Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany and European Union 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 3.3 Urbanisation 4 Politics 4.1 Law 4.2 Constituent states 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 5 Economy 5.1 Companies 5.2 Transport 5.3 Energy and infrastructure 5.4 Science and technology 5.5 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Immigrant population 6.2 Religion 6.3 Languages 6.4 Education 6.5 Health 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Art 7.3 Architecture 7.4 Literature and philosophy 7.5 Media 7.6 Cinema 7.7 Cuisine 7.8 Sports 7.9 Fashion and design 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links


Etymology Further information: Names of Germany The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[12] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch (cf. dutch), descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.e. belonging to the diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word "Teutons" also originates.[13]


History Main article: History of Germany The Nebra sky disk, c. 1700 BC The discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago.[14] The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen where three 380,000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed.[15] The Neander Valley was the location where the first ever non-modern human fossil was discovered; the new species of human was called the Neanderthal. The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm. The finds include 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,[16] the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man which is the oldest uncontested figurative art ever discovered,[17] and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels which is the oldest uncontested human figurative art ever discovered.[18] The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artifact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt. It is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme.[19] Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm Migrations in Europe (100–500 AD) The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well as Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes in Central and Eastern Europe.[20] Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania (an area extending roughly from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains). In 9 AD, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius. By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. However, Austria, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hessen and the western Rhineland had been conquered and incorporated into Roman provinces: Noricum, Raetia, Germania Superior, and Germania Inferior.[21][22][23][24] Frankish Realm and its expansion. As it was partitioned in 843, West Francia (blue) and East Francia (red) became predecessors of France and Germany, respectively In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes emerged: Alemanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisii, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.[25] After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest. Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany and displaced or absorbed smaller Germanic tribes. Large areas known since the Merovingian period as Austrasia, Neustria, and Aquitaine were conquered by the Franks who established the Frankish Kingdom, and pushed farther east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria. Areas of what is today the eastern part of Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes of Sorbs, Veleti and the Obotritic confederation.[21] East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Main articles: East Francia and Holy Roman Empire In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor and founded the Carolingian Empire, which was later divided in 843 among his heirs.[26] Following the break up of the Frankish Realm, for 900 years, the history of Germany was intertwined with the history of the Holy Roman Empire,[27] which subsequently emerged from the eastern portion of Charlemagne's original empire. The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps.[26] The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies and the German king Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor of these regions in 962. In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the reign of the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture Controversy.[28] Martin Luther (1483–1546) initiated the Protestant Reformation. In the 12th century, under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs; they encouraged German settlement in these areas, called the eastern settlement movement (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, which included mostly north German cities and towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.[29] In the south, the Greater Ravensburg Trade Corporation (Große Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft) served a similar function. The edict of the Golden Bull issued in 1356 by Emperor Charles IV provided the basic constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.[30] Population declined in the first half of the 14th century, starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50.[31] Despite the decline, however, German artists, engineers, and scientists developed a wide array of techniques similar to those used by the Italian artists and designers of the time who flourished in such merchant city-states as Venice, Florence and Genoa. Artistic and cultural centres throughout the German states produced such artists as the Augsburg painters Hans Holbein and his son, and Albrecht Dürer. Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, a development that laid the basis for the spread of learning to the masses.[32] The Holy Roman Empire in 1648, after the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War In 1517, the Wittenberg monk Martin Luther publicised The Ninety-Five Theses, challenging the Roman Catholic Church and initiating the Protestant Reformation. In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg established Lutheranism as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio. The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creed: for example, the Reformed faith was still considered a heresy and the principle did not address the possible conversion of an ecclesiastic ruler, such as happened in Electorate of Cologne in 1583. From the Cologne War until the end of the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands.[33] The latter reduced the overall population of the German states by about 30 per cent, and in some places, up to 80 per cent.[34] The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the German states.[33] German rulers were able to choose either Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism or the Reformed faith as their official religion after 1648.[35] In the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of approximately 1,800 territories.[36] The elaborate legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1450–1555) created the Imperial Estates and provided for considerable local autonomy among ecclesiastical, secular, and hereditary states, reflected in Imperial Diet. The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction. This was finally settled through the War of Austrian Succession; in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled the Empire as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Holy Roman Emperor. From 1740, the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history. In 1772, then again in 1793 and 1795, the two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies. However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.[37][38] During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, along with the arrival of the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the secular Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; German states, particularly the Rhineland states, fell under the influence of France. Until 1815, France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.[39] German Confederation and Empire Main articles: German Confederation, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire A map showing the German Confederation (1815-1836) with its 39 member states. Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna (convened in 1814) founded the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich. The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states.[40] National and liberal ideals of the French Revolution gained increasing support among many, especially young, Germans. The Hambach Festival in May 1832 was a main event in support of German unity, freedom and democracy. In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe, which established a republic in France, intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.[41] Foundation of the German Empire in Versailles, 1871. Bismarck is at the centre in a white uniform. King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the new Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark in 1864, which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula. The subsequent (and decisive) Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) which excluded Austria from the federation's affairs. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871 at Versailles, uniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.[41] In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances, isolating France by diplomatic means, and avoiding war. Under Wilhelm II, Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries. Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary, promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support. Subsequently, the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy, completing a Central European geographic alliance that illustrated German, Austrian and Italian fears of incursions against them by France and/or Russia. Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.[42] The German Empire (1871–1918), with the Kingdom of Prussia in blue At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun.[43] Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include German New Guinea, German Micronesia and German Samoa in the Pacific, and Kiautschou Bay in China. In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between 1904 and 1907, the German colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia) ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples, as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule. In total, around 100,000 people—80% of the Herero and 50% of the Namaqua—perished from imprisonment in concentration camps, where the majority died of disease, abuse, and exhaustion, or from dehydration and starvation in the countryside after being deprived of food and water.[44][45] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for the Austrian Empire to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,[46] a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and all German ruling princes abdicated their positions and responsibilities. Germany's new political leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers, accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.[47][48][49] After the defeat in the First World War, Germany lost around 13% of its European territory (areas predominantly inhabited by ethnic Polish, French and Danish populations, which were lost following the Greater Poland Uprising, the return of Alsace-Lorraine and the Schleswig plebiscites), and all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.[50] Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Philipp Scheidemann proclaims the German Republic from the Reichskanzlei window, on 9 November 1918. Germany was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November 1918. On 11 August 1919 President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution.[51] In the subsequent struggle for power, the radical-left Communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements in other parts of Germany attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr (military) and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions. After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of 1922–23, a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life. Historians describe the period between 1924 and 1929 as one of "partial stabilisation."[52] The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. After the federal election of 1930, Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government was enabled by President Paul von Hindenburg to act without parliamentary approval. Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused high unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932.[53] The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of 1932. After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.[54] After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and within weeks the first Nazi concentration camp at Dachau opened.[55][56] The Enabling Act of 1933 gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power; subsequently, his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations following a national referendum, and began military rearmament.[57] Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany (1933–1945) Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects. In public work projects of 1934, 1.7 million Germans immediately were put to work, which gave them an income and social benefits.[58] The most famous of the projects was the high speed roadway, the Reichsautobahn, known as the German autobahns.[59] Other capital construction projects included hydroelectric facilities such as the Rur Dam, water supplies such as Zillierbach Dam, and transportation hubs such as Zwickau Hauptbahnhof.[60] Over the next five years, unemployment plummeted and average wages both per hour and per week rose.[61] In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities. Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in 1935,[62] remilitarized the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939. Kristallnacht, or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30,000 Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany. Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany.[63] In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated and signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence. Following the agreement, on 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, marking the beginning of World War II.