Contents 1 Definition 2 History 3 Gender pay gap 4 Glass escalator 5 Sticky floor 6 The frozen middle 7 Glass Ceiling Index 8 Second shift 9 Mommy Track 10 Concrete floor 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Definition[edit] The United States Federal Glass Ceiling Commission[9] defines the glass ceiling as "the unseen, yet unbreachable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements."[1] David Cotter and colleagues defined four distinctive characteristics that must be met to conclude that a glass ceiling exists. A glass ceiling inequality represents: "A gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of the employee." "A gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome." "A gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels." "A gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career." Cotter and his colleagues found that glass ceilings are correlated strongly with gender. Both white and minority women face a glass ceiling in the course of their careers. In contrast, the researchers did not find evidence of a glass ceiling for African-American men.[10] The glass ceiling metaphor has often been used to describe invisible barriers ("glass") through which women can see elite positions but cannot reach them ("ceiling").[11] These barriers prevent large numbers of women and ethnic minorities from obtaining and securing the most powerful, prestigious and highest-grossing jobs in the workforce.[12] Moreover, this effect prevents women from filling high-ranking positions and puts them at a disadvantage as potential candidates for advancement.[13][14]

History[edit] The very first person to use the phrase was Marilyn Loden, during a 1978 speech.[15][16][17] The concept of the glass ceiling was later popularized at the National Press Club in July 1979.[citation needed] This was at a Conference of the Women's Institute for Freedom of the Press led by Katherine Lawrence of Hewlett-Packard. This was part of an ongoing discussion of a clash between written policy of promotion versus action opportunities for women at HP. The term was later used in March 1984 by Gay Bryant. She was the former editor of Working Woman magazine and was changing jobs to be the editor of Family Circle. In an Adweek article written by Nora Frenkel, Bryant was reported as saying, "Women have reached a certain point—I call it the glass ceiling. They're in the top of middle management and they're stopping and getting stuck. There isn't enough room for all those women at the top. Some are going into business for themselves. Others are going out and raising families."[18][19][20] Also in 1984, Bryant used the term in a chapter of the book The Working Woman Report: Succeeding in Business in the 1980s. In the same book, Basia Hellwig used the term in another chapter.[19] In a widely cited article in the Wall Street Journal in March 1986 the term was used in the article's title: "The Glass Ceiling: Why Women Can't Seem to Break The Invisible Barrier That Blocks Them From the Top Jobs". The article was written by Carol Hymowitz and Timothy D. Schellhardt. Hymowitz and Schellhardt introduced glass ceiling was "not something that could be found in any corporate manual or even discussed at a business meeting; it was originally introduced as an invisible, covert, and unspoken phenomenon that existed to keep executive level leadership positions in the hands of Caucasian males."[21] As the term "Glass Ceiling" got more issued within society, public responded with differing ideas and opinions. Some argued that glass ceiling is a myth rather than a reality because women chose to stay home and showed less dedication to advance into executive suite.[21] As a result of continuing public debate, the US Labor Department's chief, Lynn Morley Martin, reported the results of a research project called "The Glass Ceiling Initiative" formed to investigate the low numbers of women and minorities in executive positions. This report defined the new term as "those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management-level positions."[19][20] In 1991, as a part of Title II of the Civil Right Act of 1991,[22] Congress created the Glass Ceiling Commission. This 21 member Presidential Commission was chaired by Secretary of Labor Robert Reich,[22] and was created to study the "barriers to the advancement of minorities and women within corporate hierarchies (the problem known as the glass ceiling), to issue a report on its findings and conclusions, and to make recommendations on ways to dis- mantle the glass ceiling."[1] The commission conducted extensive research including, surveys, public hearings and interviews, and released their findings in a report in 1995.[2] The report, "Good for Business", offered "tangible guidelines and solutions on how these barriers can be overcome and eliminated".[1] The goal of the commission was to provide recommendations on how to shatter the glass ceiling, specifically in the world of business. The report issued 12 recommendations on how to improve the workplace by increasing diversity in the organization and reducing discrimination through policy[1][23][24] Number of women CEOs from the Fortune Lists has been increasing from 2012–2014,[25] but ironically women's labor force participation rate decreased from 52.4% to 49.6% between 1995 and 2015 globally. However, it is evident that some countries like Australia has increased the labor force participation of women over 27% since 1978. Furthermore, only 19.2% of S&P 500 Board Seats were held by women in 2014, of whom 80.2% were considered white.[26]

Gender pay gap[edit] See also: Gender pay gap and Gender pay gap in the United States The gender pay gap is the difference between male and female earnings. In 2008 the OECD suggested that the median earnings of female full-time workers were 17% lower than the earnings of their male counterparts and that "30% of the variation in gender wage gaps across OECD countries can be explained by discriminatory practices in the labour market."[27][28] The European Commission suggested that women's hourly earnings were 17.5% lower on average in the 27 EU Member States in 2008.[29] A paper by political activist website "" suggests that as of April 2017, women in the United States were on average paid "80 cents for every dollar paid to men, amounting to an annual gender wage gap of $10,470".[30] It may help from a research perspective to note that there are many disagreeing viewpoints on this issue, and the research cited here is presented in favor of the side that asserts society's view on minorities is the cause of the pay gap. Although people[who?] argue that the gender pay gap is not relevant anymore, statistics show that it will take at least 70 years from now for the gap to close[citation needed]. Scholars[who?] have predicted that, at the current rate of increase of women's wages, the gender pay gap would not close until 2056.[31] In her article "Women and Politics", Irina Zamfirache claims that the glass ceiling can be explained by woman's place in society. The article suggests that the gender pay gap is decreasing over time, which seems appropriate seeing as women are no longer portrayed as housewives[citation needed]. However, according to Zamfirache, despite the media still projecting a disadvantageous image of women[citation needed], the change of stereotypes and perceptions of not only women but also minorities suggests that the glass ceiling can eventually be dissolved.[32]

