 to 1900 ("Little Ice Age"), 1910 to 1930, 1948 and 1953.[84] Their snowlines rose step by step up to the level of 1979. The current snowline (Stage 0) runs nearly unchanged. During the oldest Postglacial Stage VII an ice-stream-network from valley glaciers joining each other, has completely covered the landscape. Its nourishing areas consisted of high-lying plateau-glaciers and local ice caps. Due to the uplift of the snowline about that about 230 metres (750 feet) – what corresponds to a warming about 1.5 °C (2.7 °F), since 1979 there exists a plateau-glaciation with small glacier tongues hanging down on the margins that nearly did not reach the main valley bottoms any more.[85]


Biodiversity[edit] muskox See also: Flora and fauna of Greenland, Reindeer hunting in Greenland, and Fishing industry in Greenland There are approximately 700 known species of insects in Greenland, which is low compared with other countries (over one million species have been described worldwide). The sea is rich in fish and invertebrates, especially in the milder West Greenland Current, and a large part of the Greenland fauna associated with marine production, including large colonies of seabirds. The few native land mammals in Greenland include the polar bear, reindeer, arctic fox, arctic hare, musk ox, collared lemming, ermine, and arctic wolf. The last four are found naturally only in East Greenland, having immigrated from Ellesmere Island. There are dozens of species of seals and whales along the coast. Land fauna consists predominantly of animals that have spread from North America or for a lot of birds and insects coming from Europe. There are no native or free-living reptiles or amphibians on the island.[86] Phytogeographically, Greenland belongs to the Arctic province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. The island is sparsely populated in vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland and small bushes, which is regularly grazed by livestock. The most common tree native to Greenland is the European white birch (Betula pubescens) along with gray-leaf willow (Salix glauca), rowans (Sorbus aucuparia), common junipers (Juniperus communis) and other smaller trees, mainly willows. Greenland's flora comprises about 500 species of higher plants, i.e. flowering plants, ferns, horsetails and lycopodiophyta. Of the other groups, the lichens are the largest with about 950 species; of major fungal species are known 600–700; mosses and algae anything less. Most of Greenland's higher plants are widespread, particularly in arctic and alpine regions, and only a dozen species of particular saxifrage and hawkweed is endemic. A few species were introduced by the Norsemen, such as cow vetch. The animals of Greenland include the Greenland dog, which was introduced by the Inuit, as well as European-introduced species such as Greenlandic sheep, goats, cattle, reindeer, horse, chicken and sheepdog, all descendants of animals imported by Europeans. Marine mammals include the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) as well as the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).[87] Whales frequently pass very close to Greenlandic shores in the late summer and early autumn. Species represented include the beluga whale, blue whale, Greenland whale, fin whale, humpback whale, minke whale, narwhal, pilot whale, sperm whale.[88] Approximately 225 species of fish are known from the waters surrounding Greenland, and the fishing industry is a major part of Greenland's economy, accounting for the majority of the country's total exports. Birds, especially seabirds, are an important part of Greenland's animal life. On steep mountainsides breed large colonies of auks, puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes. By common ducks include eiders, long-tailed ducks and the king eider and in West Greenland white-fronted goose and in East Greenland pink-footed goose and barnacle goose. Breeding migratory birds are also including snow bunting, lapland bunting, ringed plover, red-throated loon and red-necked phalarope. Of land birds that are usually sedentary, can be highlighted arctic redpoll, ptarmigan, short-eared owl, snowy owl, gyrfalcon and in West Greenland the white-tailed eagle.[86]


Politics[edit] Margrethe II, Queen since 1972 Kim Kielsen, Premier since 2014 Lars Løkke Rasmussen, Prime Minister since 2015 Main article: Politics of Greenland See also: Politics of Denmark and Politics of the Faroe Islands Map of the European Union in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which Queen Margrethe II is the head of state. The monarch officially retains executive power and presides over the Council of State (privy council).[89][90] However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial,[91] such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government. The monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and the monarch's person is sacrosanct.[92] Political system[edit] The party system is currently dominated by the social democratic Forward Party (14 MPs), and the democratic socialist Inuit Community Party (11 MPs), both of which broadly argue for greater independence from Denmark. While the 2009 election saw the unionist—and largely Danish—Democrat Party (2 MPs) decline greatly, the 2013 election consolidated the power of the two main parties at the expense of the smaller groups, and saw the far-left Inuit Party (2 MPs) elected to the Parliament for the first time. The non-binding 2008 referendum on self-governance favoured increased self-governance 21,355 votes to 6,663. In 1985, Greenland left the European Economic Community (EEC), unlike Denmark, which remains a member. The EEC later became the European Union (EU, renamed and expanded in scope in 1992). Greenland retains some ties with the EU via Denmark. However, EU law largely does not apply to Greenland except in the area of trade. Greenland is a member state of the Council of Europe.[93] Government[edit] Main article: Politics of Greenland Municipalities of Greenland Greenland's head of state is Margrethe II, Queen regnant of Denmark. The Queen's government in Denmark appoints a High Commissioner (Rigsombudsmand) to represent it on the island. The current commissioner is Mikaela Engell. Greenlanders elect two representatives to the Folketing, Denmark's parliament, out of a total of 179. The current representatives are Aleqa Hammond of the Siumut Party and Aaja Chemnitz Larsen of the Inuit Community Party.[94] Greenland also has its own Parliament, which has 31 members. The government is the Naalakkersuisut whose members are appointed by the Premier. The head of government is the Premier, usually the leader of the majority party in Parliament. The current Premier is Kim Kielsen of the Siumut Party. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Greenland Formerly consisting of three counties comprising a total of 18 municipalities, Greenland abolished these in 2009 and has since been divided into large territories known as "municipalities" (Greenlandic: kommuneqarfiit, Danish: kommuner): Sermersooq ("Much Ice") around the capital Nuuk and also including all East Coast communities; Kujalleq ("South") around Cape Farewell; Qeqqata ("Centre") north of the capital along the Davis Strait; Qeqertalik ("The one with islands") surrounding Disko Bay; and Avannaata ("Northern") in the northwest; the latter two having come into being as a result of the Qaasuitsup municipality, one of the original four, being partitioned in 2018. The northeast of the island composes the unincorporated Northeast Greenland National Park. Thule Air Base is also unincorporated, an enclave within Avannaata municipality administered by the United States Air Force. During its construction, there were as many as 12,000 American residents but in recent years the number has been below 1,000.


Economy[edit] Tasiilaq is a town in the Sermersooq municipality in southeastern Greenland Royal Greenland fishing vessel "Akamalik", anchored at Sisimiut port Graphical depiction of Greenland's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories Main article: Economy of Greenland The Greenlandic economy is highly dependent on fishing. Fishing accounts for more than 90% of Greenland's exports.[95] The shrimp and fish industry is by far the largest income earner.[2] Greenland is abundant in minerals.[95] Mining of ruby deposits began in 2007. Other mineral prospects are improving as prices are increasing. These include iron, uranium, aluminium, nickel, platinum, tungsten, titanium, and copper. Despite resumption[when?] of several hydrocarbon and mineral exploration activities, it will take several years before hydrocarbon production can materialize. The state oil company Nunaoil was created to help develop the hydrocarbon industry in Greenland. The state company Nunamineral has been launched on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange to raise more capital to increase the production of gold, started in 2007. Electricity has traditionally been generated by oil or diesel power plants, even if there is a large surplus of potential hydropower. There is currently a programme to build hydro power plants. The first, and still the largest, is Buksefjord hydroelectric power plant. There are also plans to build a large aluminium smelter, using hydropower to create an exportable product. It is expected that much of the labour needed will be imported.[96] The European Union has urged Greenland to restrict People's Republic of China development of rare-earth projects, as China accounts for 95% of the world's current supply. In early 2013, the Greenland government said that it had no plans to impose such restrictions.[97] The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays a dominant role in Greenland's economy. About half the government revenues come from grants from the Danish government, an important supplement to the gross domestic product (GDP). Gross domestic product per capita is equivalent to that of the average economies of Europe. Greenland suffered an economic contraction in the early 1990s. But, since 1993, the economy has improved. The Greenland Home Rule Government (GHRG) has pursued a tight fiscal policy since the late 1980s, which has helped create surpluses in the public budget and low inflation. Since 1990, Greenland has registered a foreign-trade deficit following the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine that year. More recently,[when?] new sources of ruby in Greenland have been discovered, promising to bring new industry and a new export to the country. (See Gemstone industry in Greenland). Economics and business[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) About half of public spending on Greenland is funded by block grants from Denmark which in 2007 totalled over 3.2 billion kr. Additional proceeds from the sale of fishing licences and the annual compensation from the EU represents 280 million DKK per year. Greenland's economy is based on a narrow professional basis with the fishing industry as the dominant sector with some 90% of its exports. In a few years, quarrying and tourism could complement the fisheries that depend on the changing prices of fish and fishing opportunities. The long distances and lack of roads divides the domestic market into many small units that have high operating costs. Most of the fish factories are owned by Royal Greenland. Transportation[edit] Main articles: Transport in Greenland and List of airports in Greenland Air Greenland Airbus A330-200 in-flight Air transportation exists both within Greenland and between the island and other nations. There is also scheduled boat traffic, but the long distances lead to long travel times and low frequency. There are no roads between cities because the coast has many fjords that would require ferry service to connect a road network.[citation needed] In addition, the lack of agriculture, forestry and similar countryside activities has meant that very few countryside roads have been built. All civil aviation matters are handled by the Danish Transport Authority. Most airports including Nuuk Airport have short runways and can only be served by special fairly small aircraft on fairly short flights. Kangerlussuaq Airport around 100 kilometres (62 miles) inland from the west coast is the major airport of Greenland and the hub for domestic flights. Intercontinental flights connect mainly to Copenhagen. Travel between international destinations (except Iceland) and any city in Greenland requires a plane change. Air Iceland operates flights from Reykjavík to a number of airports in Greenland, and the company promotes the service as a day-trip option from Iceland for tourists.[98] There are no direct flights to USA or Canada, although there have been flights Kangerlussuaq – Baltimore,[99] and Nuuk – Iqaluit.,[100] which were cancelled because of too few passengers and financial losses.[101] An alternative between Greenland and USA/Canada is Air Iceland/Icelandair with a plane change in Iceland.[102] Sea passenger and freight transport is served by the coastal ferries operated by Arctic Umiaq Line. It makes a single round trip per week, taking 80 hours each direction.


