Contents 1 Mineralogy 1.1 Chemical composition 2 Occurrence 3 Origin 3.1 Geochemical origins 3.2 Chappell & White classification system 3.3 Granitization 4 Ascent and emplacement 5 Weathering 6 Natural radiation 7 Industry 8 Uses 8.1 Antiquity 8.2 Modern 8.2.1 Sculpture and memorials 8.2.2 Buildings 8.2.3 Engineering 8.2.4 Other uses 9 Rock climbing 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links


Mineralogy[edit] QAPF diagram for classification of plutonic rocks Mineral assemblage of igneous rocks Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar (orthoclase, sanidine, or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. True granite (according to modern petrologic convention) contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite; pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. Chemical composition[edit] A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses:[8] SiO2 72.04% (silica) 72.04   Al2O3 14.42% (alumina) 14.42   K2O 4.12% 4.12   Na2O 3.69% 3.69   CaO 1.82% 1.82   FeO 1.68% 1.68   Fe2O3 1.22% 1.22   MgO 0.71% 0.71   TiO2 0.30% 0.3   P2O5 0.12% 0.12   MnO 0.05% 0.05  


Occurrence[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Cheesewring, a granite tor A granite peak at Huangshan, China Granite containing rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust.[9] Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age; it is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite often occurs as relatively small, less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. In some locations, very coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite.


Origin[edit] Granite has a felsic composition and is more common in recent geologic time in contrast to Earth's ultramafic ancient igneous history. Felsic rocks are less dense than mafic and ultramafic rocks, and thus they tend to escape subduction, whereas basaltic or gabbroic rocks tend to sink into the mantle beneath the granitic rocks of the continental cratons. Therefore, granitic rocks form the basement of all land continents. Geochemical origins[edit] Granitoids have crystallized from magmas that have compositions at or near a eutectic point (or a temperature minimum on a cotectic curve). Magmas will evolve to the eutectic because of igneous differentiation, or because they represent low degrees of partial melting. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, magnesium, titanium, calcium and sodium, and enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar (rich in potassium) and quartz (SiO2), are two of the defining constituents of granite. This process operates regardless of the origin of the parental magma to the granite, and regardless of its chemistry. However, the composition and origin of the magma that differentiates into granite leaves certain geochemical and mineral evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was. The final mineralogy, texture and chemical composition of a granite is often distinctive as to its origin. For instance, a granite that is formed from melted sediments may have more alkali feldspar, whereas a granite derived from melted basalt may be richer in plagioclase feldspar. It is on this basis that the modern "alphabet" classification schemes are based. Granite has a slow cooling process which forms larger crystals. Chappell & White classification system[edit] The letter-based Chappell & White classification system was proposed initially to divide granites into I-type granite (or igneous protolith) granite and S-type or sedimentary protolith granite.[10] Both of these types of granite are formed by the melting of high grade metamorphic rocks, either other granite or intrusive mafic rocks, or buried sediment, respectively. M-type or mantle derived granite was later proposed to cover those granites that were clearly sourced from crystallized mafic magmas, generally sourced from the mantle. These are rare, because it is difficult to turn basalt into granite via fractional crystallisation. A-type or anorogenic granites are formed above volcanic "hot spot" activity and have a peculiar mineralogy and geochemistry. These granites are formed by the melting of the lower crust under conditions that are usually extremely dry. A-type granites occur in the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province in the Royal Society Range, Antarctica. The rhyolites of the Yellowstone Caldera are examples of volcanic equivalents of A-type granite.[11][12] H-type or hybrid granites are formed following a mixing of two granitic magmas from different sources,[13] e.g. M-type and S-type. Granitization[edit] An old, and largely discounted theory, granitization states that granite is formed in place by extreme metasomatism by fluids bringing in elements, e.g. potassium, and removing others, e.g. calcium, to transform the metamorphic rock into a granite. This was supposed to occur across a migrating front. The production of granite by metamorphic heat is difficult, but is observed to occur in certain amphibolite and granulite terrains. In-situ granitisation or melting by metamorphism is difficult to recognise except where leucosome and melanosome textures are present in migmatites. Once a metamorphic rock is melted it is no longer a metamorphic rock and is a magma, so these rocks are seen as a transitional between the two, but are not technically granite as they do not actually intrude into other rocks. In all cases, melting of solid rock requires high temperature, and also water or other volatiles which act as a catalyst by lowering the solidus temperature of the rock.