Glass escalator[edit] In addition to the glass ceiling, which already is stopping women from climbing higher in success in the workplace, a parallel phenomenon called the "glass escalator" is occurring. This can be defined as how more men are joining fields that were previously occupied mainly by women, such as nursing and teaching, and within these job fields, the men are riding right past women and going straight to the top, similarly to if they were on an escalator and a woman was taking stairs. Men are being offered more promotions than women and even though women have worked just as hard, they are still not being offered the same chances as men are in some circumstances.[33] The chart from Carolyn K. Broner, Ph.D. shows an example of the glass escalator in favor of men for female-dominant occupations in schools.[34] While women have mostly occupied the position of teachers, men are taking the higher positions in school systems as deans or principals. Research on the career paths of men who have occupations in female-dominated fields, such as nursing or teaching, come to a conclusion that men benefit financially from their gender status. This can be extended to say that men are able to abuse their gender advantages in such contexts, often "reaping the benefits of their token status to reach higher levels in female-dominated work."[citation needed] Not only are males taking power from women in more female oriented jobs, but they are rising to the top more steadily than females.[citation needed] A 2008 study published in Social Problems found that sex segregation in nursing did not follow the "glass escalator" pattern of disproportional vertical distribution; rather, men and women gravitated towards different areas within the field, with male nurses tending to specialize in areas of work perceived as "masculine".[35] The article noted that "men encounter powerful social pressures that direct them away from entering female-dominated occupations (Jacobs 1989, 1993)". Since female-dominated occupations are usually characterized with more feminine activities, men who enter these jobs can be perceived socially as "effeminate, homosexual, or sexual predators".[35]

Sticky floor[edit] In the literature on gender discrimination, the concept of "sticky floors" complements the concept of a glass ceiling. Sticky floors can be described as the pattern that women are, compared to men, less likely to start to climb the job ladder. Thereby, this phenomenon is related to gender differentials at the bottom of the wage distribution. Building on the seminal study by Booth and co-authors in European Economic Review,[36] during the last decade economists have attempted to identify sticky floors in the labour market. They found empirical evidence for the existence of sticky floors in countries such as Australia, Belgium, Italy, Thailand and the United States.[37]

The frozen middle[edit] Similar to the sticky floor, the frozen middle describes the phenomenon of women's progress up the corporate ladder slowing, if not halting, in the ranks of middle management.[38] Originally the term referred to the resistance corporate upper management faced from middle management when issuing directives. Due to a lack of ability or lack of drive in the ranks of middle management these directives do not come into fruition and as a result the company's bottom line suffers.The term was popularized by a Harvard Business Review article titled "Middle Management Excellence".[39] Due to the growing proportion of women to men in the workforce, however, the term "frozen middle" has become more commonly ascribed to the aforementioned slowing of the careers of women in middle management.[40] The 1996 study "A Study of the Career Development and Aspirations of Women in Middle Management" posits that social structures and networks within businesses that favor "good old boys" and norms of masculinity exist based on the experiences of women surveyed.[41] According to the study, women who did not exhibit stereotypical masculine traits, (e.g. aggressiveness, thick skin, lack of emotional expression) and interpersonal communication tendencies are at an inherent disadvantage compared to their male peers.[42] As the ratio of men to women increases in the upper levels of management,[43] women's access to female mentors who could advise them on ways to navigate office politics is limited, further inhibiting upward mobility within a corporation or firm.[44] Furthermore, the frozen middle affects female professionals in western and eastern countries such as the United States and Malaysia, respectively,[45] as well as women in a variety of fields ranging from the aforementioned corporations to STEM fields.[46]

Glass Ceiling Index[edit] In 2017, the Economist updated their glass-ceiling index. It combines data on higher education, labour-force participation, pay, child-care costs, maternity and paternity rights, business-school applications and representation in senior jobs.[47] The countries where inequality was the lowest were, in order of most equality, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Poland.

Second shift[edit] The second shift focuses on the idea that women theoretically work a second shift in the manner of having a greater workload, not just doing a greater share of domestic work. All of the task that are engaged in outside the workplace are mainly tied to motherhood. Depending on location, household income, educational attainment, ethnicity and location. Data shows that women do work a second shift in the sense of having a greater workload, not just doing a greater share of domestic work, but this is not apparent if simultaneous activity is overlooked.[48] Alva Myrdal and Viola Klein as early as 1956 focused on the potential of both men and women working in settings that included paid and unpaid types of work environments. Research indicated that men and women could have equal time for activities outside the work environment for family and extra activities.[49] This "second shift" has also been found to have physical effects as well, especially for women. Women whom engage in longer hours in pursuit of family balance, often suffer more mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and other problems. Irritability, low motivation and energy, and other emotional issues have been found as well. The overall happiness of women can be improved if the balance of career and home responsibilities are met.[50]