[64][65] WWII, German-occupied Europe in 1942 In response to Hitler's actions, two days later, on 3 September, after a British ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations was ignored, Britain and France declared war on Germany.[66] In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France forcing the French government to sign an armistice after German troops occupied most of the country. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany and other Axis powers controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet Union's victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats.[64] In June 1944, the Western allies landed in France and the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe. By late 1944, the Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, German armed forces surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.[67] After World War II, former members of the Nazi regime were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.[68][69] In what later became known as The Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples. In total, over 10 million civilians were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, between 220,000 and 1,500,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of members of the political and religious opposition from Germany, and occupied countries (Nacht und Nebel).[70] Nazi policies in the German occupied countries resulted in the deaths of 2.7 million Poles,[71] 1.3 million Ukrainians,[72] and an estimated 2.8 million Soviet war prisoners.[72][68] In addition, the Nazi regime abducted approximately 12 million people from across the German occupied Europe for use as slave labour in the German industry.[73] German military war casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million,[74] and around 900,000 German civilians died; 400,000 from Allied bombing, and 500,000 in the course of the Soviet invasion from the east.[75] Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe. Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.[11] Strategic bombing and land warfare destroyed many cities and cultural heritage sites. East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany (1945–90) American, Soviet, British and French occupation zones in Germany, and the French controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. After Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four military occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik). They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasize its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.[76] West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry.[77] Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) of Germany in 1949 and remained in office until 1963. Under his and Ludwig Erhard's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early 1950s, that became known as an "economic miracle" (Wirtschaftswunder).[78] The Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957. The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background. East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service controlling many aspects of the society.[79] A Soviet-style command economy was set up and the GDR later became a Comecon state.[80] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged constant threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.[81] The Berlin Wall, rapidly built on 13 August 1961 prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, eventually becoming a symbol of the Cold War.[41][82] Ronald Reagan's "Mr. Gorbachov, Tear down this wall!" speech at the Wall on 12 June 1987 influenced public opinion, echoing John F. Kennedy's famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech of 26 June 1963. The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende.[83] Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the early 1970s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. In summer 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process. This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September 1990, under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender, and Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.[41] Reunified Germany and European Union Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990 German unity was established on 3 October 1990.[84] Since 1999, the Reichstag building in Berlin has been the meeting place of the Bundestag, the German parliament. The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state. As such, it retained all of West Germany's memberships in international organisations.[85] Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act, adopted in 1994, Berlin once again became the capital of the reunified Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.[86] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999.[87] Following the 1998 elections, SPD politician Gerhard Schröder became the first Chancellor of a red–green coalition with the Alliance '90/The Greens party. Among the major projects of the two Schröder legislatures was the Agenda 2010 to reform the labour market to become more flexible and reduce unemployment. The modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy is a long-term process scheduled to last until the year 2019, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion.[88] Germany became a co-founder of the European Union (1993), introduced the Euro currency (2002), and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007 (pictured). Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, established the Eurozone in 1999, and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.[89] Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent a force of German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[90] These deployments were controversial since Germany is bound by domestic law only to deploy troops for defence roles.[91] In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.[41] In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion economic stimulus plan to protect several sectors from a downturn.[92] In 2009, a liberal-conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In 2013, a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet. Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.[93] Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015 as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU. The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.[94]


Geography Main article: Geography of Germany Physical map of Germany Germany is in Western and Central Europe, with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 47° and 55° N and longitudes 5° and 16° E. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance, the third largest lake in Central Europe.[95] German territory covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 62nd largest in the world.[96] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 metres or 9,718 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Germany's alpine glaciers are experiencing deglaciation. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.[96] Climate Rhine valley in summer at Lorelei. Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Germany gets an average of 789 mm (31 in) of precipitation per year; there is no consistent dry season. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).[97] The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.[97] Biodiversity The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.[98] As of 2008[update] the majority of Germany is covered by either arable land (34%) or forest and woodland (30.1%); only 13.4% of the area consists of permanent pastures, 11.8% is covered by settlements and streets.[99] The golden eagle is the national bird of Germany Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.[100] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[101] The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park. In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.[102] The Berlin Zoo, opened in 1844, is the oldest zoo in Germany, and presents the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.[103] Urbanisation See also: List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. 34 cities have been identified as regiopolis. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11.7 million in 2008[update]), including Düsseldorf (the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia), Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, and Bochum.[104]   v t e Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany (31 December 2015) Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop. Berlin Hamburg 1 Berlin Berlin 3,710,156 11 Bremen Bremen (state) 557,464 Munich Cologne 2 Hamburg Hamburg 1,787,408 12 Dresden Saxony 543,825 3 Munich Bavaria 1,450,381 13 Hannover Lower Saxony 532,163 4 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia 1,060,582 14 Nuremberg Bavaria 509,975 5 Frankfurt Hesse 732,688 15 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia 491,231 6 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 623,738 16 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia 364,742 7 Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia 612,178 17 Wuppertal North Rhine-Westphalia 350,046 8 Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia 586,181 18 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 333,090 9 Essen North Rhine-Westphalia 582,624 19 Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 318,809 10 Leipzig Saxony 560,472 20 Münster North Rhine-Westphalia 310,039


Politics Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier President since 2017 Angela Merkel Chancellor since 2005 Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.[105] The president, Frank-Walter Steinmeier (19 March 2017–present), is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates. The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (President of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag.[41] The political system of Germany The chancellor, Angela Merkel (22 November 2005–present), is the head of government and exercises executive power, similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (mixed-member).[96] The members of the Bundesrat represent the governments of the sixteen federated states and are members of the state cabinets.[41] Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party (in parliament from 1949 to 2013) and the Alliance '90/The Greens (in parliament since 1983) have also played important roles.[106] Since 2005, the left-wing populist party The Left, formed through the merger of two former parties, has been a staple in the German Bundestag though they have never been part of the federal government. In the German federal election, 2017, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time. The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in 2010 when it stood at 80.3% and decreased since then.[107] According to Eurostat, the government gross debt of Germany amounts to €2,152.0 billion or 71.9% of its GDP in 2015.[108] The federal government achieved a budget surplus of €12.1 billion ($13.1 billion) in 2015.[109] Germany's credit rating by credit rating agencies Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch Ratings stands at the highest possible rating AAA with a stable outlook in 2016.[110] Law Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany Judges of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) in Karlsruhe in 1989 Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[41][111] Germany's supreme court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Bundes, is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court. Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.[112] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[113][114] Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states. Germany has a low murder rate with 0.9 murders per 100,000 in 2014.[115] Constituent states Main article: States of Germany Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.[116] Each state has its own state constitution[117] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: Berlin and Hamburg. The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Bremen and Bremerhaven. Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary. For regional administrative purposes five states, namely Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony, consist of a total of 22 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). As of 2017[update] Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.[118]  Lower Saxony  Bremen  Hamburg  Mecklenburg- Vorpommern  Saxony- Anhalt  Saxony  Brandenburg  Berlin  Thuringia  Hesse  North Rhine- Westphalia  Rhineland-Palatinate  Bavaria  Baden- Württemberg  Saarland  Schleswig-Holstein State Capital Area (km2) Population (2015)[119] Nominal GDP billions EUR (2015)[120] Nominal GDP per capita EUR (2015)[120] Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,752 10,879,618 461 42,800 Bavaria Munich 70,549 12,843,514 550 43,100 Berlin Berlin 892 3,520,031 125 35,700 Brandenburg Potsdam 29,477 2,484,826 66 26,500 Bremen Bremen 404 671,489 32 47,600 Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,787,408 110 61,800 Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,176,172 264 43,100 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,174 1,612,362 40 25,000 Lower Saxony Hanover 47,618 7,926,599 259 32,900 North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,043 17,865,516 646 36,500 Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,847 4,052,803 132 32,800 Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 995,597 35 35,400 Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,084,851 113 27,800 Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,445 2,245,470 57 25,200 Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,763 2,858,714 86 31,200 Thuringia Erfurt 16,172 2,170,714 57 26,400 Germany Berlin 357,376 82,175,684 3025 37,100 Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Germany hosted the G20 summit in Hamburg, 7–8 July 2017 Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad[121] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[122] As of 2011[update], Germany is the largest contributor to the budget of the European Union (providing 20%)[123] and the third largest contributor to the UN (providing 8%).[124] Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.[125][126] The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[127] It was the world's third biggest aid donor in 2009 after the United States and France.[128][129] In 1999, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since 1945.[130] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.[41] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.[131] Military Main article: Bundeswehr Play media The Eurofighter Typhoon is part of the Luftwaffe fleet Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.[132] In 2015, military spending was at €32.9 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.[133] As of 2017[update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly 178,000 service members, including about 9,000 volunteers.[134] Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.[135] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.[136] About 19,000 female soldiers are on active duty. According to SIPRI, Germany was the fifth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2012–2016.[137] A German Navy Brandenburg-class frigate (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[138] The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017[update], the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.[139] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst (civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross. In 2011 conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.[140][141]