Population[edit] Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Greenland See also: List of Greenlanders Greenland has a population of 56,370 (January 2013 estimate),[6] of whom 88% are Greenlandic Inuit (including mixed persons). The remaining 12% are of European descent, mainly Greenland Danes. Several thousand Greenlandic Inuit reside in the Danish Penisula. The majority of the population is Lutheran. Nearly all Greenlanders live along the fjords in the south-west of the main island, which has a relatively mild climate.[103] More than 17,000 people reside in Nuuk, the capital city.   v t e Largest cities or towns in Greenland Statistics Greenland, Greenland in Figures 2013 and Population in localities (2013) Rank Name Municipality Pop. Rank Name Municipality Pop. Nuuk Sisimiut 1 Nuuk Sermersooq 16,464 11 Uummannaq Avannaata 1,282 Ilulissat Qaqortoq 2 Sisimiut Qeqqata 5,598 12 Upernavik Avannaata 1,181 3 Ilulissat Avannaata 4,541 13 Qasigiannguit Qeqertalik 1,171 4 Qaqortoq Kujalleq 3,229 14 Qeqertarsuaq Qeqertalik 845 5 Aasiaat Qeqertalik 3,142 15 Qaanaaq Avannaata 656 6 Maniitsoq Qeqqata 2,670 16 Kangaatsiaq Qeqertalik 558 7 Tasiilaq Sermersooq 2,017 17 Kangerlussuaq Qeqqata 512 8 Paamiut Sermersooq 1,515 18 Ittoqqortoormiit Sermersooq 452 9 Narsaq Kujalleq 1,503 19 Kullorsuaq Avannaata 448 10 Nanortalik Kujalleq 1,337 20 Kangaamiut Qeqqata 353 Languages[edit] A bilingual sign in Nuuk, displaying the Danish and Kalaallisut for "Parking forbidden for all vehicles" Both Greenlandic (an Eskimo–Aleut language) and Danish have been used in public affairs since the establishment of home rule in 1979; the majority of the population can speak both languages. Greenlandic became the sole official language in June 2009,[104] In practice, Danish is still widely used in the administration and in higher education, as well as remaining the first or only language for some Danish immigrants in Nuuk and other larger towns. Debate about the roles of Greenlandic and Danish in the country's future is ongoing. The orthography of Greenlandic was established in 1851[105] and revised in 1973. The country has a 100% literacy rate.[2] A majority of the population speaks Greenlandic, most of them bilingually. It is spoken by about 50,000 people, making it the most populous of the Eskimo–Aleut language family, spoken by more people than all the other languages of the family combined. Kalaallisut is the Greenlandic dialect of West Greenland, which has long been the most populous area of the island. This has led to its de facto status as the official "Greenlandic" language, although the northern dialect Inuktun remains spoken by 1,000 or so people around Qaanaaq, and the eastern dialect Tunumiisut by around 3,000.[106] Each of these dialects is almost unintelligible to the speakers of the other and are considered by some linguists to be separate languages.[citation needed] A UNESCO report has labelled the other dialects as endangered, and measures are now being considered to protect the East Greenlandic dialects.[107] About 12% of the population speak Danish as a first or sole language, particularly Danish immigrants in Greenland, many of whom fill positions such as administrators, professionals, academics, or skilled tradesmen. While Greenlandic is dominant in all smaller settlements, a part of the population of Inuit or mixed ancestry, especially in towns, speaks Danish. Most of the Inuit population speaks Danish as a second language. In larger towns, especially Nuuk and in the higher social strata, this is still a large group. While one strategy aims at promoting Greenlandic in public life and education, developing its vocabulary and suitability for all complex contexts, there are opponents of this.[citation needed]. English is another important language for Greenland, taught in schools from the first school year.[108] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Greenland Religion in Greenland (2010)[109][110]   Protestantism (95.5%)   Roman Catholicism (0.2%)   Other Christian (0.4%)   Inuit spiritual beliefs (0.8%)   Agnostic (2.3%)   Atheist (0.2%)   Bahai and Other Religion (0.6%) Most Greenlandic villages, including Nanortalik, have their own church. The nomadic Inuit people were traditionally shamanistic, with a well-developed mythology primarily concerned with appeasing a vengeful and fingerless sea goddess who controlled the success of the seal and whale hunts. The first Norse colonists worshipped the Norse gods, but Erik the Red's son Leif was converted to Christianity by King Olaf Trygvesson on a trip to Norway in 999 and sent missionaries back to Greenland. These swiftly established sixteen parishes, some monasteries, and a bishopric at Garðar. Rediscovering these colonists and spreading ideas of the Protestant Reformation among them was one of the primary reasons for the Danish recolonization in the 18th century. Under the patronage of the Royal Mission College in Copenhagen, Norwegian and Danish Lutherans and German Moravian missionaries searched for the missing Norse settlements, but no Norse were found, and instead they began preaching to the Inuit. The principal figures in the Christianization of Greenland were Hans and Poul Egede and Matthias Stach. The New Testament was translated piecemeal from the time of the very first settlement on Kangeq Island, but the first translation of the whole Bible was not completed until 1900. An improved translation using the modern orthography was completed in 2000.[111] Today, the major religion is Protestant Christianity, represented mainly by the Church of Denmark, which is Lutheran in orientation. While there are no official census data on religion in Greenland, the Bishop of Greenland Sofie Petersen[112] estimates that 85% of the Greenlandic population are members of her congregation.[113] The Church of Denmark is the established church through the Constitution of Denmark: The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State. — Section IV of Constitution of Denmark[114] This applies to all of the Kingdom of Denmark, except for the Faroe Islands, as the Church of the Faroe Islands became independent in 2007. The Roman Catholic minority is pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Copenhagen. There are still Christian missionaries on the island, but mainly from charismatic movements proselytizing fellow Christians.[115][116][117][118] Social issues[edit] The rate of suicide in Greenland is very high. According to a 2010 census, Greenland holds the highest suicide rate in the world.[119][120] Other significant social issues faced by Greenland are high rates of unemployment, alcoholism, and HIV/AIDS.[121] Alcohol consumption rates in Greenland reached their height in the 1980s, when it was twice as high as in Denmark, and had by 2010 fallen slightly below the average level of consumption in Denmark (which is the 12th highest in the world). But at the same time alcohol prices are much higher, meaning that consumption has a high social impact.[122][123] Education[edit] There is a 10-year compulsory schooling for children. Secondary education is available in several places in the country. There are many higher schools in Greenland, including the University of Greenland in Nuuk. Traditionally many Greenlanders have received higher education in Denmark.


Culture[edit] Nive Nielsen, Greenlandic singer and songwriter Panel discussion with Greenlandic movie maker Inuk Silis Høegh at the launch of his movie about groundbreaking Greenlandic band Sumé. Journalist and Sumé's record producer Karsten Sommer is speaking. Main articles: Culture of Greenland and Music of Greenland Greenland's culture began with settlement in the second millennium BC by the Dorset Culture, shortly after the end of the ice age. In the 10th century, Icelandic and Norwegian Vikings settled in the southern part of the island, while the Thule Inuit culture was introduced in the north of the island and expanded southward. Inuit culture dominated the island from the end of the Middle Ages to the recolonization in the early 18th century, where European culture was reintroduced. Today Greenlandic culture is a blending of traditional Inuit (Kalaallit) and Scandinavian culture. Inuit, or Kalaallit, culture has a strong artistic tradition, dating back thousands of years. The Kalaallit are known for an art form of figures called tupilak or a "spirit object." Traditional art-making practices thrive in the Ammassalik.[124] Sperm whale ivory remains a valued medium for carving.[125] Greenland also has a successful, albeit small, music culture. Some popular Greenlandic bands and artists include Sume (classic rock), Chilly Friday (rock), Nanook (rock), Siissisoq (rock), Nuuk Posse (hip hop) and Rasmus Lyberth (folk), who performed in the Danish Eurovision Song Contest 1979, performing in Greenlandic. The singer-songwriter Simon Lynge is the first musical artist from Greenland to have an album released across the United Kingdom, and to perform at the UK's Glastonbury Festival. The music culture of Greenland also includes traditional Inuit music, largely revolving around singing and drums. Sports[edit] Sports are an important part of Greenlandic culture, as the population is generally quite active.[126] The main traditional sport in Greenland is Arctic sports, a form of wrestling thought to have originated in medieval times. Popular sports include association football, track and field, handball and skiing. Handball is often referred to as the national sport,[127] and Greenland's men's national team was ranked among the top 20 in the world in 2001. Greenland has excellent conditions for skiing, fishing, snowboarding, ice climbing and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking are preferred by the general public. Although the country's environment is generally ill-suited for golf, there are nevertheless golf courses on the island. Greenland hosts a biennial international the world's largest multisport and cultural event for young people of the Arctic for the second time in 2016.[128] The Football Association of Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaanni Arsaattartut Kattuffiat), is not yet a member of FIFA because of ongoing disagreements with FIFA leadership and an inability to grow grass for regulation grass pitches.[citation needed] However, it is the 17th member of the N.F.-Board. The FIFA Goal programme sponsored the Qaqortoq Stadium in Qaqortoq, which has an artificial grass pitch. The oldest sport association in Greenland is the Greenland Ski Federation (GIF), founded in 1969. This happened when the then-President of the GIF Daniel Switching took the initiative to found federations and institute reforms. Greenland Ski Federation is further divided into Alpine and cross-country selection committees. The federation is not a member of the International Ski Federation (FIS), but Greenland skiers participated in the Olympics and World Championships under the Danish flag at the 1968, 1994, 1998 and 2014 Games.[129] Greenland took part in the 2007 World Men's Handball Championship in Germany, finishing 22nd in a field of 24 national teams. Greenland competes in the biennial Island Games, as well as the biennial Arctic Winter Games (AWG). In 2002, Nuuk hosted the AWG in conjunction with Iqaluit, Nunavut.[130] In 1994 and again in 2002, they won the Hodgson Trophy for fair play.[131]