Mommy Track[edit] "Mommy Track" is a term used to describe women who simply disregard their career and professional duties in order to satisfy the needs of their families. Women are often subject to long work hours that creates an imbalance within the work-family schedule.[51] There is research suggesting that women were able to function on a part-time professional schedule compared to others who worked full-time while still engaged in external family activities. The research also suggests, flexible work arrangements allow for the achievement of a healthy work and family balance. A difference has also been discovered in the cost and amount of effort in childbearing amongst women in higher skilled positions and roles, as opposed to women in lower-skilled jobs. This difference leads to women delaying and postponing goals and career aspirations over a number of years. A large number of women across the country who have vocational/professional certifications and degrees have been found to be not a part of the working force at the estimated rate more than twice times as male counterparts. Also, the Deloitte Touche, a professional hiring service firm, confirmed that they had recorded dropout rates in each entering class of hires and reported that indeed women's rates were very high compared to males due to mother- and family-related responsibilities.[52] Maternal brain is a term that is also associated with the glass ceiling. Maternal brain is a hormonal and brain change that occurs during pregnancy.[53]

Concrete floor[edit] The term concrete floor has been used to refer to the minimum number or the proportion of women necessary for a cabinet or board of directors to be perceived as legitimate.[54]

See also[edit] Celluloid ceiling Equal Pay Day Equal pay for women Female labor force in the Muslim world Feminization of poverty Gender equality Gender inequality Gender pay gap Gender role Glass cliff Material feminism Mommy track Sex differences in humans Sexism Stained-glass ceiling Superwoman (sociology) Time bind Work–life balance