Economy Main article: Economy of Germany A 2015 Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG. Germany maintains a large automotive industry, and is the world's third largest exporter of goods.[142] Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a low level of corruption,[143] and a high level of innovation.[144] It is the world's third largest exporter of goods,[142] and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP[145] and the fifth one by PPP.[146] The service sector contributes approximately 71% of the total GDP (including information technology), industry 28%, and agriculture 1%.[96] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 4.7% in January 2015, which is the lowest rate of all 28 EU member states.[147] With 7.1% Germany also has the lowest youth unemployment rate of all EU member states.[147] According to the OECD Germany has one of the highest labour productivity levels in the world.[148] Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and seat of the ECB. Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in 2002.[149][150] It is a member of the Eurozone which represents around 338 million citizens. Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt, the financial centre of continental Europe. Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[151] and is the fourth largest by production.[152] The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[153] Companies Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2014, the Fortune Global 500, 28 are headquartered in Germany. 30 Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index. Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, SAP, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bank and Bosch.[154] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model. Around 1,000 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.[155] Berlin developed a thriving, cosmopolitan hub for startup companies and became a leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[156] The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in 2015:[157] Germany is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market. Rank Name Headquarters Revenue (bil. €) Profit (bil. €) Employees (World) 01. Volkswagen Wolfsburg 237 −1.5 610,000 02. Daimler Stuttgart 166 9.3 284,000 03. E.ON Essen 129 −7.8 56,500 04. Allianz Munich 123 7.3 142,500 05. BMW Munich 102 7.0 122,000 06. Siemens Berlin, Munich 88 8.3 348,000 07. Robert Bosch Stuttgart 78 3.5 375,000 08. BASF Ludwigshafen 78 4.4 108,000 09. Deutsche Telekom Bonn 77 3.6 226,000 010. Metro Düsseldorf 71 0.8 204,000 Transport Main articles: Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany The ICE 3 in Cologne railway station With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.[158] Like its neighbours in Western Europe, Germany's road network is among the densest in the world.[159] The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the third-largest worldwide in length and is known for its lack of a general speed limit.[160] Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. The InterCityExpress or ICE network of the Deutsche Bahn serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[161] The German railways are subsidised by the government, receiving €17.0 billion in 2014.[162] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport, both hubs of Lufthansa, while Air Berlin has hubs at Berlin Tegel and Düsseldorf. Other major airports include Berlin Schönefeld, Hamburg, Cologne/Bonn and Leipzig/Halle.[163] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[164] Energy and infrastructure Main articles: Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany Electricity production in Germany from 1980 to 2012 In 2008[update], Germany was the world's sixth-largest consumer of energy,[165] and 60% of its primary energy was imported.[166] In 2014, energy sources were: oil (35.0%); coal, including lignite (24.6%); natural gas (20.5%); nuclear (8.1%); hydro-electric and renewable sources (11.1%).[167] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[168] It also enforces energy conservation, green technologies, emission reduction activities,[169] and aims to meet the country's electricity demands using 40% renewable sources by 2020. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management, and the renewable energy commercialisation.[170] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.[171] Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2010[update].[172] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.[173] Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Germany Albert Einstein, physicist. The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 107 German laureates. Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant. Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy.[174] The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 107 German laureates.[175] It produces the second highest number of graduates in science and engineering (31%) after South Korea.[176] In the beginning of the 20th century, German laureates had more awards than those of any other nation, especially in the sciences (physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine).[177][178] Notable German physicists before the 20th century include Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in 1905 and 1915 respectively. Along with Max Planck, he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics, in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.[179] Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays.[180] Otto Hahn was a pioneer in the fields of radiochemistry and discovered nuclear fission, while Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch were founders of microbiology. Numerous mathematicians were born in Germany, including Carl Friedrich Gauss, David Hilbert, Bernhard Riemann, Gottfried Leibniz, Karl Weierstrass, Hermann Weyl and Felix Klein. European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, including Hans Geiger, the creator of the Geiger counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first fully automatic digital computer.[181] Such German inventors, engineers and industrialists as Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin,[182] Otto Lilienthal, Gottlieb Daimler, Rudolf Diesel, Hugo Junkers and Karl Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology. German institutions like the German Aerospace Center (DLR) are the largest contributor to ESA. Aerospace engineer Wernher von Braun developed the first space rocket at Peenemünde and later on was a prominent member of NASA and developed the Saturn V Moon rocket. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.[183] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association and the Fraunhofer Society. The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance.[184] The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year. With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world.[185] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Germany Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world,[186] with a total of 407 million overnights during 2012.[187] This number includes 68.83 million nights by foreign visitors. In 2012, over 30.4 million international tourists arrived in Germany. Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.[188] Additionally, more than 30% of Germans spend their holiday in their own country, with the biggest share going to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR43.2 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.5% of German GDP and supports 2 million jobs (4.8% of total employment).[189] Germany is well known for its diverse tourist routes, such as the Romantic Road, the Wine Route, the Castle Road, and the Avenue Road. The German Timber-Frame Road (Deutsche Fachwerkstraße) connects towns with examples of these structures.[190][191] Germany's most-visited landmarks include e.g. Neuschwanstein Castle, Cologne Cathedral, Berlin Bundestag, Hofbräuhaus Munich, Heidelberg Castle, Dresden Zwinger, Fernsehturm Berlin and Aachen Cathedral. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.[192] Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria Museum Island in Berlin Lake Obersee in Bavaria Europa-Park near Freiburg Stralsund old town


Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans German population development from 1800 to 2010[193] With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census,[194] rising to 81.5 million as at 30 June 2015[195] and to at least 81.9 million as at 31 December 2015,[196] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and ranks as the 16th most populous country in the world.[197] Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).[96] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates), or 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants, is one of the lowest in the world.[96] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate.[198] However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s,[199] particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants.[200][201] Four sizable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.[202] There is a Danish minority (about 50,000) in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein.[202] The Sorbs, a Slavic population of about 60,000, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg. The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.[202] Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad.[203] Immigrant population Main article: Immigration to Germany After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.[204][205] As of 2016[update], about ten million of Germany's 82 million residents did not have German citizenship, which makes up 12% of the country's population.[206] The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas.[207][208] Germany is home to the second-highest number of international migrants.[209] The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, 22.5% of the country's residents, or more than 18.6 million people, were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).[210] In 2015, 36% of children under 5 were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent.[211] In 2011 census, as people with immigrant background (Personen mit Migrationshintergrund) were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after 1955. The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans (Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler), followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.[212] In the 1960s and 1970s, the German governments invited "guest workers" (Gastarbeiter) to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries. Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.[194] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.[213] Germany ranks 7th amongst EU countries and 37th globally in terms of the per centage of migrants who made up part of the country's population. As of 2014[update], the largest national group was from Turkey (2,859,000), followed by Poland (1,617,000), Russia (1,188,000), and Italy (764,000).[214] 740,000 people have African origins, an increase of 46% since 2011.[210] Since 1987, around 3 million ethnic Germans, mostly from the former Eastern Bloc countries, have exercised their right of return and emigrated to Germany.[215] Religion Main article: Religion in Germany Upon its establishment in 1871, Germany was about two-thirds Protestant[f] and one-third Roman Catholic, with a notable Jewish minority. Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following 1945, with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies. It continues to diversify after the German reunification in 1990, with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.[216] Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche (Evangelical) Gothic Cologne Cathedral (Roman Catholic) Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country.[g] These are mostly members of the EKD, which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions dating back to the Prussian Union of 1817.[h] Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. According to the 2011 German Census, Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming 66.8% of the total population.[217] Relative to the whole population, 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) (30.8%) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen) (0.9%), and 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics.[218] Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. Other religions accounted for 2.7%. According to the most recent data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively 28.5% and 27.5% of the population.[219][220] Both large churches have lost significant numbers of adherents in recent years. In 2011, 33% of Germans were not members of officially recognised religious associations with special status.[218][i] Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before state atheism, and major metropolitan areas.[222][223][224] Islam is the second largest religion in the country.[218] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.