Contents 1 Examples 2 Verbal agreement 2.1 Nonverbal person agreement 3 Factors that affect conjugation 4 See also 4.1 Conjugations by language 4.2 See also 5 Notes

Examples[edit] Indo-European languages usually inflect verbs for several grammatical categories in complex paradigms, although some, like English, have simplified verb conjugation to a large extent. Below is the conjugation of the verb to be in the present tense (of the infinitive, if it exists, and indicative moods), in English, German, Yiddish, Dutch, Afrikaans, Icelandic, Faroese, Swedish, Norwegian, Latvian, Bulgarian, Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Polish, Slovenian, Macedonian, Urdu or Hindi, Persian, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Albanian, Armenian, Irish, Ukrainian, Ancient Attic Greek and Modern Greek. This is usually the most irregular verb. The similarities in corresponding verb forms may be noticed. Some of the conjugations may be disused, like the English thou-form, or have additional meanings, like the English you-form, which can also stand for second person singular or be impersonal. "To be" in several Indo-European languages Branch Language Present infinitive Present indicative Singular persons Plural persons 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Germanic English be am are art1 be'st1 is are German sein bin bist ist sind seid sind Yiddish transliterated זיין zein בין bim ביסט bist איז iz זענען zenen זענט zent זענען zenen Dutch zijn ben bent zijt2 is zijn Afrikaans wees is Icelandic vera er ert er erum eruð eru Faroese vera eri ert er eru Norwegian være3 vera4 vere4 er Danish være er Swedish vara är Italic Latin esse sum es est sumus estis sunt Italian essere sono sei è siamo siete sono French être suis es est sommes êtes sont Catalan ésser sóc ets és som sou són Spanish ser soy eres es somos sois son Galician ser son es é somos sodes son Portuguese ser sou és é somos sois são Friulian jessi soi sês è sin sês son Romanian a fi sunt ești este suntem sunteți sunt Celtic Irish bheith bím bíonn bíonn bímid bíonn bíonn Welsh (standard form) bod rydw rwyt mae rydych rydyn maen Greek Ancient5 transliterated εἶναι eînai εἰμί eimí εἶ eî ἐστί estí ἐσμέν esmén ἐστέ esté εἰσί eisí Modern transliterated none6 είμαι eímai είσαι eísai είναι eínai είμαστε eímaste είσ(ασ)τε eís(as)te είναι eínai Albanian me qenë jam je është jemi jeni janë Armenian Western transliterated ըլլալ ĕllal Եմ em ես es է ē ենք enk‘ էք ēk‘ են en Eastern transliterated լինել linel Եմ em ես es է ē ենք enk‘ եք ek‘ են en Slavic Czech být jsem jsi je jsme jste jsou Slovak byť som si je sme ste sú Polish być jestem jesteś jest jesteśmy jesteście są Russian transliterated быть byt есть yest' Ukrainian transliterated бути buty є ye Serbian strong transliterated бити biti јесам jesam јеси jesi јест(е) jest(e) јесмо jesmo јесте jeste јесу jesu Serbian clitic transliterated none сам sam си si је je смо smo сте ste су su Croatian strong biti jesam jesi jest jesmo jeste jesu Croatian clitic none sam si je smo ste su Slovenian biti sem si je smo ste so Bulgarian transliterated none съм săm си si е e сме sme сте ste са să Macedonian transliterated none сум sum си si е e сме sme сте ste се se Baltic Latvian būt esmu esi ir esam esat ir Lithuanian būti esu esi yra esame esate yra Indo-Iranian Persian transliterated بودن budan ام æm ای ei (است (ا æst (æ)9 ایم eem (اید (این eed (spoken: een) (اند (ان and (spoken: an) Sanskrit transliterated अस्ति asti अस्मि asmi असि asi अस्ति asti स्मः smah स्थ stha सन्ति santi Hindustani Devanagari Script Perso-Arabic Script transliterated   होना ہونا hona   हूँ ہوں hū̃   है ہیں hai   है ہے hai   हैं ہیں hãĩ   हो ہو ho   हैं ہیں hãĩ Marathi transliterated असणे asṇe आहे āhe आहेस āhes आहे āhe आहोत āhot आहात āhāt आहेत āhet Gujarati transliterated હોવું hovũ છું chhũ છે chhe છીએ chhīe છો chho છે chhe Assamese transliterated হোৱা hüa হওঁ hoü̃ হোৱা hüa হয় hoy হওঁ hoü̃ হোৱা hüa হয় hoy 1 Archaic, poetical; used only with the pronoun 'thou'. 2 In Flemish dialects. 3 In the bokmål written standard. 4 In the nynorsk written standard. vera and vere are both alternate forms. 5 Attic. 6 'eínai' is only used as a noun ("being, existence"). 7 Ptc: qenë. 8 In the Tosk and Geg dialects, respectively. 9 Existential: هست (hæst) has another meaning. Usage of (æ) is considered to be rural, now. See, Indo-European copula