References[edit] ^ a b c d e Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Solid Investments: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, November 1995, p. 13-15. ^ a b c Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Good for Business: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, March 1995. ^ Wiley, John (2012). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies. Vol. 5. John Wiley and Sons.  ^, The Washington Times. "Hillary Clinton: 'As a white person,' I have to discuss racism 'every chance I get'".  ^ “Demarginalising the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Anti-discrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Anti-racist Politics” by Kimberlé Crenshaw in Framing Intersectionality, edited by Helma Lutz et al. (Ashgate, 2011). ^ Hyun, Jane (2005). Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: Career Strategies for Asians. New York: HarperBusiness.  ^ "Top 10 Numbers that Show Why Pay Equity Matters to Asian American Women and Their Families". name. Retrieved 2016-05-03.  ^ Smith, Paul; Caputi, Peter (2012). "A Maze of Metaphors". Faculty of Health and Behavioral Sciences. 27: 436–448. doi:10.1108/17542411211273432 – via University of Wollongong Research Online.  ^ "The Environmental Scan: A Fact-Finding Report of the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission Washington, D.C." name. Retrieved 2016-09-01.  ^ Cotter, David A.; Hermsen, Joan M.; Ovadia, Seth; Vanneman, Reece (2001). "The glass ceiling effect" (PDF). Social Forces. 80 (2): 655–81. doi:10.1353/sof.2001.0091.  ^ *Davies-Netzley, Sally A. (1998). Women above the Glass Ceiling: Perceptions on Corporate Mobility and Strategies for Success Gender and Society, Vol. 12, No. 3, p. 340, doi:10.1177/0891243298012003006. JSTOR 190289. ^ Hesse-Biber and Carter 2005, p. 77. ^ Nevill, Ginny, Alice Pennicott, Joanna Williams, and Ann Worrall. Women in the Workforce: The Effect of Demographic Changes in the 1990s. London: The Industrial Society, 1990, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-85290-655-2. ^ US Department of Labor. "Good for Business: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital". Office of the Secretary. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ BusinessNews Publishing (2013). Summary: Full Frontal PR: Review and Analysis of Laermer and Prichinello's Book. Primento. p. 6.  ^ Marilyn Loden On Feminine Leadership. Pelican Bay Post. May 2011.  ^ "100 Women: 'Why I invented the glass ceiling phrase'". BBC News. 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ Frenkiel, Nora (March 1984). "The Up-and-Comers; Bryant Takes Aim At the Settlers-In". Adweek. Magazine World. Special Report.  ^ a b c Catherwood Library reference librarians (January 2005). "Question of the Month: Where did the term 'glass ceiling' originate?". Cornell University, ILR School. Retrieved June 30, 2013.  ^ a b Bollinger, Lee; O'Neill, Carole (2008). Women in Media Careers: Success Despite the Odds. University Press of America. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-0-7618-4133-3.  ^ a b Wilson, Eleanor (September 4, 2014). "Diversity, Culture and the Glass Ceiling". Journal of Cultural Diversity.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ a b Redwood, Rene A. (October 13, 1995). "Breaking The Glass Ceiling: Good for Business, Good for America". National Council of Jewish Women.  ^ Johns, Merida L. (January 1, 2013). "Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions". Perspectives in Health Information Management.  ^ Morrison, Ann; White, Randall P.; Velsor, Ellen Van (1982). Breaking The Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach The Top Of America's Largest Corporations? Updated Edition. Beverly, MA: Personnel Decisions, Inc. pp. xii.  ^ jcombopiano (2012-11-27). "Fortune 500 CEO Positions Held By Women". Catalyst. Retrieved 2016-05-03.  ^ acostigan (2012-10-17). "Statistical Overview of Women in the Workforce". Catalyst. Retrieved 2016-05-03.  ^ OECD. OECD Employment Outlook – 2008 Edition Summary in English. OECD, Paris, 2008, p. 3-4. ^ OECD. OECD Employment Outlook. Chapter 3: The Price of Prejudice: Labour Market Discrimination on the Grounds of Gender and Ethnicity. OECD, Paris, 2008. ^ European Commission. The situation in the EU. Retrieved on July 12, 2011. ^ National Partnership for Women and Families, comp. (April 2017). "America's Women and The Wage Gap" (PDF). Trade, Jobs and Wages. Retrieved 6 June 2017.  ^ Misra, Joya, and Eiko Strader. "Gender Pay Equity in Advanced Countries: The Role of Parenthood and Policies." Journal of International Affairs 67.1 (2013): 27. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Oct. 2016. ^ Zamfirache, Irina (2010). "Women and politics – the glass ceiling". Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology.  ^ "A New Obstacle For Professional Women: The Glass Escalator". Forbes. Retrieved 2015-10-23.  ^ "MEN, WOMEN, & THE GLASS ESCALATOR". Women on Business. Retrieved 2015-10-23.  ^ a b Snyder, Karrie Ann; Green, Adam Isaiah (1 May 2008). "Revisiting the Glass Escalator: The Case of Gender Segregation in a Female Dominated Occupation". Social Problems. 55 (2): 271–299. doi:10.1525/sp.2008.55.2.271 – via  ^ Booth, A. L., Francesconi, M., Frank, J. (2003) A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender, European Economic Review, 47, 295-322 doi:10.1016/S0014-2921(01)00197-0. ^ Baert, S., De Pauw, A.-S., Deschacht, N. (2016) Do Employer Preferences Contribute to Sticky Floors? ILR Review, doi:10.1177/0019793915625213 ^ Martell, Richard F., et al. "Sex Stereotyping In The Executive Suite: `Much Ado About Something'." Journal of Social Behavior & Personality (1998) 127-138. Web. ^ Byrnes, Jonathan. "Middle Management Excellence." Harvard Business Review 5 Dec. 2005 pag. print ^ Lyness, Karen S., and Donna E. Thompson. "Climbing The Corporate Ladder: Do Female And Male Executives Follow The Same Route?." Journal of Applied Psychology (2000) 86-101. Web. ^ Wentling, Rose Mary. "Women In Middle Management: Their Career Development And Aspirations." Business Horizon (1992) 47. Web. ^ Wentling, Rose Mary. "Women In Middle Management: Their Career Development And Aspirations." Business Horizon, p. 252 (1992) 47. Web. ^ Helfat, Constance E., Dawn Harris, and Paul J. Wolfson. "The Pipeline To The Top: Women And Men In The Top Executive Ranks Of U.S. Corporations." Academy Of Management Perspectives (2006) 42-64. Web. ^ Dezso, Cristian L., David Gaddis Ross, and Jose Uribe. "Is There An Implicit Quota On Women In Top Management? A Large-Sample Statistical Analysis." Strategic Management Journal (2016) 98-115. Web. ^ Mandy Mok Kim, Man, Miha Skerlavaj, and Vlado Dimovski. "Is There A 'Glass Ceiling' For Mid-Level Female Managers?." International Journal of Management & Innovation (2009) 1-13. Web. ^ Cundiff, Jessica, and Theresa Vescio. "Gender Stereotypes Influence How People Explain Gender Disparities In The Workplace." Sex Roles (2016): 126-138. Web. ^ "Daily chart: The best and worst places to be a working woman". The Economist.  ^ Craig, Lyn (2007). "is herre really a second shift, and if so, who does it? a time-diary investigation". Feminist Review. 86: 149–170. doi:10.1057/ JSTOR 30140855.  ^ Myrdal, Alva; Klein, Viola (1957). "Women's Two Roles: Home and Work". American Sociological Review. 20 (2).  ^ Ahmad, Muhammad (2011). "Working women work-life conflict". Business Strategy Series. 12.  ^ Hill, E. Jeffery; Martinson, Vjkollca K.; Baker, Robin Zenger; Ferris, Maria (2004). "Beyond The Mommy Track: The Influence of New Concept Part-Time Work for Professional Women on Work and Family". Journal of Family and economic Issues. 25 – via Google Scholar.  ^ Stone, Pamela; Lovejoyy, Meg (2004). "Fast-Track Women & The Choice To Stay Home". The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 596 (62).  ^ Schulpen, Tom W.J. (September 2017). "The glass ceiling: A biological phenomenon". Medical Hypotheses. 106: 41–43. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2017.07.002.  ^ "There are three rules of Cabinet appointments". Wall Street Journal. November 25, 2016. 