See also[edit] Outline of Greenland Index of Greenland-related articles


Notes[edit] ^ Nuna asiilasooq has equal status as a national anthem but is generally used only on the self-government of Greenland.[1]


References[edit] Footnotes[edit] ^ "Not one but two national anthems". Government of Greenland. Retrieved 7 October 2003.  ^ a b c "Greenland". CIA World Factbook.  ^ a b c (in Danish) TV 2 Nyhederne – "Grønland går over til selvstyre" TV 2 Nyhederne (TV 2 News) – Ved overgangen til selvstyre, er grønlandsk nu det officielle sprog. Retrieved 22 January 2012. ^ "Self-rule introduced in Greenland". BBC News. 21 June 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ "Grønlands Statistik". stat.gl. ^ a b c Greenland in Figures 2013 (PDF). Statistics Greenland. ISBN 978-87-986787-7-9. ISSN 1602-5709. Retrieved 2 September 2013.  ^ Avakov, Aleksandr Vladimirovich (2012). Quality of Life, Balance of Powers, and Nuclear Weapons (2012): A Statistical Yearbook for Statesmen and Citizens. Algora Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-87586-892-9.  ^ a b (in Danish) Law of Greenlandic Selfrule (see chapter 7) ^ a b c The Fate of Greenland's Vikings, by Dale Mackenzie Brown, Archaeological Institute of America, 28 February 2000 ^ "Joshua Calder's World Island Information". Worldislandinfo.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". The World Bank. Retrieved 3 November 2012.  ^ "Saqqaq-kulturen kronologi". National Museum of Denmark. Retrieved 2 August 2013.  ^ Saillard J, Forster P, Lynnerup N, Bandelt HJ, Nørby S (2000). "mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (3): 718–26. doi:10.1086/303038. PMC 1287530 . PMID 10924403.  ^ The Portuguese Explorers. Heritage.nf.ca. Retrieved on 21 June 2016. ^ "Qaasuitsup kommunia".  ^ Greenland in Figures 2012 (PDF). stat.gl. ISBN 978-87-986787-6-2. ISSN 1602-5709. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Nordic Investment Bank. "Hydropower creates clean energy and jobs in Greenland". NIB. Nordic Investment Bank. Retrieved 2 October 2016.  ^ "Eirik the Red's Saga". Gutenberg.org. 8 March 2006. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "How Greenland got its name". The Ancient Standard. 17 December 2010. ^ a b Grove, Jonathan (2009). "The place of Greenland in medieval Icelandic saga narrative". Journal of the North Atlantic. 2: 30–51. doi:10.3721/037.002.s206. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012.  ^ Evans, Andrew. "Is Iceland Really Green and Greenland Really Icy?", National Geographic (June 30, 2016). ^ Stern, p. 89 ^ Grønnow, B. (1988). "Prehistory in permafrost: Investigations at the Saqqaq site, Qeqertasussuk, Disco Bay, West Greenland". Journal of Danish Archaeology. 7 (1): 24–39. doi:10.1080/0108464X.1988.10589995 (inactive 2017-10-02).  ^ Møbjerg, T. (1999). "New adaptive strategies in the Saqqaq culture of Greenland, c. 1600–1400 BC". World Archaeology. 30 (3): 452–65. doi:10.1080/00438243.1999.9980423. JSTOR 124963.  ^ "The history of Greenland – From dog sled to snowmobile". Greenland.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011.  ^ "Migration to Greenland – the history of Greenland". Greenland.com. Retrieved 10 September 2011.  ^ Rasch, M.; Jensen, J. F. (1997). "Ancient Eskimo dwelling sites and Holocene relative sea‐level changes in southern Disko Bugt, central West Greenland". Polar Research. 16 (2): 101–15. Bibcode:1997PolRe..16..101R. doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.1997.tb00252.x.  ^ Ramsden, P.; Tuck, J. A. (2001). "A Comment on the Pre-Dorset/Dorset Transition in the Eastern Arctic". Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. New Series. 1: 7–11.  ^ Grønnow, B. (1986). "Recent archaeological investigations of West Greenland caribou hunting". Arctic anthropology. 23: 57–80. JSTOR 40316103.  ^ Rowley, G. (1940). "The Dorset culture of the eastern Arctic". American Anthropologist. 42 (3): 490–99. doi:10.1525/aa.1940.42.3.02a00080.  ^ Gulløv, H. C.; Appelt, M. (2001). "Social bonding and shamanism among Late Dorset groups in High Arctic Greenland". The archaeology of shamanism. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 0-415-25255-5.  ^ Gulløv, H. C. (1996). In search of the Dorset culture in the Thule culture. The Paleo-Eskimo Cultures of Greenland. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Center (Publication No. 1). pp. 201–14.  ^ Kudeba, N. (19 April 2014). "Chapter 5 – Norse Explorers from Erik the Red to Leif Erikson", in Canadian Explorers. ^ Boraas, Tracey (2002). Sweden. Capstone Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-7368-0939-2.  ^ Grant Oster, "Unseen Property Cons and Land Scams in History", Hankering for History, January 2, 2014. (accessed 15 Dec. 2017). ^ a b Jared Diamond (2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Harmondsworth [Eng.]: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-303655-6.  ^ a b Arnold C. (June 2010) "Cold did in the Norse," Earth Magazine. p. 9. ^ "Kulturgeschichte des Klimas: Von der Eiszeit zur globalen Erwärmung: Amazon.de: Wolfgang Behringer: Bücher". Amazon.com. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ Alley, R.; Mayewski, P.; Peel, D.; Stauffer, B. (1996). "Twin ice cores from Greenland reveal history of climate change, more". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 77 (22): 209–10. Bibcode:1996EOSTr..77R.209A. doi:10.1029/96EO00142.  ^ "Why societies collapse". ABC Science. ^ William P. Patterson, Kristin A. Dietrich, Chris Holmden, and John T. Andrews (2010) "Two millennia of North Atlantic seasonality and implications for Norse colonies." http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0902522107 ^ a b Helge Ingstad; Anne Stine Ingstad (2000). The Viking Discovery of America: The Excavation of a Norse Settlement in L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland. Breakwater Books. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-55081-158-2.  ^ Bishop, Rosie R., et al. "A charcoal-rich horizon at Ø69, Greenland: evidence for vegetation burning during the Norse landnám?." Journal of Archaeological Science 40.11 (2013): 3890–902 ^ Mark P. Leone; Jocelyn E. Knauf (2015). Historical Archaeologies of Capitalism. Springer. p. 211. ISBN 978-3-319-12760-6.  ^ Folger, Tim. "Why Did Greenland's Vikings Vanish?".  ^ Bruce G. Trigger; Wilcomb E. Washburn; Richard E. W. Adams (1996). The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Cambridge University Press. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-521-57393-1.  ^ "Inuit were not the first people to settle in the Arctic", CBC News (Canada), 28 August 2014 ^ Nebenzahl, Kenneth. Rand McNally Atlas of Columbus and The Great Discoveries (Rand McNally & Company; Genoa, Italy; 1990); The Cantino Planisphere, Lisbon, 1502, pp. 34–37. ^ Legal Status of Eastern Greenland Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., PCIJ Series A/B No. 53 (1933) ^ Justus D. Doenecke (8 July 1941). In Danger Undaunted: The Anti-Interventionist Movement of 1940–1941. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-8841-8.  ^ Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich, 1971 ^ "Deepfreeze Defense". Time. 27 January 1947.  ^ Miller, John J. (7 May 2001). "Let's Buy Greenland! — A complete missile-defense plan". National Review. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010.  ^ Keil, Kathrin (29 August 2011) "U.S. Interests in Greenland – On a Path Towards Full Independence?", The Arctic Institute ^ Andrews Kurth LLP, "Oil and Gas in Greenland – Still on Ice?" Archived 19 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Andrewskurth.com. Retrieved on 21 June 2016. ^ Loukacheva, Natalia (2007). The Arctic Promise: Legal and Political Autonomy of Greenland and Nunavut. University of Toronto Press, p. 25 ISBN 9780802094865 ^ Stern, pp. 55–56 ^ Cowell, Alan (26 November 2008). "Greenland Vote Favors Independence". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ "Vejledende folkeafstemning om selvstyre ? 25-11-2008" (in Kalaallisut). SermitValg. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.  ^ Description of the Greenlandic Self-Government Act on the webpage of the Danish Ministry of State Archived 22 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine."The Self-Government Act provides for the Self-Government authorities to assume a number of new fields of responsibility, such as administration of justice, including the establishment of courts of law; the prison and probation service; the police; the field relating to company law, accounting and auditing; mineral resource activities; aviation; law of legal capacity, family law and succession law; aliens and border controls; the working environment; as well as financial regulation and supervision, cf. Schedule I and II in the Annex to the Self-Government Act." ^ Greenland takes step toward independence from Denmark. The Daily Telegraph (21 June 2009). Retrieved 29 September 2012. ^ "Nearly independent day". The Economist. 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.  ^ "Greenland set for self-rule". The Australian. 19 June 2009. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.  ^ Boswell, Randy (19 June 2009). "Greenland takes big step towards full independence". Canwest News Services. Canada.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.  ^ "The Island of Greenland". Hidden Journeys – explore the world from the air. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.  ^ "Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area, and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. United Nations. 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ "IPCC Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis". Grida.no. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "map (map on p. 4)". Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ DK Atlas, 2001. ^ Schneider D. (2003). "American Scientist Online — Greenland or Whiteland?". Sigma Xi. Retrieved 3 March 2008.  ^ "Find Greenland Icecap Bridges Three Islands", Ellensburg Daily Record, 24 October 1951, p. 6. Retrieved 13 May 2012. ^ "The National Park". Greenland.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.  ^ "Greenland Melt May Swamp LA, Other Cities, Study Says". National Geographic. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ Alley, Richard B. The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future. Princeton University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-691-00493-5. ^ Roach, John (16 February 2006). "Greenland Glaciers Losing Ice Much Faster, Study Says". National Geographic. Retrieved 13 September 2006.  ^ Climate variability and trends along the western slope of the Greenland ice sheet during 1991–2004, Konrad Steffen, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA Nicloas Cullen, and Russell Huff University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. ^ Satellite shows Greenland's ice sheets getting thicker, The Register, 7 November 2005. ^ Willerslev, E.; Cappellini, E.; Boomsma, W.; Nielsen, R.; Hebsgaard, M. B.; Brand, T. B.; Hofreiter, M.; Bunce, M.; Poinar, H. N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Johnsen, S.; Steffensen, J. P.; Bennike, O.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Nathan, R.; Armitage, S.; De Hoog, C.-J.; Alfimov, V.; Christl, M.; Beer, J.; Muscheler, R.; Barker, J.; Sharp, M.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Haile, J.; Taberlet, P.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Casoli, A.; Campani, E.; Collins, M. J. (2007). "Ancient Biomolecules from Deep Ice Cores Reveal a Forested Southern Greenland". Science. 317 (5834): 111–14. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..111W. doi:10.1126/science.1141758. PMC 2694912 . PMID 17615355.  ^ McCarthy, Michael (24 April 2007). "An island made by global warming". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ "Place of the Year". Blog.oup.com. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ Publications, Usa Int'L Business. Denmark Company Laws and Regulations Handbook: Strategic Information and Basic Laws. Place of Publication Not Identified: Intl Business Pubns Usa, 2015. 20–21. Print. ^ Revkin, Andrew C. (28 April 2008). "Arctic Explorer Rebuts 'Warming Island' Critique". Dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ Heim, A. (1911). "Über die Petrographie und Geologie der Umgebung von Karsuarsuk, Nordseite der Halbinsel Nugsuak, W. Grönland". Meddr. Grönland. 47 (3).  ^ a b Weidick, A. (1968). "Observations on some Holocene Glacial Fluctuations in West Greenland". Meddr. Grönland. 165 (6): 1–202.  ^ a b Kuhle, M. (1983): Postglacial Glacier Stades of Nugssuaq Peninsula, Westgreenland (70°03'–70°10'N). In: Schroeder-Lanz, H. (ed.): Colloquium Trier 15.-17.5.1980: Late- and Postglacial Oscillations of Glaciers: Glacial and Periglacial Forms, Rotterdam: 325–355 (Im memoriam Hans Kinzl). ^ a b "Greenland Wildlife". Redaction. The Great Danish Encyclopedia. 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2015.  ^ "Greenland". Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition. ^ "Animal life in Greenland – an introduction by the tourist board". Greenland Guide. Narsaq Tourist Office. n.d. Retrieved 1 May 2012.  ^ "The executive power is vested in the King." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 3. ^ "The body of Ministers shall form the Council of State, in which the Successor to the Throne shall have a seat when he is of age. The Council of State shall be presided over by the King..." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 17. ^ The Monarchy today – The Danish Monarchy (kongehuset.dk). Access date: 16 June 2012 ^ "The King shall not be answerable for his actions; his person shall be sacrosanct." The Constitution of Denmark – Section 13. ^ "47 Member States".  ^ Folketinget – Folketinget.dk. Ft.dk. Retrieved on 21 June 2016. ^ a b Walsh, Maurice (2017-01-28). "'You can't live in a museum': the battle for Greenland's uranium". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-01-28.  ^ "Greenland's red hot labour market". Nordic Labour Journal. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Chinese Workers—in Greenland? 10 February 2013 BusinessWeek. ^ Perrin, Wendy. "Greenland Day Trip from Iceland: Is it Worth It?". Wendy Perrin. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ "Historical Maiden Flight US-Greenland – Official national guide by Greenland Tourism and Business Council". Greenland.com. 24 May 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "Air Greenland teams with First Air for Iqaluit flights". CBC News. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.  ^ "The Baltimore route is to close". Air Greenland. 12 June 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013.  ^ "4 Ways to Get to Greenland". Fodor's. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ "Greenland". Stalvik.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "Danish doubts over Greenland vote". BBC News. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Kleinschmidt, Samuel 1968 (1851): Grammatik der grønlændischen Sprache : mit teilweisem Einschluss des Labradordialekts. Hildesheim : Olms, 1968. ^ Mennecier, Philippe (1978). Le tunumiisut, dialecte inuit du Groenland oriental: description et analyse, Collection linguistique, 78, Societé de linguistique de Paris. ^ "Sermersooq will secure Eastern Greenlandic" (in Danish). Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.  ^ "Travelling in Greenland". Greenland Representation to the EU, Greenland Home Rule Government. Archived from the original on 16 May 2014.  ^ "Greenland, Religion and Social Profile | National Profiles | International Data". Thearda.com. 2009-06-21. Retrieved 2016-06-18.  ^ http://www.pewforum.org/2011/12/19/table-christian-population-as-percentages-of-total-population-by-country/ ^ Sørensen, Leif Kiil (29 November 2000). "Grønlandsk bibel præsenteret | Kristeligt Dagblad". Kristeligt-dagblad.dk. Retrieved 6 September 2010.  ^ "Bells ring a wake-up call for climate justice." World Council of Churches. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010 ^ "Grønland, Grundloven og Gejstligheden" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ "Constitution of Denmark" (PDF).  ^ Faheem. "Ramadan in Greenland". Masjids.in. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "Muslim in Greenland who Fasts for 21 hours". Malaysia News Hub. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Wetaka, Ahmed. "The only Muslim in Greenland who fasts for 21 hours". Uganda Muslims. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "Ramadan in Greenland: The only Muslim in the island fasts for 21 hours". Ummid.com. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "The Suicide Capital of the World". Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Rising suicide rate baffles Greenland". Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Greenland profile – Overview". BBC News. ^ Aage, H. (2012). "Alcohol in Greenland 1951–2010: consumption, mortality, prices". International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 71: 18444. doi:10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18444. PMC 3525923 . PMID 23256091.  ^ Madsen, M. H.; Grønbæk, M.; Bjerregaard, P.; Becker, U. (2005). "Urbanization, migration and alcohol use in a population of Greenland Inuit". International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 64 (3): 234–45. doi:10.3402/ijch.v64i3.17987. PMID 16050317.  ^ Hessel, p. 20 ^ Hessel, p. 21 ^ Wilcox and Latif, p. 109 ^ Wilcox and Latif, p. 110 ^ Wilcox and Latif, p. 111 ^ "Ski forbundet". gif.gl. Archived from the original on 2015-02-11.  ^ "Arctic Winter Games". Gif.gl. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2011.  ^ "Hodgson Trophy Winners". Arcticwintergames.org. Retrieved 6 August 2011.  Bibliography[edit] Hessel, Ingo (2006). Arctic Spirit. Vancouver, BC: Douglas and McIntyre. ISBN 978-1-55365-189-5.  Stern, Pamela (2004). Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-5058-3. OCLC 54768167.  Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-2074-3.  Works cited[edit] Bardarson, I. (ed. Jónsson, F.) "Det gamle Grønlands beskrivelse af Ívar Bárðarson (Ivar Bårdssön)", (Copenhagen, 1930). CIA World Factbook, 2000. Conkling, P. W. et al. 2011. The Fate of Greenland: Lessons from Abrupt Climate Change, co-authored with Richard Alley, Wallace Broecker and George Denton, with photographs by Gary Comer, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Lund S (1959). "The Marine Algae of East Greenland. 1. Taxonomical Part". Meddr Gronland. 156 (1): 1–245.  Lund S (1959). "The Marine Algae of East Greenland. 11. Geographic Distribution". Meddr Gronland. 156: 1–70.  Steffen, Konrad, N. Cullen, and R. Huff (2005). "Climate variability and trends along the western slope of the Greenland Ice Sheet during 1991–2004", Proceedings of the 85th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting (San Diego). Sowa F (2013). "Indigenous Peoples and the Institutionalization of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Greenland". Arctic Anthropology. 50 (1): 72–88. doi:10.3368/aa.50.1.72.  Sowa, F. 2013. Relations of Power & Domination in a World Polity: The Politics of Indigeneity & National Identity in Greenland. In: Heininen, L. Arctic Yearbook 2013. The Arctic of regions vs. the globalized Arctic. Akureyri: Northern Research Forum, pp. 184–198.www.arcticyearbook.com/ay2013 Sowa, F. 2014. Greenland. in: Hund, A. Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth's Polar Regions. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, pp. 312–316.


External links[edit] Find more aboutGreenlandat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Overviews and data[edit] Greenland entry at Denmark.dk. "Greenland". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Greenland entry at Encyclopædia Britannica. A guide to Greenlandic Culture at culture.gl. Greenland at UCB Libraries GovPubs. Greenland at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Daily updated satellite images from Greenland Greenland profile from the BBC News Key Development Forecasts for the Kingdom of Denmark from International Futures Population in Greenland Official statistical information about Greenland from stat.gl. Government[edit] Government Offices of Greenland Greenlandic Government Information Center, the official English-language online portal (administered by the Greenland Ministry for Foreign Affairs) Departement of Foreign Affairs of Greenland Greenland represented with the Kingdom of Denmark Embassies Summary vital statistics about Greenland from Naatsorsueqqissaartarfik. Maps[edit] Geographic data related to Greenland at OpenStreetMap Wikimedia Atlas of Greenland Satellite image of Greenland at the NASA Earth Observatory. News and media[edit] Oil and Minerals Greenland at The Arctic Journal Google news Greenland History of Greenland: Primary Documents Greenland's national museum and archive Geological maps of Greenland Trade[edit] World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Greenland Travel[edit] Visit Greenland – the official Greenlandic Tourist Board A Photographer's View of Greenland Documentary produced by Murray Fredericks Other[edit] The Norse in the North Atlantic: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Memorial University of Newfoundland. Vifanord.de – library of scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries. NAPA – Nordic Institute of Greenland Coordinates: 72°00′N 40°00′W / 72.000°N 40.000°W / 72.000; -40.000 v t e Greenland articles Greenland is a constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark History Timeline