[225] Figures from Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst suggest a figure of 4.4 to 4.7 million (around 5.5% of the population) in 2015.[226] A study conducted by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees found that between 2011 and 2015 the Muslim population rose by 1.2 million people, mostly due to immigration.[227] Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations.[228] Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population[218] are Buddhism with 270,000 adherents, Judaism with 200,000 adherents, and Hinduism with some 100,000 adherents. All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 adherents each.[229] Languages Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany The Goethe Institut, a German language academy, in São Paulo, Brazil German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[230] Standard German is a West Germanic language and is closely related to and classified alongside Low German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian and English. To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.[231] Significant minorities of words are derived from Latin and Greek, with a smaller amount from French and most recently English (known as Denglisch). German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects, traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.[232] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union,[233] and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[234] Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages, and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[230] The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes. It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange.[235] Education Main article: Education in Germany The Heidelberg University, established in 1386, is a German university of excellence. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.[236] Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the Realschule for intermediate students lasts six years and the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education.[237] The Gesamtschule unifies all secondary education. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.[236] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.[238] Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.[239] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.[240][241] According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.[242] Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest.[243] It is followed by the Leipzig University (1409), the Rostock University (1419) and the Greifswald University (1456).[244] The University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many European and Western universities. In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Humboldt University Berlin, the University of Bremen, the University of Cologne, TU Dresden, the University of Tübingen, RWTH Aachen, FU Berlin, Heidelberg University, the University of Konstanz, LMU Munich, and the Technical University of Munich.[245] Health Main article: Healthcare in Germany The Hospice of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.[246] Germany's system of hospices, called spitals, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s,[247] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013[update].[248] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.[249] Germany ranked 20th in the world in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births).[248] In 2010[update], the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 41%, followed by malignant tumours, at 26%.[250] In 2008[update], about 82,000 Germans had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 26,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982).[251] According to a 2005 survey, 27% of German adults are smokers.[251] Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2007 study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe.[252][253]


Culture Main article: Culture of Germany A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Jena Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[254] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.[255] Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices.[256][257] As of 2016[update] UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[258] There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).[259] Prior to reunification, the day was celebrated on 17 June, in honor of the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany which was brutally suppressed on that date.[260] In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre.[261] According to the Anholt–GfK Nation Brands Index, in 2014 Germany was the world's most respected nation among 50 countries (ahead of US, UK, and France).[262][263][264] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.[265][266] Music Main article: Music of Germany Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer Symphony No. 5 German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber and Felix Mendelssohn were important in the early Romantic period. Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.[267] Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.[268] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie and schlager pop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.[269] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Felix Jaehn, Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).[270] Art Main article: German art C.D. Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) Franz Marc, Roe Deer in the Forest (1914) German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Peter Paul Rubens and Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism.[271] Such German sculptors as Otto Schmidt-Hofer, Franz Iffland, and Julius Schmidt-Felling made important contributions to German art history in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[272][273] Several German art groups formed in the 20th century, such as the November Group or Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), by the Russian-born Wassily Kandinsky, influenced the development of Expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Post-World War II art trends in Germany can broadly be divided into Neo-expressionism, performance art and Conceptualism. Especially notable neo-expressionists include Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer, Jörg Immendorff, A. R. Penck, Markus Lüpertz, Peter Robert Keil and Rainer Fetting. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, and Neo Rauch. Leading German conceptual artists include or included Bernd and Hilla Becher, Hanne Darboven, Hans-Peter Feldmann, Hans Haacke, Joseph Beuys, HA Schult, Aris Kalaizis, Neo Rauch (New Leipzig School) and Andreas Gursky (photography). Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta, the Berlin Biennale, transmediale and Art Cologne.[271] Architecture Main article: Architecture of Germany Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque). Among many renowned Baroque masters were Pöppelmann, Balthasar Neumann, Knobelsdorff and the Asam brothers. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century. The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer, one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.[274] Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.[275][276] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style, due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century. Regional historicist styles include the Hanover School, Nuremberg Style and Dresden's Semper-Nicolai School. Among the most famous of German buildings, the Schloss Neuschwanstein represents Romanesque Revival. Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing, Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.[277] Resort architecture on Rügen, timber framing in Bernkastel, Hohenzollern Castle in Swabia and the Elbe Philharmonic in Hamburg. Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.g. Fritz Höger, Erich Mendelsohn, Dominikus Böhm, and Fritz Schumacher being influential architects. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius. Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. He conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.[278] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Hans Kollhoff, Sergei Tchoban, KK Architekten, Helmut Jahn, Behnisch, GMP, Ole Scheeren, J. Mayer H., OM Ungers, Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto (the last two being Pritzker Prize winners).[279] Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature and German philosophy The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.[280] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.[281] Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass.[282] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.[283] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.[284] The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.[285] German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.[286] Media Main article: Media of Germany Deutsche Welle headquarters in Bonn (centre). The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. The German Press Agency DPA is also significant. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.[287] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.[288] There are more than 500 public and private radio stations in Germany, with the public Deutsche Welle being the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.[289] Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio while ARD stations are covering local services. Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The papers (and internet portals) with the highest circulation are Bild (a tabloid), Die Zeit, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt, the largest magazines include Der Spiegel, Stern and Focus.[290] The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.[291] The Gamescom in Cologne is the world's leading gaming convention.[292] Popular game series from Germany include Turrican, the Anno series, The Settlers series, the Gothic series, SpellForce, the FIFA Manager series, Far Cry and Crysis. Relevant game developers and publishers are Blue Byte, Crytek, Deep Silver, Kalypso Media, Piranha Bytes, Yager Development, and some of the largest social network game companies like Bigpoint, Gameforge, Goodgame and Wooga.[293] Cinema Main article: Cinema of Germany German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Berlin's suburb Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Today it is Europe's largest studio.[294] Other early and still active studios include UFA and Bavaria Film. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.[295] In 1930 Josef von Sternberg directed The Blue Angel, the first major German sound film, with Marlene Dietrich.[296] Films of Leni Riefenstahl set new artistic standards, in particular Triumph of the Will.[297] Babelsberg Studio near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). Such films included Wolfgang Staudte's Die Mörder sind unter uns (The Murderers are among us, 1946) and Irgendwo in Berlin (Somewhere in Berlin, 1946) by Werner Krien. Notable East German films were largely produced by DEFA and included Ehe im Schatten (Marriage in the Shadows) by Kurt Maetzig (1947), Der Untertan (1951); Die Geschichte vom kleinen Muck (The Story of Little Muck, 1953), Konrad Wolf's Der geteilte Himmel (Divided Heaven) (1964) and Frank Beyer's Jacob the Liar (1975). The defining film genre in West Germany of the 1950s was arguably the Heimatfilm ("homeland film"); these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.[298] Characteristic for the films of the 1960s were genre films including Edgar Wallace and Karl May adaptations. One of the most successful German movie series of the 1970s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report (Schoolgirl Report). During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. Among the box office hits, there were films such as Chariots of the Gods (1970), Das Boot (The Boat, 1981), The Never Ending Story (1984), Otto – The Movie (1985), Run Lola Run (1998), Manitou's Shoe (2001), the Resident Evil series (2002–2016), Good Bye, Lenin! (2003), Head On (2004), The White Ribbon (2009), Animals United (2010), and Cloud Atlas (2012). The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films.[299] The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals.[300] The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards, that have been presented since 1951.[301] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine Black Forest Gâteau, a German dessert German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular and available, thanks to diverse ethnic communities. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 different types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen). German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe.[302] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts, Weisswursts, and Currywursts.[303] In 2012, organic foods accounted for 3.9% of total food sales.[304] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions,[305] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.[306] German beer purity regulations date back to the 15th century.[307] The 2015 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and 233 one star.[308] German restaurants have become the world's second-most decorated after France.[309][310] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.[311] Association football is the most popular sport. With more than 6.3 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest sports organisation of its kind worldwide, and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.[311] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014, the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996, and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017. Germany hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1974 and 2006 and the UEFA European Championship in 1988. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports, boxing, basketball, handball, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, horse riding and golf. Water sports like sailing, rowing, and swimming are popular in Germany as well.[311] Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017[update]). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships, more than any other. He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history.[312] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.[313] Also Nico Rosberg won the Formula One World Championship. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936 the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.[314] In Munich it hosted the Summer Games of 1972.[315] Fashion and design Main article: German fashion Claudia Schiffer, German supermodel German designers became early leaders of modern product design, with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe, and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.[316] Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1,300 companies with more than 130,000 employees in 2010, which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro. Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported.[317] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year.[318] Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.[319] Renowned fashion designers from Germany include Karl Lagerfeld, Jil Sander, Wolfgang Joop, Philipp Plein and Michael Michalsky. Important brands include Hugo Boss, Escada, Adidas, Puma, Esprit and Triumph. The German supermodels Claudia Schiffer, Heidi Klum, Tatjana Patitz, Nadja Auermann and Toni Garrn, among others, have come to international fame.[320]