Ascent and emplacement[edit] The ascent and emplacement of large volumes of granite within the upper continental crust is a source of much debate amongst geologists. There is a lack of field evidence for any proposed mechanisms, so hypotheses are predominantly based upon experimental data. There are two major hypotheses for the ascent of magma through the crust: Stokes diapir Fracture propagation Of these two mechanisms, Stokes diapir was favoured for many years in the absence of a reasonable alternative. The basic idea is that magma will rise through the crust as a single mass through buoyancy. As it rises, it heats the wall rocks, causing them to behave as a power-law fluid and thus flow around the pluton allowing it to pass rapidly and without major heat loss.[14] This is entirely feasible in the warm, ductile lower crust where rocks are easily deformed, but runs into problems in the upper crust which is far colder and more brittle. Rocks there do not deform so easily: for magma to rise as a pluton it would expend far too much energy in heating wall rocks, thus cooling and solidifying before reaching higher levels within the crust. Fracture propagation is the mechanism preferred by many geologists as it largely eliminates the major problems of moving a huge mass of magma through cold brittle crust. Magma rises instead in small channels along self-propagating dykes which form along new or pre-existing fracture or fault systems and networks of active shear zones.[15] As these narrow conduits open, the first magma to enter solidifies and provides a form of insulation for later magma. Granitic magma must make room for itself or be intruded into other rocks in order to form an intrusion, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how large batholiths have been emplaced: Stoping, where the granite cracks the wall rocks and pushes upwards as it removes blocks of the overlying crust Assimilation, where the granite melts its way up into the crust and removes overlying material in this way Inflation, where the granite body inflates under pressure and is injected into position Most geologists today accept that a combination of these phenomena can be used to explain granite intrusions, and that not all granites can be explained entirely by one or another mechanism.


Weathering[edit] Further information: Weathering Grus sand and granitoid it derived from Physical weathering occurs on a large scale in the form of exfoliation joints, which are the result of granite's expanding and fracturing as pressure is relieved when overlying material is removed by erosion or other processes. Chemical weathering of granite occurs when dilute carbonic acid, and other acids present in rain and soil waters, alter feldspar in a process called hydrolysis.[16][17] As demonstrated in the following reaction, this causes potassium feldspar to form kaolinite, with potassium ions, bicarbonate, and silica in solution as byproducts. An end product of granite weathering is grus, which is often made up of coarse-grained fragments of disintegrated granite. 2 KAlSi3O8 + 2 H2CO3 + 9 H2O → Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 4 H4SiO4 + 2 K+ + 2 HCO3− Climatic variations also influence the weathering rate of granites. For about two thousand years, the relief engravings on Cleopatra's Needle obelisk had survived the arid conditions of its origin before its transfer to London. Within two hundred years, the red granite has drastically deteriorated in the damp and polluted air there.[18]


Natural radiation[edit] Granite is a natural source of radiation, like most natural stones. However, some granites have been reported to have higher radioactivity, thereby raising some concerns about their safety.[citation needed] Potassium-40 is a radioactive isotope of weak emission, and a constituent of alkali feldspar, which in turn is a common component of granitic rocks, more abundant in alkali feldspar granite and syenites. Naturally, a geiger counter should register this low effect. Some granites contain around 10 to 20 parts per million (ppm) of uranium. By contrast, more mafic rocks, such as tonalite, gabbro and diorite, have 1 to 5 ppm uranium, and limestones and sedimentary rocks usually have equally low amounts. Many large granite plutons are sources for palaeochannel-hosted or roll front uranium ore deposits, where the uranium washes into the sediments from the granite uplands and associated, often highly radioactive pegmatites. Cellars and basements built into soils over granite can become a trap for radon gas, which is formed by the decay of uranium.[19] Radon gas poses significant health concerns and is the number two cause of lung cancer in the US behind smoking.[20] Thorium occurs in all granites as well.[21] Conway granite has been noted for its relatively high thorium concentration of 56±6 ppm.[22] There is some concern that some granite sold as countertops or building material may be hazardous to health. Dan Steck of St. Johns University has stated[23] that approximately 5% of all granite is of concern, with the caveat that only a tiny percentage of the tens of thousands of granite slab types have been tested. Various resources from national geological survey organizations are accessible online to assist in assessing the risk factors in granite country and design rules relating, in particular, to preventing accumulation of radon gas in enclosed basements and dwellings. A study of granite countertops was done (initiated and paid for by the Marble Institute of America) in November 2008 by National Health and Engineering Inc. of USA. In this test, all of the 39 full-size granite slabs that were measured for the study showed radiation levels well below the European Union safety standards (section 4.1.1.1 of the National Health and Engineering study) and radon emission levels well below the average outdoor radon concentrations in the US.[24]