Paleo-Eskimo Dorset culture Thule people Norse Colonization Eastern Settlement Western Settlement Language Skræling Hans Egede Treaty of Kiel Erik the Red's Land World War II Thule accident Home rule Autonomy (self-rule) Cartographic expeditions Geography Climate change Fjords Geology Glaciers Ice sheet Islands Mountains National park Rivers Straits Towns and villages Wildlife Politics Administrative divisions Elections Independence movement Foreign relations Greenland and the EU High Commissioner Inatsisartut (Greenlandic Parliament) Law enforcement LGBT rights Military Political parties Prime Minister Territorial claims Economy Bank Companies Krone (currency) Fishing industry Mining National Bank Reindeer hunting Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transport airports Society Demographics Inuit Inughuit Kalaallit Tunumiit Danes Danish Suicide Culture Art (Artists) Cuisine Greenlandic Danish Jante Law Mythology Language Greenlandic Music Public holidays Religion Sports Symbols Coat of arms Flag National (civic) anthem Royal anthem Outline Index Category Portal v t e Nordic countries Countries  Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden Dependencies  Åland Islands  Faroe Islands  Greenland Climate of the Nordic countries Comparison of the Nordic countries Nordic Council Nordic Cross flag Subdivisions of the Nordic countries v t e Dependencies of European Union states Denmark Faroe Islands Greenland France Clipperton Island French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Adélie Land Île Amsterdam Crozet Islands Îles Éparses Kerguelen Islands Île Saint-Paul New Caledonia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna Netherlands Aruba Caribbean Netherlands Curaçao Sint Maarten United Kingdom Crown dependencies Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Sovereign Base Areas Akrotiri and Dhekelia Overseas territories Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands v t e Administrative divisions of Greenland (since 2018) Municipalities Avannaata Kujalleq Qeqertalik Qeqqata Sermersooq Unincorporated Areas Pituffik (Thule Air Base) Northeast Greenland National Park International membership v t e Nordic Council Members  Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden Associates  Åland Islands  Faroe Islands  Greenland Observers  Estonia (accession)  Latvia  Lithuania v t e Outlying territories of European countries Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe (see inclusion criteria for further information). Denmark Greenland France Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna Italy Pantelleria Pelagie Islands Lampedusa Lampione Linosa Netherlands Aruba Caribbean Netherlands Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius Curaçao Sint Maarten Norway Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land Portugal Azores Madeira Spain Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera United Kingdom Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands v t e Danish overseas territories Current overseas territories Faroe Islands Greenland Former colonies Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) Danish West Indies (U.S. Virgin Islands) Danish India Tranquebar (Tharangambadi) Balasore Frederiksnagore (Serampore) Danmarksnagore (Gondalpara) Calicut (Kozhikode) Oddeway Torre (Malabar Coast) Frederiksøerne (Nicobar Islands) See also: Danish East India Company Danish West India Company v t e Polar exploration Arctic Ocean History Expeditions Research stations Farthest North North Pole Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes Polaris Polaris C. F. Hall British Arctic Expedition HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham Lady Franklin Bay Expedition Greely Lockwood Brainard 1st Fram expedition Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup Jason Amedeo F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth Airship Italia Nautilus Wilkins ANT-25 Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov "North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1 Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel NP-36 NP-37 Sedov Badygin Wiese USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007 Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov Iceland Greenland Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson Danish colonization Egede Scoresby Jason Nansen Sverdrup Peary Rasmussen Northwest Passage Northern Canada Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery Bylot Baffin Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Discovery Clerke Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper Parry HMS Hecla Lyon HMS Fury Hoppner Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom Beechey Franklin's lost expedition HMS Erebus HMS Terror Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition Rae J. Richardson Austin McClure Expedition HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel Inglefield 2nd Grinnell Expedition USS Advance Kane Fox McClintock HMS Pandora Young Fram Sverdrup Gjøa Amundsen Rasmussen Karluk Stefansson Bartlett St. Roch H. Larsen Cowper North East Passage Russian Arctic Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition Weyprecht Payer Vega Expedition A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander USS Jeannette De Long Yermak Makarov Zarya Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach Vilkitsky Maud Amundsen AARI Samoylovich Begichev Urvantsev Sadko Ushakov Glavsevmorput Schmidt Aviaarktika Shevelev Sibiryakov Voronin Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers NS Lenin Arktika class Antarctic Continent History Expeditions Southern Ocean Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Smith San Telmo Vostok Bellingshausen Mirny Lazarev Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe Dumont d'Urville United States Exploring Expedition USS Vincennes Wilkes USS Porpoise Ringgold Ross expedition HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier) Cooper Challenger expedition HMS Challenger Nares Murray Jason C. A. Larsen "Heroic Age" Belgian Antarctic Expedition Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski Southern Cross Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Discovery Discovery Hut Gauss Gauss Drygalski Swedish Antarctic Expedition Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen Scottish Antarctic Expedition Bruce Scotia Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition Nimrod French Antarctic Expeditions Pourquoi-Pas Charcot Japanese Antarctic Expedition Shirase Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim Terra Nova Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly Filchner Australasian Antarctic Expedition SY Aurora Mawson Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild James Caird Ross Sea party Mackintosh Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Quest IPY · IGY Modern research Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE Rymill New Swabia Ritscher Operation Tabarin Marr Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic Survey Operation Windmill Ketchum Ronne Expedition F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition Hillary V. Fuchs Soviet Antarctic Expeditions 1st Somov Klenova Mirny 2nd Tryoshnikov 3rd Tolstikov Antarctic Treaty System Transglobe Expedition Fiennes Burton Lake Vostok Kapitsa Farthest South South Pole HMS Resolution J. Cook HMS Adventure Furneaux Weddell HMS Erebus J. C. Ross HMS Terror Crozier Southern Cross Borchgrevink Discovery Barne Nimrod Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams South Magnetic Pole Mawson David Mackay Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim Terra Nova Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold Vostok Station Pole of inaccessibility Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov Crary A. Fuchs Messner v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. v t e Countries and dependencies of North America Sovereign states Entire Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States In part Colombia San Andrés and Providencia France Guadeloupe Martinique Caribbean Netherlands Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius Dependencies Denmark Greenland France Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Netherlands Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten United Kingdom Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands United States Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands Venezuela Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta Greenland portal Kingdom of Denmark portal Arctic portal NATO portal North America portal Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137138322 GND: 4022113-1 NDL: 00562648 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greenland&oldid=826530254" Categories: Former Danish coloniesGreenlandDanish dependenciesDanish-speaking countries and territoriesDependent territories in North AmericaFormer Norwegian coloniesNorwegian EmpireInuit territoriesNordic countriesIsland countriesRegions of the ArcticSpecial territories of the European UnionKingdom of DenmarkStates and territories established in 1979Christian statesHidden categories: Articles with Danish-language external linksPages with DOIs inactive since 2017Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 Kalaallisut-language sources (kl)CS1 Danish-language sources (da)Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesWikipedia pending changes protected pagesUse dmy dates from June 2016Use British English Oxford spelling from November 2013Articles containing Greenlandic-language textArticles containing Danish-language textAll articles needing additional referencesArticles needing additional references from March 2017Articles containing Old Norse-language textAll articles with vague or ambiguous timeVague or ambiguous time from January 2014Articles needing additional references from September 2013All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2009Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016Articles with Curlie linksCoordinates on WikidataWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikinewsWikivoyage Languages AfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscالعربيةAragonésArpetanAsturianuAvañe'ẽAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBoarischབོད་ཡིགBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаČeštinaCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschދިވެހިބަސްDiné bizaadDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGaelgGàidhligGalegoगोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni客家語/Hak-kâ-ngîХальмг한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIlokanoবিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরীBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaInterlingueᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitutIñupiakИронÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaKalaallisutಕನ್ನಡქართულიKernowekKinyarwandaKiswahiliКомиKreyòl ayisyenKurdîКыргызчаLadinoLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLigureLimburgsLingálaMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиMalagasyമലയാളംMāoriमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄Монголမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपाली日本語НохчийнNordfriiskNorfuk / PitkernNorskNorsk nynorskNovialOccitanОлык марийଓଡ଼ିଆOromooOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیPapiamentuPicardPiemontèisTok PisinPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsRomânăRuna SimiРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаSarduScotsSeelterskShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaŚlůnskiSoomaaligaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்తెలుగుไทยТоҷикӣᏣᎳᎩTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوئۇيغۇرچە / UyghurcheVènetoTiếng Việt文言West-VlamsWinarayWolof吴语ייִדישYorùbá粵語ZazakiZeêuwsŽemaitėška中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 19 February 2018, at 17:35. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"1.892","walltime":"2.248","ppvisitednodes":{"value":15098,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":626611,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":77649,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":17,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":41,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 1746.408 1 -total"," 27.79% 485.265 3 Template:Reflist"," 23.07% 402.902 1 Template:Infobox_country"," 21.47% 374.963 1 Template:Infobox"," 11.96% 208.919 46 Template:Cite_web"," 11.77% 205.585 21 Template:Navbox"," 10.43% 182.213 2 Template:Native_name"," 10.34% 180.640 4 Template:Lang"," 4.76% 83.209 19 Template:Cite_journal"," 4.68% 81.691 7 Template:Fix"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.934","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":25404247,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1332","timestamp":"20180219173505","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":175,"wgHostname":"mw1245"});});


Greenland - Photos and All Basic Informations

Greenland More Links

All Edits By Unregistered And New Users Are Subject To Review Prior To Becoming Visible To Unregistered UsersWikipedia:Pending ChangesGreenland (disambiguation)Greenlandic LanguageDanish LanguageFlag Of GreenlandFlag Of GreenlandCoat Of Arms Of GreenlandCoat Of Arms Of GreenlandNunarput UtoqqarsuanngoravitNuna AsiilasooqLocation Of GreenlandLocation Of The Kingdom Of Denmark Consisting Of Greenland, The Faroe Islands (circled) And DenmarkKingdom Of DenmarkFaroe IslandsDenmarkNuukNuukGreenlandic LanguageDanish LanguageEthnic GroupsGreenlandic InuitDanish People In GreenlandEthnic Groups In EuropeChurch Of DenmarkDemonymKingdom Of DenmarkPolitics Of GreenlandDanish RealmParliamentary SystemConstitutional MonarchyMonarchy Of GreenlandMargrethe II Of DenmarkList Of Danish High Commissioners In GreenlandMikaela EngellList Of Premiers Of GreenlandKim KielsenParliament Of GreenlandLars Emil JohansenParliament Of GreenlandDenmarkNorse Settlements In GreenlandNorwegian EmpireDano-Norwegian EmpireTreaty Of KielAmt (administrative Division)Geography Of GreenlandDemographics Of GreenlandList Of Countries And Territories By Population DensityGross Domestic ProductPurchasing Power ParityList Of Countries By GDP (PPP)List Of Countries By GDP (PPP) Per CapitaHuman Development IndexList Of Countries By Human Development IndexDanish KroneISO 4217Coordinated Universal TimeRight- And Left-hand TrafficTelephone Numbers In GreenlandTelephone Numbers In GreenlandISO 3166ISO 3166-2:GLCountry Code Top-level Domain.glOlaf II Of DenmarkHaakon VI Of NorwayMargaret I Of DenmarkFaroe IslandsIcelandGreenlandic LanguageHelp:IPADanish LanguageHelp:IPA/DanishDenmarkKingdom Of DenmarkArctic OceanAtlantic OceanCanadian Arctic ArchipelagoPhysical GeographyNorth AmericaColonialismIcelandInuitList Of Islands By AreaAustraliaAntarcticaGreenland Ice SheetAntarcticaList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories By Population DensityNuukArctic Umiaq LineCanadaVikingsIcelandMonarchy Of NorwayLeif EriksonChristopher ColumbusInuitNorwayBlack DeathLabradorScandinaviaDenmark-NorwayDanish Colonial EmpireConstitution Of DenmarkEuropean Economic CommunityGreenlandic European Economic Community Membership Referendum, 1982European Economic CommunityNational ParkNortheast Greenland National ParkAdministrative Divisions Of GreenlandSermersooqKujalleqQeqertalikQeqqataAvannaataGreenlandic Home Rule Referendum, 1979Home RuleGreenlandic Self-government Referendum, 2008Government Of DenmarkNaalakkersuisutFinancial RegulationDanish KroneNuuk2016 Arctic Winter GamesWikipedia:Citation NeededSagas Of IcelandersErik The RedIcelandThrallSaga Of Erik The RedGreenlandic LanguageKalaallitIndigenous PeoplesGreenlandic Inuit PeopleEnlargeDorset CultureThule CultureNorsemenInnuBeothukHistory Of GreenlandPrehistoryPaleo-EskimoSaqqaq CultureDisko BayIndependence I CultureArctic Small Tool TraditionDeltaterrasserneDorset CultureIndependence II CultureThule PeopleAboriginal WhalingCaribouHerjolfsnes (Norse Greenland)EnlargeKingittorsuaq RunestoneKingittorsuaq IslandMiddle AgesIcelandersNorwegiansErik The RedEastern SettlementWestern SettlementIvittuutFjordDorset CultureThule CultureNorwegian EmpireKingdom Of NorwayKalmar UnionBrattahlíðLittle Ice AgeRunicHistoriographyGardar (see)Konungs SkuggsjáIce CoreClamHerbaceous PlantBarleyLandnámabókFamineEnlargeNorsemenChurch Of HvalseyNorse Colonization Of GreenlandLittle Ice AgeHerjolfsnesMalnutritionErosionPandemicInfectious DiseaseSkrælingWalrus IvoryThule PeopleAlaskaDog SledToggling HarpoonManuel I Of PortugalGaspar Corte-RealNorthwest PassageTreaty Of TordesillasMiguel Corte-RealLabradorNewfoundland (island)Ercole I D'Este, Duke Of FerraraDuke Of Ferrara And Of ModenaCantino PlanisphereChristian IV Of DenmarkChristian IV's Expeditions To GreenlandCape Farewell, GreenlandDrift IceJames Hall (explorer)EnlargeHans EgedePaul EgedeNuukEnlargeTreaty Of KielErik The Red's LandTerra NulliusPermanent Court Of International JusticeGreenland In World War IIHistory Of Greenland During World War IINazi GermanyCryoliteIvittuutBluie West-1Narsarsuaq AirportBluie West-8Kangerlussuaq AirportBluieList Of Governors Of GreenlandEske BrunSlædepatruljen SiriusWeather StationAlbert SpeerUnited States Armed ForcesPolitics Of DenmarkEconomy Of GreenlandTroakingWelfare StateGreenlandic IndependenceEnlargeUniversity Of GreenlandNuukGeopoliticsWikileaksThule Air BaseNATOCold WarProject IcewormCamp Century1968 Thule Air Base B-52 CrashB-52Amt (country Subdivision)Parliament Of GreenlandFolketingList Of Danish MonarchsMargrethe II Of DenmarkHead Of StateEuropean Economic CommunityPinnipedGreenlandic Self-government Referendum, 2008JudiciaryNatural ResourceInternational LawOne Country, Two SystemsForeign PolicyMilitaryGreenlandic LanguageEnlargeGeography Of GreenlandAdministrative Divisions Of GreenlandTerritorial Claims In The ArcticClimate Change In The ArcticClimate Of The ArcticRetreat Of Glaciers Since 1850Enlarge59th Parallel North83rd Parallel North11th Meridian West74th Meridian WestGreenland SeaBaffin BayNortheast Greenland National ParkList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaDependent TerritoryList Of The Largest Country Subdivisions By AreaSakha RepublicRussiaAustraliaWestern AustraliaKrasnoyarsk KraiNorth AmericaEnlargeGreenland Ice SheetGunnbjørn FjeldWatkins RangeEast Greenland Mountain RangeIce SheetIce-sheet DynamicsPaul-Emile VictorIlulissat IcefjordGreenland's Grand CanyonNordostrundingenList Of Cities And Towns In GreenlandNortheast Greenland National ParkEnlargeEismitteNorth IceSummit CampJørgen Brønlund FjordEnlargeAgricultureVegetablesIgalikuKujalleqPeary LandMeltingSea LevelClimateIce CoreNorthern HemisphereClimate ChangeSea Level RiseNorth Atlantic OscillationGeologic Time ScaleDNAButterflyEemianInterglacialEnlargeScoresby SoundFjordEnlargeDennis Schmitt83-42Uunartoq QeqertaqArcticIce BridgeGreenland's Grand CanyonHoloceneAbove Sea LevelEnlargeMuskoxFlora And Fauna Of GreenlandReindeer Hunting In GreenlandFishing Industry In GreenlandWest Greenland CurrentPolar BearReindeer Hunting In GreenlandArctic FoxArctic HareMusk OxNorthern Collared LemmingErmineArctic WolfEast GreenlandEllesmere IslandPinnipedWhalePhytogeographyCircumboreal RegionBoreal KingdomBetula PubescensSalix GlaucaSorbus AucupariaJuniperus CommunisFlowering PlantFernHorsetailLycopodiophytaLichenMossAlgaeSaxifrageHawkweedVicia CraccaGreenland DogInuitEthnic Groups In EuropeGreenlandic SheepGoatCattleReindeerHorseChickenSheepdogMarine MammalsHooded SealGrey SealWhaleBeluga WhaleBlue WhaleBowhead WhaleFin WhaleHumpback WhaleMinke WhaleNarwhalPilot WhaleSperm WhaleFishing IndustryAukPuffinSkuaKittiwakeEiderLong-tailed DuckKing EiderWhite-fronted GoosePink-footed GooseBarnacle GooseSnow BuntingLapland BuntingRinged PloverRed-throated LoonRed-necked PhalaropeArctic RedpollRock PtarmiganShort-eared OwlSnowy OwlGyrfalconWhite-tailed EagleMargrethe II Of DenmarkMonarchy Of DenmarkKim KielsenPremier Of GreenlandLars Løkke RasmussenPrime Minister Of DenmarkPolitics Of GreenlandPolitics Of DenmarkPolitics Of The Faroe IslandsEnlargeConstitutional MonarchyMargrethe II Of DenmarkExecutive (government)Danish Council Of StatePrivy CouncilParliamentary SystemCeremonialPrime Minister Of DenmarkForward (Greenland)Inuit CommunityGreenlandic Parliamentary Election, 2009Democrats (Greenland)Greenlandic Parliamentary Election, 2013Inuit PartyParliament Of GreenlandGreenlandic Self-government Referendum, 2008Greenland–European Union RelationsEuropean UnionCouncil Of EuropePolitics Of GreenlandEnlargeHead Of StateMargrethe II Of DenmarkQueen RegnantPolitics Of DenmarkList Of Danish High Commissioners In GreenlandMikaela EngellFolketingAleqa HammondSiumutAaja Chemnitz LarsenInuit CommunityParliament Of GreenlandNaalakkersuisutHead Of GovernmentList Of Premiers Of GreenlandKim KielsenAdministrative Divisions Of GreenlandGreenlandic LanguageDanish LanguageSermersooqNuukTunuKujalleqCape Farewell, GreenlandQeqqataDavis StraitQeqertalikDisko BayAvannaataQaasuitsupNortheast Greenland National ParkThule Air BaseUnited States Air ForceEnlargeSermersooqEnlargeRoyal GreenlandEnlargeEconomy Of GreenlandShrimpFishRubyUraniumPlatinumTungstenTitaniumWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersHydrocarbonNunaoilCopenhagen Stock ExchangeHydropowerBuksefjord Hydroelectric Power PlantEuropean UnionRare-earthZincWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersRubyGemstone Industry In GreenlandWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalFish FactoryRoyal GreenlandTransport In GreenlandList Of Airports In GreenlandEnlargeAir GreenlandA330-200Wikipedia:Citation NeededDanish Transport AuthorityNuuk AirportKangerlussuaq AirportCopenhagenAir IcelandReykjavíkBaltimoreIqaluitIcelandairPassengerCargoArctic Umiaq LineEnlargeTunumiitInuitKulusukDemographics Of GreenlandList Of GreenlandersGreenlandic InuitMixed RaceEthnic Groups In EuropeDanish People In GreenlandGreenlandic