Bibliography[edit] Cholensky, Stephanie. "The Gender Pay Gap: NO MORE EXCUSES!." Judgment & Decision Making 10.2 (2015): 15-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. Federal Glass Ceiling Commission (March 1995a). Good for business: Making full use of the nation's human capital (pdf) (Report). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor.  Fox, Mary; Hesse-Biber, Sharlene N. (1984). Women at work. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87484-525-9.  Giele, Janet Z.; Stebbins, Leslie F (2003). Women and equality in the workplace a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-937-9.  Hesse-Biber, Sharlene N.; Carter, Gregg L. (2005). Working women in America : split dreams. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515047-6.  Lyness, Karen S.; Thompson, Donna E. (June 1997). "Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives". Journal of Applied Psychology. American Psychological Association. 82 (3): 359–375. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.3.359.  National Partnership for Women and Families, comp. (April 2016). "America's Women and The Wage Gap" (PDF). Trade, Jobs and Wages. Retrieved 2 May 2016. Ponnuswamy, Indra; Manohar, Hansa Lysander (September 2014). "Breaking the glass ceiling – a mixed methods study using Watkins and Marsick's learning organisation culture model". Asian Women. Research Institute of Asian Women (RIAW). 30 (3): 85–111. doi:10.14431/aw.2014.  Redwood, Rene A. (October 13, 1995). "Breaking The Glass Ceiling: Good for Business, Good for America". National Council of Jewish Women. Schneps, Leila; Colmez, Coralie (2013), "Math error number 6: Simpson's paradox. The Berkeley sex bias case: discrimination detection", in Schneps, Leila; Colmez, Coralie, Math on trial: how numbers get used and abused in the courtroom, New York: Basic Books, pp. 107–120, ISBN 978-0-465-03292-1  Snyder, Karrie Ann, and Adam Isaiah Green. "Revisiting The Glass Escalator: The Case Of Gender Segregation In A Female Dominated Occupation." Social Problems 55.2 (2008): 271-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. Woodhams, Carol, Ben Lupton, and Marc Cowling. "The Presence Of Ethnic Minority And Disabled Men In Feminised Work: Intersectionality, Vertical Segregation And The Glass Escalator." Sex Roles 72.7/8 (2015): 277-293. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. Malpas, J., "Donald Davidson", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), <>. Web 2 May 2016. International Labor Rights Forum. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from’s-rights Hyun, Jane. Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: Career Strategies for Asians. New York: HarperBusiness, 2005. Print. Wiley, John. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies. Vol. 5. Chicester: John Wiley and Sons, 2012. Print. "Top 10 Numbers that Show Why Pay Equity Matters to Asian American Women and Their Families". Retrieved 2016-05-01