Industry[edit] Granite dimension stone quarry in Taivassalo, Finland. Granite and related marble industries are considered one of the oldest industries in the world; existing as far back as Ancient Egypt.[25] Major modern exporters of granite include China, India, Italy, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Sweden, Spain and the United States .[26] Indian granite quarries have been mired in controversy over child labor and slavery.[27][28]


Uses[edit] Antiquity[edit] Cleopatra's Needle, London The Red Pyramid of Egypt (c. 26th century BC), named for the light crimson hue of its exposed limestone surfaces, is the third largest of Egyptian pyramids. Menkaure's Pyramid, likely dating to the same era, was constructed of limestone and granite blocks. The Great Pyramid of Giza (c. 2580 BC) contains a huge granite sarcophagus fashioned of "Red Aswan Granite". The mostly ruined Black Pyramid dating from the reign of Amenemhat III once had a polished granite pyramidion or capstone, which is now on display in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (see Dahshur). Other uses in Ancient Egypt include columns, door lintels, sills, jambs, and wall and floor veneer.[29] How the Egyptians worked the solid granite is still a matter of debate. Patrick Hunt[30] has postulated that the Egyptians used emery, which has greater hardness on the Mohs scale. Rajaraja Chola I of the Chola Dynasty in South India built the world's first temple entirely of granite in the 11th century AD in Tanjore, India. The Brihadeeswarar Temple dedicated to Lord Shiva was built in 1010. The massive Gopuram (ornate, upper section of shrine) is believed to have a mass of around 81 tonnes. It was the tallest temple in south India.[31] Imperial Roman granite was quarried mainly in Egypt, and also in Turkey, and on the islands of Elba and Giglio. Granite became "an integral part of the Roman language of monumental architecture".[32] The quarrying ceased around the third century CE. Beginning in Late Antiquity the granite was reused, which since at least the early 16th century became known as spoliation. Through the process of case-hardening, granite becomes harder with age. The technology required to make tempered steel chisels was largely forgotten during the Middle Ages. As a result, Medieval stoneworkers were forced to use saws or emery to shorten ancient columns or hack them into discs. Giorgio Vasari noted in the 16th century that granite in quarries was "far softer and easier to work than after it has lain exposed" while ancient columns, because of their "hardness and solidity have nothing to fear from fire or sword, and time itself, that drives everything to ruin, not only has not destroyed them but has not even altered their colour."[32] Modern[edit] Sculpture and memorials[edit] Various granites (cut and polished surfaces) In some areas, granite is used for gravestones and memorials. Granite is a hard stone and requires skill to carve by hand. Until the early 18th century, in the Western world, granite could be carved only by hand tools with generally poor results. A key breakthrough was the invention of steam-powered cutting and dressing tools by Alexander MacDonald of Aberdeen, inspired by seeing ancient Egyptian granite carvings. In 1832, the first polished tombstone of Aberdeen granite to be erected in an English cemetery was installed at Kensal Green Cemetery. It caused a sensation in the London monumental trade and for some years all polished granite ordered came from MacDonald's.[33] As a result of the work of sculptor William Leslie, and later Sidney Field, granite memorials became a major status symbol in Victorian Britain. The royal sarcophagus at Frogmore was probably the pinnacle of its work, and at 30 tons one of the largest. It was not until the 1880s that rival machinery and works could compete with the MacDonald works. Modern methods of carving include using computer-controlled rotary bits and sandblasting over a rubber stencil. Leaving the letters, numbers, and emblems exposed on the stone, the blaster can create virtually any kind of artwork or epitaph. The stone known as "black granite" is usually gabbro, which has a completely different chemical composition.[34] Buildings[edit] Granite has been extensively used as a dimension stone and as flooring tiles in public and commercial buildings and monuments. Aberdeen in Scotland, which is constructed principally from local granite, is known as "The Granite City". Because of its abundance in New England, granite was commonly used to build foundations for homes there. The Granite Railway, America's first railroad, was built to haul granite from the quarries in Quincy, Massachusetts, to the Neponset River in the 1820s. Engineering[edit] Engineers have traditionally used polished granite surface plates to establish a plane of reference, since they are relatively impervious and inflexible. Sandblasted concrete with a heavy aggregate content has an appearance similar to rough granite, and is often used as a substitute when use of real granite is impractical. A most unusual use of granite was as the material of the tracks of the Haytor Granite Tramway, Devon, England, in 1820. Granite block is usually processed into slabs, which can be cut and shaped by a cutting center. Granite tables are used extensively as bases for optical instruments because of granite's rigidity, high dimensional stability, and excellent vibration characteristics. In military engineering, Finland planted granite boulders along its Mannerheim Line to block invasion by Russian tanks in the winter war of 1940. Other uses[edit] Curling stones are traditionally fashioned of Ailsa Craig granite. The first stones were made in the 1750s, the original source being Ailsa Craig in Scotland. Because of the rarity of this granite, the best stones can cost as much as US$1,500. Between 60 and 70 percent of the stones used today are made from Ailsa Craig granite, although the island is now a wildlife reserve and is still used for quarrying under license for Ailsa granite by Kays of Mauchline for curling stones.[35]