People In DenmarkChurch Of DenmarkNuukTemplate:Largest Cities Of GreenlandTemplate Talk:Largest Cities Of GreenlandStatistics GreenlandList Of Cities In GreenlandAdministrative Divisions Of GreenlandList Of Cities In GreenlandAdministrative Divisions Of GreenlandNuukNuukSisimiutSisimiutNuukSermersooqUummannaqAvannaataIlulissatIlulissatQaqortoqQaqortoqSisimiutQeqqataUpernavikAvannaataIlulissatAvannaataQasigiannguitQeqertalikQaqortoqKujalleqQeqertarsuaqQeqertalikAasiaatQeqertalikQaanaaqAvannaataManiitsoqQeqqataKangaatsiaqQeqertalikTasiilaqSermersooqKangerlussuaqQeqqataPaamiutSermersooqIttoqqortoormiitSermersooqNarsaqKujalleqKullorsuaqAvannaataNanortalikKujalleqKangaamiutQeqqataEnlargeGreenlandic LanguageEskimo–Aleut LanguagesDanish LanguageKalaallisut OrthographyInuktunQaanaaqTunumiit DialectWikipedia:Citation NeededUNESCOWikipedia:Citation NeededReligion In GreenlandProtestantismRoman CatholicismChristianityInuit Spiritual BeliefsAgnosticAtheistBahaiEnlargeNanortalikInuit PeopleShamanism Among Eskimo PeoplesInuit MythologySedna (mythology)Seal HuntingWhalingNorse Colonization Of GreenlandNorse ReligionErik The RedLeif EricsonList Of Norwegian MonarchsOlaf TrygvessonGarðar, GreenlandDanish ReformationDanish Colonization Of GreenlandRoyal Mission CollegeChurch Of DenmarkMoravian Missions In GreenlandChristianizationHans EgedePoul EgedeMatthias StachNew TestamentKalaallisut OrthographyProtestantChristianityChurch Of DenmarkLutheranBishop Of GreenlandSofie PetersenState ReligionConstitution Of DenmarkConstitution Of DenmarkKingdom Of DenmarkFaroe IslandsChurch Of The Faroe IslandsRoman CatholicRoman Catholic Diocese Of CopenhagenCharismatic ChristianityProselytismSuicide In GreenlandList Of Countries By Suicide RateSecondary EducationUniversity Of GreenlandEnlargeNive NielsenEnlargeInuk Silis HøeghSume (band)Culture Of GreenlandMusic Of GreenlandDorset CultureThuleKalaallitTupilakSperm WhaleGreenlandic LanguageSume (band)Chilly FridayNanookSiissisoqNuuk PosseRasmus LyberthDenmark In The Eurovision Song Contest 1979Simon LyngeGlastonbury FestivalInuit MusicArctic SportsWrestlingAssociation FootballTrack And FieldTeam HandballSkiingGreenland National Handball TeamSkiingFishingSnowboardingIce ClimbingRock ClimbingMountain ClimbingHikingFootball Association Of GreenlandFIFAWikipedia:Citation NeededN.F.-BoardQaqortoq StadiumQaqortoqInternational Ski Federation2007 World Men's Handball ChampionshipInternational Island Games AssociationArctic Winter GamesIqaluitNunavutStuart Milton HodgsonOutline Of GreenlandIndex Of Greenland-related ArticlesNational AnthemSelf-governanceInatsisartutThe World FactbookTV 2 (Denmark)Statistics GreenlandInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-87-986787-7-9International Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-87586-892-9Digital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-87-986787-6-2International Standard Serial NumberDigital Object IdentifierNational GeographicDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierJSTORBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierJSTORDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-415-25255-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7368-0939-2Jared DiamondCollapse: How Societies Choose To Fail Or SucceedInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-14-303655-6BibcodeDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-55081-158-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-319-12760-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-57393-1ItalyWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8179-8841-8Albert SpeerWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780802094865The New York TimesWayback MachineThe EconomistThe AustralianUnited Nations Statistics DivisionPrinceton University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-691-00493-5National Geographic SocietyBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberNordic Labour JournalBusinessWeekKalaallit Nunaata RadioaDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-55365-189-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8108-5058-3OCLCInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7614-2074-3CIA World FactbookPhilip Wheeler ConklingKonrad SteffenDigital Object IdentifierWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsThe World FactbookCentral Intelligence AgencyEncyclopædia BritannicaDMOZBBC NewsInternational FuturesOpenStreetMapNASA Earth ObservatoryTourism In GreenlandMemorial University Of NewfoundlandGeographic Coordinate SystemTemplate:Greenland TopicsTemplate Talk:Greenland TopicsIndex Of Greenland-related ArticlesDanish RealmKingdom Of DenmarkHistory Of GreenlandTimeline Of GreenlandPaleo-EskimoDorset CultureThule PeopleNorse Colonization Of The AmericasEastern SettlementWestern SettlementGreenlandic NorseSkrælingHans EgedeTreaty Of KielErik The Red's LandGreenland In World War II1968 Thule Air Base B-52 CrashGreenlandic Home Rule Referendum, 1979Greenlandic Self-government Referendum, 2008Cartographic Expeditions To GreenlandCoat Of Arms Of GreenlandGeography Of GreenlandClimate Of The ArcticGlobal Warming In The ArcticCategory:Fjords Of GreenlandGeology Of GreenlandList Of Glaciers In GreenlandGreenland Ice SheetList Of Islands Of GreenlandList Of Mountain Peaks Of GreenlandNortheast Greenland National ParkList Of Rivers Of GreenlandCategory:Straits Of GreenlandList Of Cities And Towns In GreenlandFlora And Fauna Of GreenlandPolitics Of GreenlandAdministrative Divisions Of GreenlandElections In GreenlandGreenlandic IndependenceForeign Relations Of GreenlandGreenland–European Union RelationsList Of Danish High Commissioners In GreenlandParliament Of GreenlandLaw Enforcement In GreenlandLGBT Rights In GreenlandMilitary Of GreenlandList Of Political Parties In GreenlandPrime Minister Of GreenlandTerritorial Claims In The ArcticEconomy Of GreenlandBank Of GreenlandList Of Companies Of GreenlandDanish KroneFishing Industry In GreenlandGemstone Industry In GreenlandDanmarks NationalbankReindeer Hunting In GreenlandTaxation In GreenlandTelecommunications In GreenlandTourism In GreenlandTransport In GreenlandList Of Airports In GreenlandCategory:Greenlandic SocietyDemographics Of GreenlandGreenlandic InuitInughuitKalaallitTunumiitDanish People In GreenlandDanish LanguageSuicide In GreenlandCulture Of GreenlandOutline Of GreenlandList Of Greenlandic ArtistsCuisineGreenlandic CuisineDanish CuisineLaw Of JanteInuit MythologyGreenlandic LanguageGreenlandic LanguageMusic Of GreenlandPublic Holidays In GreenlandReligion In GreenlandCategory:Sport In GreenlandCoat Of Arms Of GreenlandFlag Of GreenlandNunarput UtoqqarsuanngoravitKong Christian Stod Ved Højen MastOutline Of GreenlandIndex Of Greenland-related ArticlesCategory:GreenlandPortal:GreenlandTemplate:Nordic CountriesTemplate Talk:Nordic CountriesNordic CountriesDenmarkFinlandIcelandNorwaySwedenNordic Cross FlagÅland IslandsFaroe IslandsClimate Of The Nordic CountriesComparison Of The Nordic CountriesNordic CouncilNordic Cross FlagSubdivisions Of The Nordic CountriesTemplate:EU DependenciesTemplate Talk:EU DependenciesEuropean UnionDependent TerritoryEuropean UnionDenmarkFaroe IslandsEU DependenciesFranceClipperton IslandFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern And Antarctic LandsAdélie LandÎle AmsterdamCrozet IslandsScattered Islands In The Indian OceanKerguelen IslandsÎle Saint-PaulNew CaledoniaSaint BarthélemyCollectivity Of Saint MartinSaint Pierre And MiquelonWallis And FutunaKingdom Of The NetherlandsArubaCaribbean NetherlandsCuraçaoSint MaartenUnited KingdomCrown DependenciesGuernseyIsle Of ManJerseyAkrotiri And DhekeliaAkrotiri And DhekeliaBritish Overseas TerritoriesAnguillaBermudaBritish Antarctic TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Virgin IslandsCayman IslandsFalkland IslandsGibraltarMontserratPitcairn IslandsSaint Helena, Ascension And Tristan Da CunhaSouth Georgia And The South Sandwich IslandsTurks And Caicos IslandsTemplate:Administrative Divisions Of GreenlandTemplate Talk:Administrative Divisions Of GreenlandAdministrative Divisions Of GreenlandAvannaataKujalleqQeqertalikQeqqataSermersooqGreenlandThule Air BaseNortheast Greenland National ParkTemplate:Nordic CouncilTemplate Talk:Nordic CouncilNordic CouncilDenmarkFinlandIcelandNorwaySwedenNordic Cross FlagÅland IslandsFaroe IslandsEstoniaNordic EstoniaLatviaLithuaniaTemplate:Outlying Territories Of European CountriesTemplate Talk:Outlying Territories Of European CountriesEuropeSovereigntyTemplate:Outlying Territories Of European CountriesClipperton IslandFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern And Antarctic LandsAdélie LandCrozet IslandsÎle AmsterdamÎle Saint-PaulKerguelen IslandsScattered Islands In The Indian OceanGuadeloupeMartiniqueMayotteNew CaledoniaRéunionSaint BarthélemyCollectivity Of Saint MartinSaint Pierre And MiquelonWallis And FutunaPantelleriaPelagie IslandsLampedusaLampioneLinosaArubaCaribbean NetherlandsBonaireSabaSint EustatiusCuraçaoSint MaartenBouvet IslandPeter I IslandQueen Maud LandAzoresMadeiraCanary IslandsCeutaMelillaPlazas De SoberaníaChafarinas IslandsAlhucemas IslandsPeñón De Vélez De La GomeraAnguillaBermudaBritish Antarctic TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Virgin IslandsCayman IslandsFalkland IslandsGibraltarMontserratPitcairn IslandsSaint Helena, Ascension And Tristan Da CunhaSouth Georgia And The South Sandwich IslandsTurks And Caicos IslandsTemplate:Danish Overseas EmpireTemplate Talk:Danish Overseas EmpireDenmarkDanish Colonial EmpireDanish TerritoriesFaroe IslandsDanish Gold CoastDanish West IndiesDanish IndiaTharangambadiBalasoreSeramporeGondalparaKozhikodeMalabar CoastNicobar IslandsDanish East India CompanyDanish West India CompanyTemplate:Polar ExplorationTemplate Talk:Polar ExplorationList Of Polar ExplorersArcticArctic OceanArctic ExplorationList Of Arctic ExpeditionsList Of Research Stations In The ArcticFarthest NorthNorth PoleWillem BarentszHenry HudsonThomas MarmadukeJoris CarolusWilliam Parry (explorer)North Magnetic PoleJohn Ross (Royal Navy Officer)James Clark RossThomas Abernethy (explorer)Elisha KaneIsaac Israel HayesPolaris ExpeditionUSS Periwinkle (1864)Charles Francis HallBritish Arctic ExpeditionHMS Alert (1856)George NaresHMS Discovery (1874)Henry Frederick StephensonAlbert Hastings MarkhamLady Franklin Bay ExpeditionAdolphus GreelyJames Booth LockwoodDavid Legge BrainardNansen's Fram ExpeditionFramFridtjof NansenHjalmar JohansenOtto SverdrupJason (ship)Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke Of The AbruzziFrederick CookRobert PearyGeorgy SedovRichard E. ByrdNorge (airship)Roald AmundsenUmberto NobileOscar WistingHjalmar Riiser-LarsenLincoln EllsworthAirship ItaliaUSS O-12 (SS-73)Hubert WilkinsTupolev ANT-25Valery ChkalovGeorgy BaydukovAlexander Vasilyevich BelyakovDrifting Ice StationNorth Pole-1Ivan PapaninPyotr ShirshovYevgeny FyodorovErnst KrenkelNorth Pole-36North Pole-37Georgiy Sedov (icebreaker)Konstantin BadyginVladimir WieseUSS Nautilus (SSN-571)USS Skate (SSN-578)Ralph PlaistedWally HerbertArktika (1972 Nuclear Icebreaker)BarneoArktika 2007Mir (submersible)Anatoly SagalevichArtur ChilingarovIcelandPytheasBrendanPaparViking ExpansionNaddoddGarðar SvavarssonIngólfr ArnarsonNorse Colonization Of The AmericasGunnbjörn UlfssonSnæbjörn GaltiErik The RedChristian IV's Expeditions To GreenlandJames Hall (explorer)John Cunningham (explorer)Godske LindenovCarsten RichardsonDanish Colonization Of The AmericasHans EgedeWilliam ScoresbyJason (ship)Fridtjof NansenOtto SverdrupRobert PearyKnud RasmussenNorthwest PassageNorthern CanadaJohn CabotGaspar Corte-RealMiguel Corte-RealMartin FrobisherHumphrey GilbertJohn Davis (English Explorer)Henry HudsonDiscovery (1602 Ship)Robert BylotWilliam BaffinJens MunkIvan Fyodorov (navigator)Mikhail GvozdevHMS Resolution (1771)James CookHMS Discovery (1774)Charles ClerkeAlexander Mackenzie (explorer)Otto Von KotzebueJohn Ross (Royal Navy Officer)HMS Griper (1813)William Parry (explorer)HMS Hecla (1815)George Francis LyonHMS Fury (1814)Henry Parkyns HoppnerFrancis CrozierJames Clark RossCoppermine Expedition Of 1819–22John FranklinGeorge BackPeter Warren DeaseThomas Simpson (explorer)HMS Blossom (1806)Frederick William BeecheyFranklin's Lost ExpeditionHMS Erebus (1826)HMS Terror (1813)Richard CollinsonRae–Richardson Arctic ExpeditionJohn Rae (explorer)John Richardson (naturalist)Horatio Thomas AustinMcClure Arctic ExpeditionHMS Investigator (1848)Robert McClureHMS Resolute (1850)Henry KellettEdward BelcherWilliam Kennedy (explorer)Joseph René BellotAuxiliary Steamship Isabel (1850)Edward Augustus InglefieldSecond Grinnell ExpeditionUSS Advance (1847)Elisha KaneFox (ship)Francis Leopold McClintockUSS Jeannette (1878)Allen YoungFramOtto SverdrupGjøaRoald AmundsenKnud RasmussenLast Voyage Of The KarlukVilhjalmur StefanssonRobert Bartlett (explorer)St. Roch (ship)Henry Larsen (explorer)David Scott CowperNorthern Sea RouteExtreme NorthPomorsKoch (boat)Hugh WilloughbyRichard ChancellorWillem BarentszMangazeyaHenry HudsonJonas PooleSiberian CossacksIlya PerfilyevMikhail StadukhinSemyon DezhnevFedot Alekseyevich PopovKurbat IvanovMerkury VaginYakov PermyakovGreat Northern ExpeditionVitus BeringAleksei ChirikovStepan MalyginDmitry OvtsynFyodor MininVasili PronchishchevMaria PronchishchevaSemion ChelyuskinKhariton LaptevDmitry LaptevVasily ChichagovIvan LyakhovJoseph BillingsYakov SannikovMatvei GedenschtromFerdinand Von WrangelFyodor MatyushkinPyotr AnjouFyodor LitkeMikhail LavrovPyotr PakhtusovAvgust TsivolkoAlexander Von MiddendorffAustro-Hungarian North Pole ExpeditionKarl WeyprechtJulius Von PayerVega ExpeditionAdolf Erik NordenskiöldLouis PalanderUSS Jeannette (1878)George W. De LongYermak (1898 Icebreaker)Stepan MakarovZarya (polar Ship)Eduard TollNikolai KolomeitsevFyodor MatisenAlexander KolchakGeorgy SedovVladimir RusanovAlexander KuchinBrusilov ExpeditionSvyataya AnnaGeorgy BrusilovValerian AlbanovAlexander KonradVladimir WieseJan NagórskiTaymyr (1909 Icebreaker)Vaygach (1909 Icebreaker)Boris VilkitskyMaud (ship)Roald AmundsenArctic And Antarctic Research InstituteRudolf SamoylovichNikifor BegichevNikolay UrvantsevSadko (icebreaker)Georgy UshakovChief Directorate Of The Northern Sea RouteOtto SchmidtAviaarktikaMark ShevelevA. Sibiryakov (icebreaker)Vladimir Voronin (captain)SS ChelyuskinKrassin (1917 Icebreaker)Yakov GakkelNuclear-powered IcebreakerLenin (nuclear Icebreaker)Arktika-class IcebreakerAntarcticAntarcticaHistory Of AntarcticaList Of Antarctic ExpeditionsSouthern OceanAnthony De La RochéJean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet De LozierYves-Joseph De Kerguelen-TrémarecHMS Resolution (1771)James CookHMS Adventure (1771)Tobias FurneauxWilliam Smith (mariner)San Telmo (ship)Vostok (sloop-of-war)Fabian Gottlieb Von BellingshausenMirny (sloop-of-war)Mikhail LazarevEdward BransfieldNathaniel PalmerJohn Davis (sealer)James WeddellBenjamin MorrellFrench Ship Astrolabe (1811)Jules Dumont D'UrvilleUnited States Exploring ExpeditionUSS Vincennes (1826)Charles WilkesUSS Porpoise (1836)Cadwalader RinggoldRoss ExpeditionHMS Erebus (1826)James Clark RossThomas Abernethy (explorer)HMS Terror (1813)Francis CrozierMercator CooperChallenger ExpeditionHMS Challenger (1858)George NaresJohn Murray (oceanographer)Jason (ship)Carl Anton LarsenHeroic Age Of Antarctic ExplorationBelgian Antarctic ExpeditionRV Belgica (1884)Adrien De GerlacheGeorges Lecointe (explorer)Roald AmundsenFrederick CookHenryk ArctowskiEmil RacovițăAntoni Bolesław DobrowolskiSouthern Cross ExpeditionSS Southern Cross (1886)Carsten BorchgrevinkDiscovery ExpeditionRRS DiscoveryDiscovery HutGauss ExpeditionGauss (ship)Erich Von DrygalskiSwedish Antarctic ExpeditionAntarctic (ship)Otto NordenskjöldCarl Anton LarsenScottish National Antarctic ExpeditionWilliam Speirs BruceScotia (barque)Orcadas BaseNimrod ExpeditionNimrod (ship)French Antarctic ExpeditionPourquoi-Pas (1908)Jean-Baptiste CharcotJapanese Antarctic ExpeditionShirase NobuAmundsen's South Pole ExpeditionFramRoald AmundsenFramheimPolheimTerra Nova ExpeditionTerra Nova (ship)Robert Falcon ScottEdward Adrian WilsonEdward Evans, 1st Baron MountevansTom Crean (explorer)William LashlyWilhelm FilchnerAustralasian Antarctic ExpeditionSY AuroraDouglas MawsonFar Eastern PartyImperial Trans-Antarctic ExpeditionEndurance (1912 Ship)Ernest ShackletonFrank WildVoyage Of The James CairdRoss Sea Party 1914–16Aeneas MackintoshShackleton–Rowett ExpeditionQuest (ship)International Polar YearInternational Geophysical YearResearch Stations In AntarcticaLars ChristensenRichard E. ByrdBritish Australian And New Zealand Antarctic Research ExpeditionBritish Graham Land ExpeditionJohn RymillNew SwabiaAlfred RitscherOperation TabarinJames William Slessor MarrOperation HighjumpCaptain Arturo Prat BaseBritish Antarctic SurveyOperation WindmillGerald KetchumRonne Antarctic Research ExpeditionFinn RonneJackie RonneIsaac SchlossbachOperation Deep FreezeMcMurdo StationCommonwealth Trans-Antarctic ExpeditionEdmund HillaryVivian FuchsSoviet Antarctic Expedition1st Soviet Antarctic ExpeditionMikhail SomovMaria KlenovaMirny Station2nd Soviet Antarctic ExpeditionAlexey Tryoshnikov3rd Soviet Antarctic ExpeditionYevgeny TolstikovAntarctic Treaty SystemTransglobe ExpeditionRanulph FiennesCharles R. BurtonLake VostokAndrey KapitsaFarthest SouthSouth PoleHMS Resolution (1771)James CookHMS Adventure (1771)Tobias FurneauxJames WeddellHMS Erebus (1826)James Clark RossHMS Terror (1813)Francis CrozierSouthern Cross ExpeditionCarsten BorchgrevinkDiscovery ExpeditionMichael BarneNimrod ExpeditionErnest ShackletonFrank WildEric MarshallJameson AdamsSouth Magnetic PoleDouglas MawsonEdgeworth DavidAlistair MackayAmundsen's South Pole ExpeditionFramRoald AmundsenOlav BjaalandHelmer HanssenSverre HasselOscar WistingPolheimTerra Nova ExpeditionRobert Falcon ScottEdgar EvansLawrence OatesEdward Adrian WilsonHenry Robertson BowersRichard E. ByrdBernt BalchenAshley Chadbourne McKinleyGeorge J. DufekAmundsen–Scott South Pole StationEdmund HillaryVivian FuchsPole Of ColdVostok StationPole Of InaccessibilityPole Of Inaccessibility (Antarctic Research Station)Yevgeny TolstikovAlbert P. CraryArved FuchsReinhold MessnerTemplate:Sovereign States Of EuropeTemplate Talk:Sovereign States Of EuropeList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories In EuropeList Of Sovereign StatesAlbaniaAndorraArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBosnia And HerzegovinaBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGeorgia (country)GermanyGreeceHungaryIcelandRepublic Of IrelandItalyKazakhstanLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgRepublic Of MacedoniaMaltaMoldovaMonacoMontenegroKingdom Of The NetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUkraineUnited KingdomVatican CityEuropeList Of States With Limited RecognitionAbkhaziaRepublic Of ArtsakhKosovoNorthern CyprusSouth OssetiaTransnistriaDependent TerritoryFaroe IslandsDenmarkAkrotiri And DhekeliaGibraltarBritish Overseas TerritoriesBailiwick Of GuernseyIsle Of ManJerseyCrown DependenciesÅland IslandsAutonomous Administrative DivisionÅland ConventionSvalbardUnincorporated AreaSvalbard TreatyNorthern IrelandCountries Of The United KingdomGood Friday AgreementIslandTemplate:Countries Of North AmericaTemplate Talk:Countries Of North AmericaList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories In North AmericaNorth AmericaSovereign StateAntigua And BarbudaThe BahamasBarbadosBelizeCanadaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoNicaraguaPanamaSaint Kitts And NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent And The GrenadinesTrinidad And TobagoUnited StatesColombiaArchipelago Of San Andrés, Providencia And Santa CatalinaFranceGuadeloupeMartiniqueCaribbean NetherlandsBonaireSabaSint EustatiusNorth AmericaDependent TerritoryClipperton IslandSaint BarthélemyCollectivity Of Saint MartinSaint Pierre And MiquelonArubaCuraçaoSint MaartenAnguillaBermudaBritish Virgin IslandsCayman IslandsMontserratTurks And Caicos IslandsNavassa IslandPuerto RicoUnited States Virgin IslandsFederal Dependencies Of VenezuelaNueva EspartaPortal:GreenlandPortal:Kingdom Of DenmarkPortal:ArcticPortal:NATOPortal:North AmericaHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileIntegrated Authority FileNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:Former Danish ColoniesCategory:GreenlandCategory:Danish DependenciesCategory:Danish-speaking Countries And TerritoriesCategory:Dependent Territories In North AmericaCategory:Former Norwegian ColoniesCategory:Norwegian EmpireCategory:Inuit TerritoriesCategory:Nordic CountriesCategory:Island CountriesCategory:Regions Of The ArcticCategory:Special Territories Of The European UnionCategory:Kingdom Of DenmarkCategory:States And Territories Established In 1979Category:Christian StatesCategory:Articles With Danish-language External LinksCategory:Pages With DOIs Inactive Since 2017Category:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:CS1 Kalaallisut-language Sources (kl)Category:CS1 Danish-language Sources (da)Category:Wikipedia Indefinitely Move-protected PagesCategory:Wikipedia Pending Changes Protected PagesCategory:Use Dmy Dates From June 2016Category:Use British English Oxford Spelling From November 2013Category:Articles Containing Greenlandic-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Danish-language TextCategory:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From March 2017Category:Articles Containing Old Norse-language TextCategory:All Articles With Vague Or Ambiguous TimeCategory:Vague Or Ambiguous Time From January 2014Category:Articles Needing Additional References From September 2013Category:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From June 2009Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From May 2012Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From November 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From January 2016Category:Articles With Curlie LinksCategory:Coordinates On WikidataCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link