External links[edit] Catalyst research report (1996). Women in Corporate Leadership: Progr (2003). Women and Men in U.S. Corporate Leadership: Same Workplace, Different Realities? Catalyst. Women and Men in U.S. Corporate Leadership: Same Workplace, Different Realities? New York, N.Y.: Catalyst, 2004, ISBN 978-0-89584-247-3. Catalyst. 2010 Catalyst Census: Financial Post 500 Women Senior Officers and Top Earners. Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Good for Business: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, March 1995. Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Solid Investments: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, November 1995. Carvajal, Doreen. The Codes That Need to Be Broken. The New York Times, January 26, 2011. Cotter, David A.; Hermsen, Joan M.; Ovadia, Seth; Vanneman, Reece (2001). "The glass ceiling effect" (PDF). Social Forces. 80 (2): 655–81. doi:10.1353/sof.2001.0091.  Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka v t e Discrimination General forms Age Caste Class Color Disability Gender Genotype Hair Height Language Looks Mental condition Race / Ethnicity / Nationality Rank Religion Sex Sexuality Size Species Social AIDS stigma Adultism Anti-albinism Anti-autism Anti-homelessness Anti-intellectualism Anti-intersex Anti-left handedness Anti-Masonry Antisemitism Audism Binarism Biphobia Cronyism Drug use Elitism Ephebiphobia Ethnopluralism Fatism Genderism Gerontophobia Heteronormativity Heterosexism Homophobia Islamophobia Leprosy stigma Lesbophobia Mentalism Misandry Misogyny Nepotism Pedophobia Pregnancy Reverse Sectarianism Shadism Supremacism Arab Black White Transmisogyny Transphobia Vegaphobia Xenophobia Manifestations Animal cruelty Animal testing Blood libel Blood sport Carnism Compulsory sterilization Counter-jihad Cultural genocide Democide Disability hate crime Educational Economic Eliminationism Employment Enemy of the people Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnocide Forced conversion Freak show Gay bashing Gendercide Genital mutilation Genocide examples Glass ceiling Group libel Hate crime Hate group Hate speech Homeless dumping Housing Indian rolling LGBT hate crime Lavender scare Lynching Meat eating Mortgage Murder music Occupational segregation Persecution Pogrom Purge Race war Red Scare Religious persecution Scapegoating Segregation academy Sex-selective abortion Slavery Slut-shaming Trans bashing Victimisation Violence against women White flight White power music Wife selling Witch-hunt Discriminatory policies Segregation age racial religious sex Age of candidacy Blood quantum Cleanliness of blood Crime of apartheid Disabilities Jewish Catholic Ethnocracy Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Jim Crow laws Law for Protection of the Nation McCarthyism MSM blood donor controversy Nonpersons Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota) Nuremberg Laws One-drop rule Racial quota Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting) Sodomy law Ugly law Voter suppression Countermeasures Affirmative action Animal rights Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Desegregation Diversity training Empowerment Feminism Fighting Discrimination Human rights Intersex rights Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Self-determination Social integration Toleration Vegetarianism Veganism Related topics Allophilia Anthropocentrism Anti-cultural sentiment Assimilation Bias Christian privilege Data discrimination Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Multiculturalism Neurodiversity Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Power distance Prejudice Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Regressive left Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social stigma Stereotype threat White privilege Category Portal v t e Employment Classifications Casual Contingent Full-time Part-time Self-employed Skilled Independent contractor Temporary Tenure Unskilled Wage labour Hiring Application Background check Business networking Contract Cover letter Curriculum Vitae (CV) Drug testing e-recruitment Employment counsellor Executive search Induction programme Job fair Job fraud Job hunting Job interview Labour brokering Overqualification Onboarding Personality-job fit theory Person-environment fit Probation Reference Résumé Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates Underemployment Work-at-home scheme Roles Co-op Employee Employer Internship Job Permanent Permatemp Supervisor Volunteer Worker class Blue-collar Gold-collar Green-collar Grey-collar Pink-collar White-collar Career and training Apprenticeship Avocation Career assessment Career counseling Career development Coaching Creative class Education Continuing education Continuing professional development E-learning Employability Further education Graduate school Induction training Initial Professional Development Knowledge worker Licensure Lifelong learning Practice-based professional learning Professional association Professional certification Professional development Professional school Reflective practice Retraining Vocational education Vocational school Vocational university Mentorship Occupational Outlook Handbook Practice firm Profession Tradesman Vocation Attendance Break Career break Furlough Gap year Leave of absence Long service leave No call, no show Sabbatical Sick leave Time clock Schedules Four-day week Eight-hour day Flextime Overtime Retroactive overtime Shift work Telecommuting Working time Workweek and weekend Wages and salaries Income bracket Income tax Living wage Maximum wage National average salary World Europe Minimum wage Canada Hong Kong Europe United States Progressive wage Singapore Overtime rate Paid time off Performance-related pay Salary Salary cap Working poor Benefits Annual leave Casual Friday Day care Disability insurance Health insurance Life insurance Parental leave Pension Sick leave Take-home vehicle Safety and health Epilepsy and employment Human factors and ergonomics Industrial noise Karōshi Protective clothing Occupational burnout Occupational disease Occupational exposure limit Occupational health psychology Occupational injury Occupational stress Repetitive strain injury Sick building syndrome Work accident Occupational fatality Workers' compensation Workplace phobia Workplace wellness Equality Affirmative action Equal pay for women Gender pay gap Glass ceiling Infractions Corporate abuse Accounting scandals Corporate behaviour Corporate crime Control fraud Corporate scandals Discrimination Dress code Employee handbook Employee monitoring Evaluation Labour law Sexual harassment Sleeping while on duty Wage theft Whistleblower Workplace bullying Workplace harassment Workplace incivility Willingness Boreout Civil conscription Conscription Dead-end job Extreme careerism Job satisfaction Organizational commitment McJob Refusal of work Slavery Bonded labour Human trafficking Labour camp Penal labour Peonage Truck system Unfree labour Wage slavery Workaholic Work aversion Work ethic Work–life balance Downshifting (lifestyle) Slow living Termination At-will employment Dismissal Banishment room Constructive dismissal Wrongful dismissal Employee exit management Exit interview Layoff Notice period Pink slip Resignation Letter of resignation Restructuring Retirement Mandatory retirement Retirement age Severance package Golden handshake Golden parachute Turnover Unemployment Barriers to Employment Depression Great Depression Long Depression Discouraged worker Frictional unemployment Full employment Graduate unemployment Involuntary unemployment Jobless recovery Phillips curve Recession Great Recession Great Recession job losses List of recessions Recession-proof job Reserve army of labour Types of unemployment Unemployment Convention Unemployment benefits Unemployment extension Unemployment insurance Unemployment rates Employment rates Employment-to-population ratio Structural unemployment Technological unemployment Wage curve Youth unemployment See also templates Aspects of corporations Aspects of jobs Aspects of occupations Aspects of organizations Aspects of workplaces Corporate titles Organized labor Anthropology portal Sociology portal Authority control LCCN: sh2006004750 SUDOC: 154842044 BNF: cb16533347p (data) BNE: XX4742470 Retrieved from "" Categories: RacismFeminist economicsFeminist terminologySexismEmployment discriminationWords coined in the 1970sWomen-related neologismsHidden categories: Pages using citations with accessdate and no URLArticles to be merged from June 2017All articles to be mergedAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2016All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2017Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016Pages using div col with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages БългарскиCatalàDeutschEspañolFrançais한국어Bahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתMagyarNederlands日本語PolskiРусскийSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиУкраїнська中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 17 February 2018, at 11:53. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.896","walltime":"1.057","ppvisitednodes":{"value":4105,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":156345,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":6346,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":5,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 883.233 1 -total"," 44.31% 391.356 1 Template:Reflist"," 15.31% 135.262 8 Template:Fix"," 13.09% 115.606 18 Template:Cite_journal"," 12.94% 114.311 6 Template:Citation_needed"," 12.70% 112.187 9 Template:Cite_book"," 9.62% 84.926 8 Template:Delink"," 8.08% 71.369 11 Template:Cite_web"," 7.78% 68.699 1 Template:Merge_from"," 5.20% 45.958 1 Template:Mbox"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.462","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":5885255,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1247","timestamp":"20180219030151","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":1190,"wgHostname":"mw1247"});});