Rock climbing[edit] Granite is one of the rocks most prized by climbers, for its steepness, soundness, crack systems, and friction. Well-known venues for granite climbing include the Yosemite Valley, the Bugaboos, the Mont Blanc massif (and peaks such as the Aiguille du Dru, the Mourne Mountains, the Adamello-Presanella Alps, the Aiguille du Midi and the Grandes Jorasses), the Bregaglia, Corsica, parts of the Karakoram (especially the Trango Towers), the Fitzroy Massif, Patagonia, Baffin Island, Ogawayama, the Cornish coast, the Cairngorms, Sugarloaf Mountain in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the Stawamus Chief, British Columbia, Canada. Granite rock climbing is so popular that many of the artificial rock climbing walls found in gyms and theme parks are made to look and feel like granite. Granite was used for setts on the St. Louis riverfront and for the piers of the Eads Bridge (background) The granite peaks of the Cordillera Paine in the Chilean Patagonia Half Dome, Yosemite National Park, a classic granite dome and popular rock climbing destination Rixö red granite quarry in Lysekil, Sweden


See also[edit] Coldspring (company) Cheyenne Mountain Complex Epoxy granite Exfoliating granite Falkenfelsen, or Falcon Rock Fall River granite Greisen Hypersolvus Igneous rock List of rock types Luxullianite Mourne Mountains Orbicular granite Pikes Peak granite, Colorado Quartz monzonite Rapakivi granite Stone Mountain, Georgia Subsolvus Wicklow Mountains, Ireland