Verbal agreement[edit] Verbal agreement or concord is a morpho-syntactic construct in which properties of the subject and/or objects of a verb are indicated by the verb form. Verbs are then said to agree with their subjects (resp. objects). Many English verbs exhibit subject agreement of the following sort: whereas I go, you go, we go, they go are all grammatical in standard English, she go is not (except in the subjunctive, as "They requested that she go with them"). Instead, a special form of the verb to go has to be used to produce she goes. On the other hand I goes, you goes etc. are not grammatical in standard English. (Things are different in some English dialects that lack agreement.) A few English verbs have no special forms that indicate subject agreement (I may, you may, she may), and the verb to be has an additional form am that can only be used with the pronoun I as the subject. Verbs in written French exhibit more intensive agreement morphology than English verbs: je suis (I am), tu es ("you are", singular informal), elle est (she is), nous sommes (we are), vous êtes ("you are", plural), ils sont (they are). Historically, English used to have a similar verbal paradigm. Some historic verb forms are used by Shakespeare as slightly archaic or more formal variants (I do, thou dost, she doth, typically used by nobility) of the modern forms. Some languages with verbal agreement can leave certain subjects implicit when the subject is fully determined by the verb form. In Spanish, for instance, subject pronouns do not need to be explicitly present, even though in French, its close relative, they are obligatory. The Spanish equivalent to the French je suis (I am) can be simply soy (lit. "am"). The pronoun yo (I) in the explicit form yo soy is only required for emphasis or to clear ambiguity in complex texts. Some languages have a richer agreement system in which verbs also agree with some or all of their objects. Ubykh exhibits verbal agreement for the subject, direct object, indirect object, benefaction and ablative objects (a.w3.s.xe.n.t'u.n, you gave it to him for me). Basque can show agreement not only for subject, direct object and indirect object, but it also on occasion exhibits agreement for the listener as the implicit benefactor: autoa ekarri digute means "they brought us the car" (neuter agreement for listener), but autoa ekarri ziguten means "they brought us the car" (agreement for feminine singular listener). Languages with a rich agreement morphology facilitate relatively free word order without leading to increased ambiguity. The canonical word order in Basque is subject–object–verb. However, all permutations of subject, verb and object are permitted. Nonverbal person agreement[edit] In some languages,[5] predicative adjectives and copular complements receive a form of person agreement that is distinct from that used on ordinary predicative verbs. Although this is a form of conjugation in that it refers back to the person of the subject, it is not “verbal” because it always derives from pronouns that have become cliticised to the nouns to which they refer.[6] An example of nonverbal person agreement, along with contrasting verbal conjugation, can be found from Beja[7] (person agreement affixes in bold): wun.tu.wi, “you (fem.) are big” hadá.b.wa, “you (masc.) are a sheik” e.n.fór, “he flees” Another example can be found from Ket:[7] fèmba.di, “I am a Tungus” dɨ.fen, “I am standing” In Turkic, and a few Uralic and Australian Aboriginal languages, predicative adjectives and copular complements take affixes that are identical to those used on predicative verbs, but their negation is different. For example, in Turkish: koş.u.yor.sun “you are running” çavuş.sun “you are a sergeant” Under negation this becomes (negative affixes in bold): koş.mu.yor.sun “you are not running” çavuş değil.sin “you are not a sergeant” For this reason, the person agreement affixes used with predicative adjectives and nominals in Turkic languages are considered to be nonverbal in character. In some analyses, they are viewed as a form of verbal takeover by a copular strategy.

Factors that affect conjugation[edit] Common grammatical categories according to which verbs can be conjugated are the following: Finite verb forms: Grammatical person Grammatical number Grammatical gender Grammatical tense Grammatical aspect Grammatical mood Grammatical voice Non-finite verb forms. Other factors which may affect conjugation are: Degree of formality (see T-V distinction, Honorific speech in Japanese, Korean speech levels) Inclusiveness and exclusiveness in the 1st. person plural Transitivity Valency

See also[edit] Conjugations by language[edit] Category:Grammatical conjugation Indo-European copula See also[edit] Agreement (linguistics) Declension (nouns, adjectives, etc.) Inflection Redundancy (linguistics) Screeve Strong inflection Verb Verb argument Volition (linguistics) Weak inflection

Notes[edit] ^ "conjugation". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-26.  ^ "conjugation". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-26.  ^ "Grammatical Features - Associativity". Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ Passer, Matthias. "Verb Classifiers - 'Misfits' of Nominal Classification?". Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ Stassen, Leon; Intransitive Predication (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory); published 1997 by Oxford University Press; p. 39. ISBN 0-19-925893-7 ^ Stassen; Intransitive Predication; pp. 77 & 284-288 ^ a b Stassen, Intransitive Predication; p. 40 Retrieved from "" Categories: Grammatical conjugationGrammatical numberHidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek-language textArticles containing Armenian-language textArticles containing Persian-language text

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