Glass_ceiling - Photos and All Basic Informations

Glass_ceiling More Links

Gender Pay GapThe Glass EscalatorWikipedia:MergingTalk:Glass CeilingEnlargeFeminismUnited StatesRacial Inequality In The United StatesIntersectionalityBamboo CeilingWikipedia:Citation NeededHewlett-PackardFamily CircleAdweekWall Street JournalUnited States Department Of LaborLynn Morley MartinFortune 500S&P 500 IndexGender Pay GapGender Pay Gap In The United StatesOECDLabour EconomicsEuropean CommissionMember State Of The European UnionWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Words To WatchWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Words To WatchWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededThe Glass EscalatorWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededSocial ProblemsAlva MyrdalViola KleinCelluloid CeilingEqual Pay DayEqual Pay For WomenFemale Labor Force In The Muslim WorldFeminization Of PovertyGender EqualityGender InequalityGender Pay GapGender RoleGlass CliffMaterial FeminismMommy TrackSex Differences In HumansSexismStained-glass CeilingSuperwoman (sociology)Time BindWork–life BalanceDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-85290-655-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7618-4133-3Help:CS1 ErrorsOECDOECDEuropean CommissionDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierThe EconomistDigital Object IdentifierJSTORDigital Object IdentifierWall Street JournalUnited States Department Of LaborInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-87484-525-9Janet Zollinger GieleInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-57607-937-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-515047-6Journal Of Applied PsychologyAmerican Psychological AssociationDigital Object IdentifierAsian Women (journal)Digital Object IdentifierLeila SchnepsCoralie ColmezLeila SchnepsCoralie ColmezInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-465-03292-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-89584-247-3Digital Object IdentifierTemplate:DiscriminationTemplate Talk:DiscriminationDiscriminationAgeismCasteClass DiscriminationDiscrimination Based On Skin ColorAbleismDiscrimination Against Non-binary Gender PersonsGenetic DiscriminationDiscrimination Based On Hair TextureHeight DiscriminationLinguistic DiscriminationLookismMentalism (discrimination)RacismRankismReligious DiscriminationSexismSexualismSizeismSpeciesismDiscrimination Against People With HIV/AIDSAdultismPersecution Of People With AlbinismPersecution Of People With AutismDiscrimination Against The HomelessAnti-intellectualismDiscrimination Against Intersex PeopleBias Against Left-handed PeopleAnti-MasonryAntisemitismAudismDiscrimination Against Non-binary Gender PersonsBiphobiaCronyismDiscrimination Against Drug AddictsElitismEphebiphobiaEthnopluralismAnti-fat BiasGenderismGerontophobiaHeteronormativityHeterosexismHomophobiaIslamophobiaLeprosy StigmaLesbophobiaMentalism (discrimination)MisandryMisogynyNepotismFear Of ChildrenPregnancy DiscriminationReverse DiscriminationSectDiscrimination Based On Skin ColorSupremacismRacism In The Arab WorldBlack SupremacyWhite SupremacyTransmisogynyTransphobiaVegaphobiaXenophobiaAnimal CrueltyAnimal TestingBlood LibelBlood SportCarnismCompulsory SterilizationCounter-jihadCultural GenocideDemocideDisability Hate CrimeDiscrimination In EducationEconomic DiscriminationEliminationismEmployment DiscriminationEnemy Of The PeopleEthnic CleansingEthnic HatredEthnic JokeEthnocideForced ConversionFreak ShowGay BashingGendercideGenital Modification And MutilationGenocideGenocides In HistoryDefamationHate CrimeHate GroupHate SpeechHomeless DumpingHousing DiscriminationIndian RollingViolence Against LGBT PeopleLavender ScareLynchingEthics Of Eating MeatMortgage DiscriminationStop Murder MusicOccupational SegregationPersecutionPogromPurgeEthnic ConflictRed ScareReligious PersecutionScapegoatingSegregation AcademySex-selective AbortionSlaverySlut-shamingTrans BashingVictimisationViolence Against WomenWhite FlightWhite Power MusicWife SellingWitch-huntGeographical SegregationAge SegregationRacial SegregationReligious SegregationSex SegregationAge Of CandidacyBlood Quantum LawsLimpieza De SangreCrime Of ApartheidDisabilityDisabilities (Jewish)Disabilities (Catholics)EthnocracyGender Pay GapGender RoleGerontocracyGerrymanderingGhetto BenchesInternmentJewish QuotaJim Crow LawsLaw For Protection Of The NationMcCarthyismMen Who Have Sex With Men Blood Donor ControversyNonpersonNumerus ClaususNuremberg LawsOne-drop RuleRacial QuotaRacial SteeringRedliningSame-sex MarriageSodomy LawUgly LawVoter SuppressionAffirmative ActionAnimal RightsAnti-discrimination LawCultural AssimilationCultural PluralismDesegregationDiversity TrainingEmpowermentFeminismFighting DiscriminationHuman RightsIntersex Human RightsMulticulturalismNonviolenceRacial IntegrationSelf-determinationSocial IntegrationTolerationVegetarianismVeganismAllophiliaAnthropocentrismList Of Anti-cultural, Anti-national, And Anti-ethnic TermsCultural AssimilationBiasChristian PrivilegeData DiscriminationDehumanizationDiversity (politics)Ethnic PenaltyEugenicsIntersectionalityMale PrivilegeMasculismMulticulturalismNeurodiversityOppressionPolice BrutalityPolitical CorrectnessPower DistancePrejudiceRacial Bias In Criminal News In The United StatesRacism By CountryRegressive LeftReligious IntoleranceSecond-generation Gender BiasSnobSocial ExclusionSocial StigmaStereotypeStereotype ThreatWhite PrivilegeCategory:DiscriminationPortal:DiscriminationTemplate:EmploymentTemplate