References[edit] Notes ^ "Granitoids – Granite and the Related Rocks Granodiorite, Diorite and Tonalite". Geology.about.com. 2010-02-06. Retrieved 2010-05-09.  ^ Haldar, S.K.; Tišljar, J. (2014). Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology. Elsevier. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-12-408133-8.  ^ "Rock Types and Specific Gravities". EduMine. Retrieved 2017-08-27.  ^ Kumagai, Naoichi; Sadao Sasajima; Hidebumi Ito (1978). "Long-term Creep of Rocks: Results with Large Specimens Obtained in about 20 Years and Those with Small Specimens in about 3 Years". Journal of the Society of Materials Science (Japan). 27 (293): 157–161. doi:10.2472/jsms.27.155.  ^ Larsen, Esper S. (1929). "The temperatures of magmas". American Mineralogist. 14: 81–94.  ^ Holland, Tim; Powell, Roger (2001). "Calculation of phase relations involving haplogranitic melts using an internally consistent thermodynamic dataset". Journal of Petrology. 42 (4): 673–683. doi:10.1093/petrology/42.4.673.  ^ "Granite Facts: What is primary and secondary permeability?". GRANITE COUNTERTOP WAREHOUSE. October 26, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2017.  ^ Harvey Blatt & Robert J. Tracy (1997). Petrology (2nd ed.). New York: Freeman. p. 66. ISBN 0-7167-2438-3.  ^ Singh, G. (2009). Earth Science Today. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 9788183564380.  ^ Chappell, B. W.; White, A. J. R. (2001). "Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later". Australian Journal of Earth Sciences. 48 (4): 489–499. doi:10.1046/j.1440-0952.2001.00882.x.  ^ Boroughs, S.; Wolff, J.; Bonnichsen, B.; Godchaux, M.; Larson, P. (2005). "Large-volume, low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA". Geology. 33 (10): 821. doi:10.1130/G21723.1.  ^ Frost, C.D. et al. (2005) "Extrusive A-type magmatism of the Yellowstone hot spot track". 15th Goldschmidt Conference Field Trip AC-4. Field Trip Guide, University of Wyoming. ^ Annals of the Geological Survey of Egypt. Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority. 2005.  ^ Weinberg, R. F.; Podladchikov, Y. (1994). "Diapiric ascent of magmas through power law crust and mantle". Journal of Geophysical Research. 99: 9543. Bibcode:1994JGR....99.9543W. doi:10.1029/93JB03461.  ^ Clemens, John (1998). "Observations on the origins and ascent mechanisms of granitic magmas". Journal of the Geological Society of London. 155 (Part 5): 843–51. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.155.5.0843.  ^ "Granite [Weathering]". University College London. Retrieved 10 July 2014.  ^ "Hydrolysis". Geological Society of London. Retrieved 10 July 2014.  ^ Marsh, William M.; Kaufman, Martin M. (2012). Physical Geography: Great Systems and Global Environments. Cambridge University Press. p. 510. ISBN 9781107376649.  ^ "Decay series of Uranium". Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved 2008-10-19.  ^ "Radon and Cancer: Questions and Answers". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2008-10-19.  ^ Hubbert, M. King (March 8, 1956) Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels. American Petroleum Institute Conference. Energy Bulletin. ^ Adams, J. A.; Kline, M. C.; Richardson, K. A.; Rogers, J. J. (1962). "The Conway Granite of New Hampshire As a Major Low-Grade Thorium Resource". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 48 (11): 1898–905. doi:10.1073/pnas.48.11.1898. PMC 221093 . PMID 16591014.  ^ Steck, Daniel J. (2009). "Pre- and Post-Market Measurements of Gamma Radiation and Radon Emanation from a Large Sample of Decorative Granites". Nineteenth International Radon Symposium (PDF). pp. 28–51.  ^ Natural Stone Countertops and Radon – Environmental Health and Engineering – Assessing Exposure to Radon and Radiation from Granite Countertops. ^ Nelson L. Nemerow (27 January 2009). Environmental Engineering: Environmental Health and Safety for Municipal Infrastructure, Land Use and Planning, and Industry. John Wiley & Sons. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-470-08305-5.  ^ Parmodh Alexander (15 January 2009). A Handbook of Minerals, Crystals, Rocks and Ores. New India Publishing. p. 585. ISBN 978-81-907237-8-7.  ^ "Modern slavery and child labour in Indian quarries - Stop Child Labour". Stop Child Labour. Retrieved 2016-03-09.  ^ "Modern slavery and child labour in Indian quarries". www.indianet.nl. Retrieved 2016-03-09.  ^ James A. Harrell. "Decorative Stones in the Pre-Ottoman Islamic Buildings of Cairo, Egypt". Retrieved 2008-01-06.  ^ "Egyptian Genius: Stoneworking for Eternity". Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  ^ Heitzman, James (1991). "Ritual Polity and Economy: The Transactional Network of an Imperial Temple in Medieval South India". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. BRILL. 34 (1/2): 23–54. doi:10.1163/156852091x00157. JSTOR 3632277.  ^ a b Waters, Michael (2016). "Reviving Antiquity with Granite: Spolia and the Development of Roman Renaissance Architecture". Architectural History. 59: pp. 149–179. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Friends of West Norwood Cemetery newsletter 71 Alexander MacDonald (1794–1860) – Stonemason, ^ "Black granite and black marble". Trade Brochure. Graniteland.com. Retrieved 21 May 2014.  ^ Roach, John (October 27, 2004). "National Geographic News — Puffins Return to Scottish Island Famous for Curling Stones". National Geographic News. 