Talk:EmploymentEmploymentCasual Employment (contract)Contingent WorkFull-timePart-time ContractSelf-employmentSkilled WorkerIndependent ContractorTemporary WorkTenureLaborerWage LabourRecruitmentApplication For EmploymentBackground CheckBusiness NetworkingEmployment ContractCover LetterCurriculum VitaeDrug TestE-recruitmentEmployment CounsellorExecutive SearchInduction ProgrammeJob FairJob FraudJob HuntingJob InterviewLabour BrokeringOverqualificationOnboardingPersonality-job Fit TheoryPerson-environment FitProbation (workplace)Recommendation LetterRésuméSimultaneous Recruiting Of New GraduatesUnderemploymentWork-at-home SchemeCooperativeEmployeeEmployerInternshipJob (role)Permanent EmploymentPermatempSupervisorVolunteeringSocial ClassBlue-collar WorkerGold-collar WorkerGreen-collar WorkerGrey-collarPink-collar WorkerWhite-collar WorkerCareerTrainingApprenticeshipAvocationCareer AssessmentCareer CounselingCareer DevelopmentCoachingCreative ClassEducationContinuing EducationContinuing Professional DevelopmentE-learningEmployabilityFurther EducationGraduate SchoolInduction TrainingInitial Professional DevelopmentKnowledge WorkerLicensureLifelong LearningPractice-based Professional LearningProfessional AssociationProfessional CertificationProfessional DevelopmentProfessional SchoolReflective PracticeRetrainingVocational EducationVocational SchoolVocational UniversityMentorshipOccupational Outlook HandbookPractice FirmProfessionTradesmanVocationBreak (work)Career BreakFurloughGap YearLeave Of AbsenceLong Service LeaveNo Call, No ShowSabbaticalSick LeaveTime ClockSchedule (workplace)Four-day WeekEight-hour DayFlextimeOvertimeRetroactive OvertimeShift WorkTelecommutingWorking TimeWorkweek And WeekendWageIncome BracketIncome TaxLiving WageMaximum WageNational Average SalaryList Of Countries By Average WageList Of Countries In Europe By Monthly Average WageMinimum WageList Of Minimum Wages In CanadaMinimum Wage OrdinanceList Of Sovereign States In Europe By Minimum WageList Of U.S. Minimum WagesProgressive WageProgressive WageOvertime RatePaid Time OffPerformance-related PaySalarySalary CapWorking PoorEmployee BenefitsAnnual LeaveCasual FridayDay CareDisability InsuranceHealth InsuranceLife InsuranceParental LeavePensionSick LeaveTake-home VehicleOccupational Safety And HealthEpilepsy And EmploymentHuman Factors And ErgonomicsIndustrial NoiseKarōshiProtective ClothingOccupational BurnoutOccupational DiseaseOccupational Exposure LimitOccupational Health PsychologyOccupational InjuryOccupational StressRepetitive Strain InjurySick Building SyndromeWork AccidentOccupational FatalityWorkers' CompensationWorkplace PhobiaWorkplace WellnessEqual OpportunityAffirmative ActionEqual Pay For WomenGender Pay GapCorporate AbuseAccounting ScandalsCorporate BehaviourCorporate CrimeControl FraudList Of Corporate ScandalsEmployment DiscriminationDress CodeEmployee HandbookEmployee MonitoringEvaluation (workplace)Labour LawSexual HarassmentSleeping While On DutyWage TheftWhistleblowerWorkplace BullyingWorkplace HarassmentWorkplace IncivilityBoreoutCivil ConscriptionConscriptionDead-end JobExtreme CareerismJob SatisfactionOrganizational CommitmentMcJobRefusal Of WorkSlaveryDebt BondageHuman TraffickingLabor CampPenal LabourPeonTruck SystemUnfree LabourWage SlaveryWorkaholicWork AversionWork EthicWork–life BalanceDownshifting (lifestyle)Slow LivingTermination Of EmploymentAt-will EmploymentDismissal (employment)Banishment RoomConstructive DismissalWrongful DismissalEmployee Exit ManagementExit InterviewLayoffNotice PeriodPink Slip (employment)ResignationLetter Of ResignationRestructuringRetirementMandatory RetirementRetirement AgeSeverance PackageGolden HandshakeGolden ParachuteTurnover (employment)UnemploymentBarriers To EntryDepression (economics)Great DepressionLong DepressionDiscouraged WorkerFrictional UnemploymentFull EmploymentGraduate UnemploymentInvoluntary UnemploymentJobless RecoveryPhillips CurveRecessionGreat RecessionJob Losses Caused By The Great RecessionList Of RecessionsRecession-proof JobReserve Army Of LabourTypes Of UnemploymentUnemployment ConventionUnemployment BenefitsUnemployment ExtensionUnemployment InsuranceList Of Countries By Unemployment RateList Of Countries By Employment RateEmployment-to-population RatioStructural UnemploymentTechnological UnemploymentWage CurveYouth UnemploymentTemplate:Aspects Of CorporationsTemplate:Aspects Of JobsTemplate:Aspects Of OccupationsTemplate:Aspects Of OrganizationsTemplate:Aspects Of WorkplacesTemplate:Corporate TitlesTemplate:Organized Labor NavboxPortal:AnthropologyPortal:SociologyHelp:Authority ControlLibrary Of Congress Control NumberSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceBiblioteca Nacional De EspañaHelp:CategoryCategory:RacismCategory:Feminist EconomicsCategory:Feminist TerminologyCategory:SexismCategory:Employment DiscriminationCategory:Words Coined In The 1970sCategory:Women-related NeologismsCategory:Pages Using Citations With Accessdate And No URLCategory:Articles To Be Merged From June 2017Category:All Articles To Be MergedCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From June 2016Category:All Articles With Specifically Marked Weasel-worded PhrasesCategory:Articles With Specifically Marked Weasel-worded Phrases From June 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From June 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From November 2016Category:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link