Further reading[edit] Blasik, Miroslava; Hanika, Bogdashka, eds. (2012). Granite: Occurrence, Mineralogy and Origin. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science. ISBN 978-1-62081-566-3.  Twidale, Charles Rowland (2005). Landforms and Geology of Granite Terrains. Leiden, Netherlands: A. A. Balkema. ISBN 978-0-415-36435-5.  Marmo, Vladimir (1971). Granite Petrology and the Granite Problem. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Scientific. ISBN 978-0-444-40852-5. 


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Granite. The Emplacement and Origin of Granite v t e Common igneous rocks classified by silicon dioxide content Type Ultramafic <45% SiO2 Mafic 45–52% SiO2 Intermediate 52–63% SiO2 Intermediate–felsic 63–69% SiO2 Felsic >69% SiO2 Volcanic rocks: Subvolcanic rocks: Plutonic rocks: Komatiite, Picrite basalt Kimberlite, Lamproite Peridotite Basalt Diabase (Dolerite) Gabbro Andesite Microdiorite Diorite Dacite Microgranodiorite Granodiorite Rhyolite Microgranite, Aplite Granite v t e Stonemasonry Types Ashlar Rustication Carving Dry stone Letter cutting Masonry Monumental Rubble Sculpture Slipform Materials List of stone Artificial stone Brick Cast stone Decorative stones Dimension stone Fieldstone Flagstone Gabion Granite Marble Mortar Sandstone Slate Tools Angle grinder Bush hammer Ceramic tile cutter Chisel Diamond blade Lewis (lifting appliance) Non-explosive demolition agents Plug and feather Stonemason's hammer Straightedge Techniques Brickwork Flaming Flushwork Knapping Polygonal masonry Repointing Scabbling Tuckpointing Products Hardstone carving Headstone (Footstone) Mosaic Sculpture Stone wall Organizations International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers Master of Work to the Crown of Scotland Mason Contractors Association of America Operative Plasterers' and Cement Masons' International Association Worshipful Company of Masons Authority control GND: 4132750-0 NDL: 00564732 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Granite&oldid=825239672" Categories: GraniteFelsic rocksNational symbols of FinlandPlutonic rocksSculpture materialsSymbols of WisconsinIndustrial mineralsHidden categories: CS1 maint: Extra textArticles needing additional references from May 2015All articles needing additional referencesArticles needing additional references from July 2017All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2018Pages using div col with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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Granite (disambiguation)Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalIgneousPotassium FeldsparPlagioclase FeldsparQuartzBiotiteAmphibolePotassium FeldsparPlagioclase FeldsparQuartzMuscoviteBiotiteHornblendeAmphiboleHelp:IPA/EnglishFelsicIntrusive RockIgneous RockPhaneriticLatinHolocrystallineQuartzAlkali FeldsparFeldsparMicaAmphiboleMineralEquigranularMatrix (geology)BiotiteHornblendePhenocrystGroundmassPorphyriticPorphyry (geology)GranitoidField ResearchPetrographyExtrusiveRhyoliteDensityViscosityStandard Conditions For Temperature And PressurePermeability (earth Sciences)EnlargeEnlargeQAPF DiagramPlutonQuartzFeldsparOrthoclaseSanidineMicroclinePlagioclasePetrologyAlkali Feldspar GraniteTonalitePyroxeneAmphiboleMicaPotassiumSilicon DioxideAluminium OxidePotassium OxideSodium OxideCalcium OxideIron(II) OxideIron(III) OxideMagnesium OxideTitanium DioxidePhosphorus PentoxideManganese(II) 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