See also Germany portal Europe portal Index of Germany-related articles Outline of Germany Germany – Wikipedia book


Notes ^ In the recognized minority languages and the most spoken minority language of Germany: Danish: Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Zwjazkowa Republika Němska Lower Sorbian: Nimska Zwězkowa Republika Romani: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Bûnsrepublyk Dútslân Turkish: Almanya Federal Cumhuriyeti ^ From 1952 to 1990, the Deutschlandlied was the national anthem but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.[1] ^ Berlin is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries; all government ministries have offices in both cities. ^ Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ^ IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant] ^ German Protestantism has been overwhelmingly a mixture of Lutheran, Reformed (i.e. Calvinist), and United (Lutheran & Reformed/Calvinist) churches, with Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, and various other Protestants being only a recent development. ^ Lutheranism is found mostly throughout northern Germany, Württemberg and parts of Franconia; Calvinism in the extreme northwest and Lippe, while the United churches throughout the remainder of Germany. ^ Although the first such union between Lutheran and Calvinist Protestants happened in August 1817 in the Duchy of Nassau (a confessional union, see Unionskirche, Idstein); that is before the Prussian Union of September 1817. There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. ^ Such organizations are corporations under public law with the power to levy compulsory taxes on their members. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax (and certain other taxes) in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.[221] Most people who leave the church do so in order to avoid paying these taxes.[221]


References ^ Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. Nach Herstellung der staatlichen Einheit Deutschlands bestimmte Bundespräsident von Weizsäcker in einem Briefwechsel mit Bundeskanzler Helmut Kohl im Jahr 1991 die dritte Strophe zur Nationalhymne für das deutsche Volk. [In 1991, following the establishment of German unity, Federal President von Weizsäcker, in an exchange of letters with Chancellor Helmut Kohl, declared the third verse [of the Deutschlandlied] to be the national anthem of the German people.]  ^ Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (14 December 2016). Migrationsbericht 2015 [Migration Report 2015] (PDF) (in German). Bundesministerium des Innern Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. pp. 213–215. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.  ^ Numbers and Facts about Church Life in Germany 2016 Report Archived 30 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Evangelical Church of Germany. Retrieved 6 December 2016. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ "Bevölkerung in Deutschland zum Jahresende 2016 auf 82,5 Millionen Personen gewachsen". Archived from the original on 16 January 2018.  ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017, Germany". International Monetary Fund. April 2017. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2017.  ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2017.  ^ Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.  ^ The Latin name Sacrum Imperium (Holy Empire) is documented as far back as 1157. The Latin name Sacrum Romanum Imperium (Holy Roman Empire) was first documented in 1254. The full name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation, short HRR) dates back to the 15th century. Zippelius, Reinhold (2006) [1994]. Kleine deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: vom frühen Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart [Brief German Constitutional History: from the Early Middle Ages to the Present] (in German) (7th ed.). Beck. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-406-47638-9.  ^ a b Demshuk, Andrew (30 April 2012). The Lost German East. ISBN 9781107020733. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016.  ^ Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-674-80688-3.  ^ Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 3-525-20768-9. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015.  (for diutisc) Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 3-525-20768-9. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015.  (for diot) ^ Wagner, G. A; Krbetschek, M; Degering, D; Bahain, J.-J; Shao, Q; Falgueres, C; Voinchet, P; Dolo, J.-M; Garcia, T; Rightmire, G. P (27 August 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012722107. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ "World's Oldest Spears". archive.archaeology.org. 3 May 1997. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ "Earliest music instruments found". BBC. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2013.  ^ "The Venus of Hohle Fels". donsmaps.com. 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2009.  ^ "Nebra Sky Disc". Unesco memory of the World. 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014.  ^ Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8147-1381-5.  ^ a b Fulbrook, Mary (1991). A Concise History of Germany. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36836-0, pp. 9–13. ^ Fichtner, Paula S. (2009). Historical Dictionary of Austria. Volume 70 (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. xlviii. ISBN 978-0810863101. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016: "When the Romans began to appear in the region, shortly before the beginning of the Christian era, they turned Noricum into an administrative province, which encompassed much of what today is Austria."  ^ Modi, J. J. (1916). "The Ancient Germans: Their History, Constitution, Religion, Manners and Customs". The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. 10 (7): 647. Raetia (modern Bavaria and the adjoining country)  ^ Rüger, C. (2004) [1996]. "Germany". In Bowman, Alan K.; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew. The Cambridge Ancient History: X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C. - A.D. 69. Volume 10 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 527–28. ISBN 0-521-26430-8. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016.  ^ Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil (2005). The crisis of empire, A.D. 193–337. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12. Cambridge University Press. p. 442. ISBN 0-521-30199-8.  ^ a b Fulbrook 1991, p. 11. ^ The lumping of Germanic people into the generic term 'Germans' has its roots in the Investiture Controversy according to historian Herwig Wolfram, who claimed it was a defensive move made by the papacy to delineate them as outsiders, partly due to the papacy's insecurity and so as to justify counterattacks upon them. See: Wolfram, Herwig (1997). The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples. California University Press. pp. 11–13.  ^ McBrien, Richard (2000). Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. HarperCollins. p. 138.  ^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 13–24. ^ Fulbrook 1991, p. 27. ^ Nelson, Lynn Harry. The Great Famine (1315–1317) and the Black Death (1346–1351). University of Kansas. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ Eisenstein, Elizabeth. (1980). The printing press as an agent of change. Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–43. ^ a b Philpott, Daniel (January 2000). "The Religious Roots of Modern International Relations". World Politics. 52 (2): 206–245. doi:10.1017/S0043887100002604.  ^ Macfarlane, Alan (1997). The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. Blackwell. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0.  ^ For a general discussion of the impact of the Reformation on the Holy Roman Empire, see Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany, The Reformation, Princeton N.J., Princeton University Press, 1959, chapters 6–9 (pp. 123–248). ^ Gagliardo, G (1980). Reich and Nation, The Holy Roman Empire as Idea and Reality, 1763–1806. Indiana University Press. pp. 12–13.  ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Routledge. p. 156.  ^ Batt, Judy; Wolczuk, Kataryna (2002). Region, State and Identity in Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 153.  ^ Fulbrook 1991, p. 97. ^ Henderson, W. O. (January 1934). "The Zollverein". History. 19 (73): 1–19. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229X.1934.tb01791.x.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "Germany". U.S. Department of State. 10 November 2010. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 135, 149. ^ Black, John, ed. (2005). 100 maps. Sterling Publishing. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4027-2885-3.  ^ Olusoga, David and Erichsen, Casper W (2010). The Kaiser's Holocaust. Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23141-6 ^ Olusoga, David (18 April 2015). "Dear Pope Francis, Namibia was the 20th century's first genocide". The Guardian. The Guardian News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.  ^ Crossland, David (22 January 2008). "Last German World War I Veteran Believed to Have Died". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2011.  ^ Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser, Elisabeth (1998). "Introduction". Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.  ^ Klein, Fritz (1998). "Between Compiègne and Versailles: The Germans on the Way from a Misunderstood Defeat to an Unwanted Peace". In Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser, Elisabeth. Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge University Press. pp. 203–220. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.  ^ Keylor, William R. (1998). "Versailles and International Diplomacy". In Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser, Elisabeth. Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years. Publications of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge University Press. pp. 469–505. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.  ^ "GERMAN TERRITORIAL LOSSES, TREATY OF VERSAILLES, 1919". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.  ^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 156–160. ^ Williamson (2005). Germany since 1815: A Nation Forged and Renewed. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 186–204.  ^ "PROLOGUE: Roots of the Holocaust". The Holocaust Chronicle. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 155–158, 172–177. ^ Richard Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin, 2003, ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8 p. 344 ^ "Ein Konzentrationslager für politische Gefangene In der Nähe von Dachau". Münchner Neueste Nachrichten ("The Munich Latest News") (in German). The Holocaust History Project. 21 March 1933. Archived from the original on 10 May 2000.  ^ "Industrie und Wirtschaft" (in German). Deutsches Historisches Museum. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.  ^ McNab, p. 54 ^ Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3 pp. 322–326, 329 ^ Hugo Ehrt, Neuer Harzbote. Heft 13, Fremdenverkehrsverein Bodfeld/Harz, Elbingerode (Harz),2003, p.565. Schütz and Gruber, Mythos Reichsautobahn: Bau und Inszenierung der "Straßen des Führers" 1933–1941, Berlin: Links, 1996, ISBN 9783861531173, pp. 16–17. ^ McNab, p. 56 ^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 188–189. ^ "The "Night of Broken Glass"". www.ushmm.org. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.  ^ a b Fulbrook, pp. 190–195. ^ Axelrod, Alan (2007) Encyclopedia of World War II, Volume 1. Infobase Publishing. pp. 659. ^ Hiden, John; Lane, Thomas (2003). The Baltic and the Outbreak of the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53120-7, pp. 143–144. ^ Steinberg, Heinz Günter (1991). Die Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Deutschland im Zweiten Weltkrieg: mit einem Überblick über die Entwicklung von 1945 bis 1990 (in German). Kulturstiftung der dt. Vertriebenen. ISBN 978-3-88557-089-9.  ^ a b Ian Kershaw.Stalinism and Nazism: dictatorships in comparison Archived 15 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Cambridge University Press, 1997, p.150 ISBN 0-521-56521-9 ^ Overy, Richard (17 February 2011). "Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial". BBC History. Archived from the original on 16 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.  ^ Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. pp. 45–52. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0.  ^ Institute of National Remembrance (Poland), Polska 1939–1945 Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Materski and Szarota. page 9 "Total Polish population losses under German occupation are currently calculated at about 2 770 000". ^ a b Maksudov, S. (1994). "Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: A Note". Europe-Asia Studies 46 (4): 671–680. ^ John C. Beyer; Stephen A. Schneider. Forced Labour under Third Reich. Nathan Associates.  Part1 Archived 24 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine. and Part 2 Archived 3 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Overmans, Rüdiger (2000). Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg. ISBN 3-486-56531-1.  ^ Kershaw, Ian (2011). The End; Germany 1944–45. Allen Lane. p. 279.  ^ Wise, Michael Z. (1998). Capital dilemma: Germany's search for a new architecture of democracy. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-56898-134-5.  ^ Carlin, Wendy (1996). "West German growth and institutions (1945–90)". In Crafts, Nicholas; Toniolo, Gianni. Economic Growth in Europe Since 1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 464. ISBN 0-521-49964-X. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Werner Bührer (24 December 2002). "Deutschland in den 50er Jahren: Wirtschaft in beiden deutschen Staaten" [Economy in both German states]. Informationen zur Politischen Bildung. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018.  ^ maw/dpa (11 March 2008). "New Study Finds More Stasi Spooks". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ "Germany (East)", Library of Congress Country Study, Appendix B: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Archived 1 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Protzman, Ferdinand (22 August 1989). "Westward Tide of East Germans Is a Popular No-Confidence Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ "The Berlin Wall". Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.  ^ "What the Berlin Wall still stands for". CNN Interactive. 8 November 1999. Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008.  ^ Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag) Archived 4 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Unification Treaty signed by the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic in Berlin on 31 August 1990 (official text, in German). ^ "Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag) Art 11 Verträge der Bundesrepublik Deutschland" (in German). Bundesministerium für Justiz und Verbraucherschutz. Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ "Gesetz zur Umsetzung des Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages vom 20. Juni 1991 zur Vollendung der Einheit Deutschlands" [Law on the Implementation of the Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages vom 20. Juni 1991 zur Vollendung der Einheit Deutschlands] (PDF) (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. 26 April 1994. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  ^ "Brennpunkt: Hauptstadt-Umzug". Focus (in German). 12 April 1999. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ Kulish, Nicholas (19 June 2009). "In East Germany, a Decline as Stark as a Wall". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "Lisbon Treaty : The making of". Council of the European Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2011. After signature by all 27 Heads of State and governments, the Treaty will travel back to Brussels, where it will be officially sealed with the seals of the 27 Member States, on the 18th of December. Then, it will be sent to Rome, the Italian government being the depository of the Treaties.  ^ Dempsey, Judy (31 October 2006). "Germany is planning a Bosnia withdrawal". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2011.  ^ Merz, Sebastian (November 2007). "Still on the way to Afghanistan? Germany and its forces in the Hindu Kush" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. pp. 2, 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ "Germany agrees on 50-billion-euro stimulus plan". France 24. 6 January 2009. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "Government declaration by Angela Merkel" (in German). ARD Tagesschau. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2014.  ^ "Migrant crisis: Migration to Europe explained in seven charts". 28 January 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2016.  ^ Image #432, Flying Camera Satellite Images 1999 Archived 15 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Lloyd Reeds Map Collection, McMaster University Library. ^ a b c d e f "Germany". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2014.  ^ a b "Climate in Germany". GermanCulture. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Terrestrial Ecoregions". WWF. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ Strohm, Kathrin (May 2010). "Arable farming in Germany" (PDF). Agri benchmark. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ Bekker, Henk (2005). Adventure Guide Germany. Hunter. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-58843-503-3.  ^ Marcel Cleene; Marie Claire Lejeune (2002). Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe: Herbs. Man & Culture. The Cornflower was once the floral emblem of Germany (hence the German common name Kaiserblume).  ^ "Zoo Facts". Zoos and Aquariums of America. Archived from the original on 7 October 2003. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  ^ "Der Zoologische Garten Berlin" (in German). Zoo Berlin. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ "Regionales Monitoring 2010 – Daten und Karten zu den Europäischen Metropolregionen in Deutschland" (PDF) (in German). Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung. 2010. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ "Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany" (PDF). Deutscher Bundestag. Btg-bestellservice. October 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union". U.S. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015, General government gross debt (National currency, Percent of GDP)". International Monetary Fund. April 2015. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ "Third quarter of 2015 compared with second quarter of 2015 – Government debt fell to 91.6 % of GDP in euro area". Eurostat. 22 January 2016. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ "German Government Achieves 'Historic' Budget Surplus". The World Street Journal. 13 January 2016. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ "Reuters: Fitch Affirms Germany at 'AAA'; Outlook Stable". Reuters. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ "Federal Constitutional Court". Bundesverfassungsgericht. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ "§ 2 Strafvollzugsgesetz" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ Jehle, Jörg-Martin; German Federal Ministry of Justice (2009). Criminal Justice in Germany. Forum-Verlag. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-936999-51-8. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015.  ^ Casper, Gerhard; Zeisel, Hans (January 1972). "Lay Judges in the German Criminal Courts". Journal of Legal Studies. 1 (1): 141. doi:10.1086/467481. JSTOR 724014.  ^ "Intentional homicides (per 100,000 people) – Data". Archived from the original on 18 October 2016.  ^ "The Federal States". Bundesrat of Germany. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ "Example for state constitution: "Constitution of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia"". Landtag (state assembly) of North Rhine-Westphalia. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2011.  ^ "Verwaltungsgliederung in Deutschland am 30 June 2017 – Gebietsstand: 30 June 2017 (2. Quartal)" (XLS) (in German). Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. July 2017. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.  ^ "Gebiet und Bevölkerung – Fläche und Bevölkerung" (in German). Statistisches Bundesamt und statistische Landesämter. December 2015. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ a b "Gross domestic product – at current prices – 1991 to 2015". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. 5 November 2016. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.  ^ "The German Missions Abroad". German Federal Foreign Office. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2015.  ^ "The Embassies". German Federal Foreign Office. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.  ^ "The EU budget 2011 in figures". European Commission. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011.  ^ "United Nations regular budget for the year 2011". UN Committee on Contributions. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2011.  ^ "Declaration by the Franco-German Defence and Security Council". French Embassy UK. 13 May 2004. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ Freed, John C. (4 April 2008). "The leader of Europe? Answers an ocean apart". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Aims of German development policy". Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. 10 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Net Official Development Assistance 2009" (PDF). OECD. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Speech by Chancellor Angela Merkel to the United Nations General Assembly". Die Bundesregierung. 21 September 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ "Germany's New Face Abroad". Deutsche Welle. 14 October 2005. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "U.S.-German Economic Relations Factsheet" (PDF). U.S. Embassy in Berlin. May 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2011". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. September 2011. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2012.  ^ "Germany to increase defence spending". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2016.  ^ "Stärke: Militärisches Personal der Bundeswehr" [Strength: Military personnel of the Bundeswehr] (in German). Bundeswehr. 15 August 2017. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ "Ausblick: Die Bundeswehr der Zukunft" (in German). Bundeswehr. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ "Frauen in der Bundeswehr" (in German). Bundeswehr. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRANSFERS, 2016" (PDF). www.sipri.org. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017.  ^ "Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Artikel 65a,87,115b" (PDF) (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ "Einsatzzahlen – die Stärke der deutschen Kontingente" (in German). Bundeswehr. 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ Connolly, Kate (22 November 2010). "Germany to abolish compulsory military service". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2011.  ^ Pidd, Helen (16 March 2011). "Marching orders for conscription in Germany, but what will take its place?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2011.  ^ a b "Country Comparison: Exports". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ "CPI 2009 table". Transparency International. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.  ^ "The Innovation Imperative in Manufacturing: How the United States Can Restore Its Edge" (PDF). Boston Consulting Group. March 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ "Gross domestic product (2009)" (PDF). The World Bank: World Development Indicators database. World Bank. 27 September 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2011.  Field listing – GDP (official exchange rate) Archived 4 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Gross domestic product (2009)" (PDF). The World Bank: World Development Indicators database. World Bank. 27 September 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2010.  Field listing – GDP (PPP exchange rate) Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Eurostat: Euro area unemployment rate at 11.2%, Press release of 2 March 2015". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.  ^ "Labour productivity levels in the total economy". OECD. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ Andrews, Edmund L. (1 January 2002). "Germans Say Goodbye to the Mark, a Symbol of Strength and Unity". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ Taylor Martin, Susan (28 December 1998). "On Jan. 1, out of many arises one Euro". St. Petersburg Times. p. National, 1.A.  ^ Germany – The World's Automotive Hub of Innovation Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Germany Trade & Invest, Ernst & Young European Automotive Survey 2013, retrieved 25 April 2015 ^ "Production Statistics – OICA". oica.net. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010.  ^ "CIA Factbook". Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.  ^ "Best Global Brands – 2014 Rankings". Interbrand. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ Gavin, Mike (23 September 2010). "Germany Has 1,000 Market-Leading Companies, Manager-Magazin Says". Businessweek. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ Frost, Simon. "Berlin outranks London in start-up investment". euractiv.com. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.  ^ "Global 500 – Germany". Fortune. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.  ^ "Assessment of strategic plans and policy measures on Investment and Maintenance in Transport Infrastructure" (PDF). International Transport Forum. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2014.  ^ "Road density (km of road per 100 sq. km of land area)". World Bank. 2014. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2014.  ^ "Autobahn-Temporegelung" (Press release) (in German). ADAC. June 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ "Geschäftsbericht 2006" (in German). Deutsche Bahn. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "German Railway Financing" (PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2016.  ^ "Airports in Germany". Air Broker Center International. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  ^ "Top World Container Ports". Port of Hamburg. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ "Overview/Data: Germany". U.S. Energy Information Administration. 30 June 2010. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.  ^ "Energy imports, net (% of energy use)". The World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Ziesing, Hans-Joachim. "Energieverbrauch in Deutschland im Jahr 2014" (PDF) (in German). AG Energiebilanzen. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.  ^ "Germany split over green energy". BBC News. 25 February 2005. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "Germany greenest country in the world". The Times of India. 21 June 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ "Deutschland erfüllte 2008 seine Klimaschutzverpflichtung nach dem Kyoto-Protokoll" (Press release) (in German). Umweltbundesamt. 1 February 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ Brown, Eliot. "Germans Have a Burning Need for More Garbage". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.  ^ "Record High 2010 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Combustion and Cement Manufacture Posted on CDIAC Site". Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.  ^ Federal Ministry for the Environment (29 March 2012). Langfristszenarien und Strategien für den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland bei Berücksichtigung der Entwicklung in Europa und global [Long-term Scenarios and Strategies for the Development of Renewable Energy in Germany Considering Development in Europe and Globally] (PDF). Berlin, Germany: Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2015.  ^ "Federal Report on Research and Innovation 2014" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Education and Research. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ "Nobel Prize". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 4 April 2006. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "These are the 10 smartest countries in the world when it comes to science". Business Insider. 4 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.  ^ "Swedish academy awards". ScienceNews. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ National Science Nobel Prize shares 1901–2009 by citizenship at the time of the award Archived 29 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. and by country of birth Archived 20 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. From Schmidhuber, J. (2010). "Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th century". Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ Roberts, J. M. (2002). The New Penguin History of the World. Allen Lane. p. 1014. ISBN 978-0-7139-9611-1.  ^ "The First Nobel Prize". Deutsche Welle. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ Bianchi, Luigi. "The Great Electromechanical Computers". York University. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "The Zeppelin". U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2015.  ^ "Historical figures in telecommunications". International Telecommunication Union. 14 January 2004. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "Preparations for operation of Wendelstein 7-X starting". PhysOrg. 13 May 2014. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014. Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald in May started the preparations for operation of this the world's largest fusion device of the stellarator type.  ^ "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize". DFG. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  ^ "Interim Update" (PDF). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. UNWTO. April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ Zahlen Daten Fakten 2012 (in German), German National Tourist Board ^ "Tourism Highlights 2014 edition" (PDF). UNWTO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ "2013 Travel & Tourism Economic Impact Report Germany" (PDF). WTTC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ (in German) Nortrud G. Schrammel-Schäl, Karl Kessler, Paul-Georg Custodis, Kreisverwaltung des Westerwaldkreises in Montabaur. Fachwerk im Westerwald: Landschaftsmuseum Westerwald, Hachenburg, Ausstellung vom 11. September 1987 bis 30. April 1988. Landschaftsmuseum Westerwald: 1987. ISBN 978-3-921548-37-0. ^ Heinrich Edel: 1928. Die Fachwerkhäuser der Stadt Braunschweig: ein kunst und kulturhistorisches Bild. Druckerei Appelhaus, 1928 ^ "Top Tourist Attractions of Germany". Germany.Travel, official site. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016.  ^ a b Zensus 2011: Bevölkerung am 9. Mai 2011 Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 1 June 2013. ^ "Population based on the 2011 Census – German Statistical Office ("Destatis")". destatis.de. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016.  ^ "Significant population growth to at least 81.9 million in 2015 – German Statistical Office ("Destatis")". destatis.de. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.  ^ "Country Comparison :: Population". CIA. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Demographic Transition Model". Barcelona Field Studies Centre. 27 September 2009. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Birth rate on the rise in Germany". The Local. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "The New Guest Workers: A German Dream for Crisis Refugees". Spiegel Online. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "More skilled immigrants find work in Germany". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ a b c "National Minorities in Germany" (PDF). Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). May 2010. Article number: BMI10010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014.  ^ Auswärtiges Amt Berlin, Konsular Info Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Auswärtiges Amt, Berlin. Accessed 17 June 2015. ^ Webb, Alex (20 May 2014). "Germany Top Migration Land After U.S. in New OECD Ranking". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2014.  ^ "Trends in International Migrant Stock 2015". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2015. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016.  ^ "Ausländische Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und ausgewählten Staatsangehörigkeiten" Archived 13 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. (German). Retrieved 30 June 2017. ^ "German population rises thanks to immigration". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "Population and employment: Population with migrant background – Results of the 2010 microcensus" (PDF). 13 March 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "International Migration Report 2015 – Highlights" (PDF). UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ a b "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund um 8,5 % gestiegen" Archived 29 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Federal Statistical Office of Germany. (German). 1 August 2017. ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrations­hinter­grund auf Rekord­niveau Archived 26 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine.". Federal Statistical Office of Germany. 16 September 2016. ^ Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung: Ungenutzte Potenziale – Zur Lage der Integration in Deutschland Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF; 3,1 MB), ISBN 978-3-9812473-1-2, S. 26 f. ^ "International Migration Report 2015 – Highlights" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ "Bevölkerung nach Migrationshintergrund". destatis. 2014. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ "Fewer Ethnic Germans Immigrating to Ancestral Homeland". Migration Information Source. February 2004. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  ^ Solsten, Eric (1999). Germany: A Country Study. Diane Publishing. pp. 173–175. ISBN 978-0-7881-8179-5. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016.  ^ "Pressekonferenz „Zensus 2011 – Fakten zur Bevölkerung in Deutschland" am 31. Mai 2013 in Berlin" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017.  ^ a b c d "Bevölkerung im regionalen Vergleich nach Religion (ausführlich) -in %-". destatis.de (Zensusdatenbank des Zensus 2011) (in German). Federal Statistical Office of Germany. 9 May 2011. p. Zensus 2011 – Page 6. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2011.  ^ Official membership statistics of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany 2016 Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 20. June 2017 ^ Official membership statistics of the Evangelical Church in Germany 2016, retrieved 5. June 2017 ^ a b Petersen, Jens (2015). Kirchensteuer kompakt: Strukturierte Darstellung mit Berechnungsbeispielen [Church Tax Compact: Structured Description with Calculation Examples]. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 11–12, 31. ISBN 978-3-658-05957-6.  ^ Religious map based on results for each German district ^ "Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth | Peter Thompson | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. 22 September 2012. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2012.  ^ "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ "Zensus 2011 – Fakten zur Bevölkerung in Deutschland" am 31. Mai 2013 in Berlin" [2011 Census – Facts about the population of Germany on 31 May 2013 in Berlin] (pdf) (Press release) (in German). Federal Statistical Office of Germany. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017. Beim Zensus 2011 haben sich relativ wenige Menschen zu einer der Weltreligionen Judentum, Islam, Buddhismus und Hinduismus bekannt. Die Werte gehen von 0,1 % (Hinduismus) bis 1,9 % (Islam). Es ist jedoch davon auszugehen, dass gerade die Anhänger dieser Religionen überproportional häufig von der Möglichkeit Gebrauch gemacht haben, auf die Beantwortung der Frage zur Religionszugehörigkeit zu verzichten. Das bedeutet bedauerlicherweise auch, dass der Zensus 2011 keine verlässlichen Ergebnisse zu diesen Religionen in Deutschland bereitstellen kann. . ^ "Religionen & Weltanschauungsgemeinschaften in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen" [Religions and philosophical communities in Germany: Membership figures] (in German). REMID. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2017.  ^ "Zahl der Muslime in Deutschland" Archived 13 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 29 April 2017. ^ "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?". Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland (PDF) (in German). Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge. June 2009. pp. 80, 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen" (in German). Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst. 31 October 2009. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ a b European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Survey)" (PDF). Europa (web portal). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages (Executive Summary)" (PDF). Europa (web portal). Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ European Commission (2004). "Many tongues, one family. Languages in the European Union" (PDF). Europa (web portal). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Sprechen Sie Deutsch?". The Economist. 18 March 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  ^ European Commission. "Official Languages". Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.  ^ Marten, Thomas; Sauer, Fritz Joachim, eds. (2005). Länderkunde – Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz und Liechtenstein im Querschnitt [Regional Geography – An Overview of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein] (in German). Inform-Verlag. p. 7. ISBN 3-9805843-1-3.  ^ "Goethe Institut". Goethe Institut USA. 2017. Archived from the original on 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.  ^ a b "Country profile: Germany" (PDF). Library of Congress. April 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "The Educational System in Germany". Cuesta College. 31 August 2002. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011.  ^ "A German model goes global". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 September 2014. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Tim Pitman; Hannah Forsyth (18 March 2014). "Should we follow the German way of free higher education?". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.  ^ Sean Coughlan (9 March 2011). "Germany top for foreign students". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.  ^ "How US students get a university degree for free in Germany". BBC. 3 June 2015. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.  ^ Laura Bridgestock (13 November 2014). "The Growing Popularity of International Study in Germany". QS Topuniversities. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.  ^ Björn Bertram. "Rankings: Universität Heidelberg in International Comparison". Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "Top 100 World Universities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "A German Ivy League Takes Shape". SCIENCE / AAAS. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2008.  ^ "Hospital of the Holy Spirit Lübeck". Lübeck + Travemünde. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ Health Care Systems in Transition: Germany (PDF). European Observatory on Health Care Systems. 2000. p. 8. AMS 5012667 (DEU). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ a b "Germany statistics summary (2002–present)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.  ^ "Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)". The World Bank. 1 January 2016. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.  ^ "2010: Herz-/Kreislauferkrankungen verursachen 41 % aller Todesfälle" (in German). Destatis.de. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ a b "Country Profile Germany" (PDF). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. April 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.  This article may incorporate text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "Topping the EU Fat Stats, Germany Plans Anti-Obesity Drive". Deutsche Welle. 20 April 2007. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "Germany launches obesity campaign". BBC. 9 May 2007. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ Wasser, Jeremy (6 April 2006). "Spätzle Westerns". Spiegel Online International. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Germany country profile". BBC. 25 February 2015. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.  ^ MacGregor, Neil (28 September 2014). "The country with one people and 1,200 sausages". BBC. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ "Christmas Traditions in Austria, Germany, Switzerland". German Ways. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ "World Heritage Sites in Germany". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.  ^ "Artikel 2 EV – Vertrag zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik über die Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands (Einigungsvertrag – EV k.a.Abk.)" (in German). buzer.de. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ Gunkel, Christoph (3 October 2015). "Der 17. Juni: Tag der deutschen Zwietracht – SPIEGEL ONLINE – einestages". Spiegel. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017.  ^ Sifton, Sam (31 December 1969). "Berlin, the big canvas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2008.  See also: "Sites and situations of leading cities in cultural globalisations/Media". GaWC Research Bulletin 146. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2008.  ^ "Germany Knocks USA off Best Nation Top Spot After 5 Years" (Press release). GfK. 12 November 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2015.  ^ "Germany has the best international reputation". German Foreign Office. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.  ^ "Achtung! Germany named world's favorite country". USA Today. 18 November 2014. Archived from the original on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.  ^ "BBC poll: Germany most popular country in the world". BBC. 23 May 2013. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia on the rise". BBC.co.uk. 4 June 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ "Top 100 living geniuses". The Daily Telegraph. London. 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ "The Recorded Music Industry In Japan" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan. 2013. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2014.  ^ "Kraftwerk maintain their legacy as electro-pioneers". Deutsche Welle. 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2013.  ^ Nye, Sean. "Minimal Understandings: The Berlin Decade, The Minimal Continuum, and Debates on the Legacy of German Techno". Journal of Popular Music Studies, Volume 25, Issue 2. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2014.  ^ a b Marzona, Daniel. (2005) Conceptual Art. Cologne: Taschen. Various pages ^ Berman, Harold (1974). Bronzes, Sculptors & Founders – Signatures (Vol. 2 ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Abage Publishers. p. 477.  ^ Payne, Christopher (1986). Animals in Bronze: Reference and Price Guide. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors' Club Ltd. p. 401. ISBN 0-907462-45-6.  ^ Jan Koppmann, "Das Zeitalter des Barock", in M. Thierer (ed.), Lust auf Barock: Himmel trifft Erde in Oberschwaben, Lindenberg: Kunstverlag Fink, 2002, p. 11f. ^ Wilhelm Süvern: 1971. Torbögen und Inschriften lippischer Fachwerkhäuser in Volume 7 of Heimatland Lippe. Lippe Heimatbund: 1971. 48 pages ^ Heinrich Stiewe: 2007. Fachwerkhäuser in Deutschland: Konstruktion, Gestalt und Nutzung vom Mittelalter bis heute. Primus Verlag: 2007. ISBN 978-3-89678-589-3. 160 pages ^ "Art Nouveau — Art Nouveau Art". Huntfor.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2006. p. 880. ISBN 0-19-860678-8.  ^ Jodidio, Philip (21 January 2008). 100 Contemporary Architects (1 ed.). Taschen. ISBN 3-8365-0091-4.  ^ Dégh, Linda (1979). "Grimm's Household Tales and its Place in the Household". Western Folklore 38 (2): 85–103, pp. 99–101. (subscription required) ^ History of the Deutsches Wörterbuch from the DWB 150th Anniversary Exhibition and Symposium Archived 15 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Berlin: Humboldt-Universität, 2004. (in German), retrieved 27 June 2012. ^ Espmark, Kjell (3 December 1999). "The Nobel Prize in Literature". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Annual Report" (PDF). International Publishers Association. October 2014. p. 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.  ^ Weidhaas, Peter; Gossage, Carolyn; Wright, Wendy A. (2007). A History of the Frankfurt Book Fair. Dundurn Press Ltd. pp. 11 ff. ISBN 978-1-55002-744-0.  ^ Chase, Jefferson (13 March 2015). "Leipzig Book Fair: Cultural sideshow with a serious side". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ Searle, John (1987). "Introduction". The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.  ^ "Distribution of TV in Germany (German)". Astra Sat. 19 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2014.  ^ "Country profile: Germany". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Organization 1950–1954". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ "ZDB OPAC – start/text". d-nb.de. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ Purchese, Robert (17 August 2009). "Germany's video game market". Eurogamer.net. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2012.  ^ "Press releases". gamescom Press Center. 2014. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ "Made in Germany: The most important games from Germany (German)". PC Games Hardware. 27 November 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2014.  ^ Studio Babelsberg – Mit der Erschließung des direkt in der Nachbarschaft befindlichen Filmgeländes mit den Studios Neue Film 1 und Neue Film 2 konnte Studio Babelsberg seine Studiokapazitäten verdoppeln und verfügt so über Europas größten zusammenhängenden Studiokomplex., retrieved 3 December 2013 (German) ^ "SciFi Film History – Metropolis (1927)". Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ Bordwell, David; Thompson, Kristin (2003) [1994]. "The Introduction of Sound". Film History: An Introduction (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-07-115141-2.  ^ Rother, Rainer (1 July 2003). Leni Riefenstahl: The Seduction of Genius. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 1-4411-5901-0.  ^ Stephen Brockmann, A Critical History of German Film, Camden House, 2010, p. 286. ISBN 1571134689 ^ "Awards:Das Leben der Anderen". IMDb. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "2006 FIAPF accredited Festivals Directory" (PDF). International Federation of Film Producers Associations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Die Beauftragte der BUndesregierung fuer Kultur und Medien, Deutscher-flimpreis. Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 21 May 2015. ^ The Complete Idiot's Guide to Cheeses of the World – Steve Ehlers, Jeanette Hurt Archived 11 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. pp. 113–115. ^ "Guide to German Hams and Sausages". German Foods North America. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ "Numbers, data, facts about the organic food sector" (in German). Foodwatch. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015. Bio-Produkte machen lediglich 3,9 Prozent des gesamten Lebensmittelumsatzes in Deutschland aus (2012).  ^ "German Wine Statistics". Wines of Germany, Deutsches Weininstitut. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.  ^ Samantha Payne (20 November 2014). "Top 10 Heaviest Beer-drinking Countries: Czech Republic and Germany Sink Most Pints". Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ "492 Years of Good Beer: Germans Toast the Anniversary of Their Beer Purity Law – International – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News". 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Michelin Guide restaurants for Germany". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ "German cuisine beats Italy, Spain in gourmet stars". Reuters. 28 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ "Schnitzel Outcooks Spaghetti in Michelin Guide". Deutsche Welle. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ a b c "Germany Info: Culture & Life: Sports". Germany Embassy in Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ Ornstein, David (23 October 2006). "What we will miss about Michael Schumacher". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ "Vettel makes Formula One history with eighth successive victory". Irish Independent. 17 November 2013.  ^ Large, David Clay, Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936. W. W. Norton & Company, 2007, ISBN 9780393058840 p. 136. ^ Large, p. 337. ^ "Bauhaus: The Single Most Influential School of Design". gizmodo. 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.  ^ "BMWI Branchenfokus Textil und Bekleidung". Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "Berlin as a fashion capital: the improbable rise". Fashion United UK. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ "Die deutsche Mode kommt aus der Provinz". BRIGITTE. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ "German Cultures Today: Fashion Stars – One Germany in Europe". German History Docs GHDI. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 


External links Listen to this article (2 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Germany" dated 2008-06-24, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Find more aboutGermanyat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Government Official site of the Federal Government Official site of the Federal President Official site of the German Chancellor Official Germany Tourism website General information Germany from the BBC News "Germany". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Germany from UCB Libraries GovPubs Germany at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Germany Encyclopædia Britannica entry Germany from the OECD Germany at the EU Wikimedia Atlas of Germany Geographic data related to Germany at OpenStreetMap Key Development Forecasts for Germany from International Futures v t e Germany articles History Timeline Historiography Military history Germanic peoples Migration Period Frankish Empire Holy Roman Empire Ostsiedlung (East Colonisation) Confederation of the Rhine German Confederation Frankfurt Constitution North German Confederation Unification of Germany German Empire World War I Weimar Republic Nazi Germany World War II Divided Germany Allied occupation Flight and expulsions East Germany West Germany Reunification Reunified Germany Geography Administrative divisions States Districts Cities and towns Earthquakes Geology Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers Politics Bundestag Bundesrat Bundeswehr (military) Cabinet Chancellor Constitution Court system Elections Foreign relations Human rights Intersex LGBT Transgender Law Law enforcement Political parties President Economy Agriculture Automobile industry Banking Central bank Chemical Triangle Economic history Energy Exports German model German states by GDP Manufacturing Mining Mittelstand companies Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Trade unions Transport Welfare Society Crime Demographics Drug policy Education Germans Ethnic groups Healthcare Immigration Pensions Religion Social issues Culture Anthem Architecture Art Arts Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Dance Fashion Festivals Flag Language Literature Internet Media Music Names Philosophy Prussian virtues Sport Television World Heritage Outline Index Book Category Portal Articles related to Germany v t e States of the Federal Republic of Germany States   Baden-Württemberg (since 1952)   Bavaria (since 1949)   Brandenburg (since 1990)   Hesse (since 1949)   Lower Saxony (since 1949)   Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (since 1990)   North Rhine-Westphalia (since 1949)   Rhineland-Palatinate (since 1949)   Saarland (since 1957)   Saxony (since 1990)   Saxony-Anhalt (since 1990)   Schleswig-Holstein (since 1949)   Thuringia (since 1990) City-states   Berlin (since 1990)   Bremen (since 1949)   Hamburg (since 1949) Former states   South Baden (1949–1952)   Württemberg-Baden (1949–1952)   Württemberg-Hohenzollern (1949–1952) Geographic locale v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. v t e Countries bordering the Baltic Sea  Denmark  Estonia  Finland  Germany  Latvia  Lithuania  Poland  Russia  Sweden International membership v t e Member states of the European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark (details) Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland (details) Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom (details) Future enlargement of the European Union v t e North Atlantic Treaty Organization History North Atlantic Treaty Summit Operations Enlargement Structure Council Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Air Command Land Command Maritime Command JFC Brunssum JFC Naples Allied Command Transformation Parliamentary Assembly Standardization Agreement People Secretary General Chairman of the Military Committee Supreme Allied Commander Europe Supreme Allied Commander Transformation Members Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United States Multilateral relations Atlantic Treaty Association Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Mediterranean Dialogue Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Partnership for Peace Portal v t e Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) History Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD Anti-Bribery Convention Guidelines Multinational Enterprises Testing of Chemicals v t e Group of Eight (G8) and Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) G8 members  Canada  France  Germany  Italy  Japan  Russia  United Kingdom  United States Representative  European Union G8+5  Brazil  China  India  Mexico  South Africa See also Group of Six Group of Seven G7+1 v t e G20 major economies  Argentina  Australia  Brazil  Canada  China  European Union  France  Germany  India  Indonesia  Italy  Japan  Mexico  Russia  Saudi Arabia  South Africa  Republic of Korea  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States v t e World Trade Organization System Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events Issues Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause Agreements General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package Ministerial Conferences 1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015) People Roberto Azevêdo (Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa Members Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short. v t e Council of Europe Institutions Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance Members Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Observers Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta Former members Czechoslovakia (1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956) 1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute. v t e Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Members Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Holy See Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan Partners for Cooperation Afghanistan Algeria Australia Egypt Israel Japan Jordan Morocco South Korea Thailand Tunisia Bodies and posts Parliamentary Assembly ODIHR Commissioner on National Minorities Representative on Freedom of the Media Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127773629 LCCN: n80125931 GND: 4011882-4 NDL: 00561571 BNE: XX450924 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germany&oldid=826582532" Categories: GermanyCentral European countriesCountries in EuropeFederal republicsG7 nationsG8 nationsG20 nationsGerman-speaking countries and territoriesMember states of NATOMember states of the Council of EuropeMember states of the European UnionMember states of the Union for the MediterraneanMember states of the United NationsStates and territories established in 1871States and territories established in 1949States and territories established in 1990Hidden categories: Articles containing Danish-language textArticles containing Low German-language textArticles containing Upper Sorbian-language textArticles containing Lower Sorbian-language textArticles containing Romani-language textArticles containing North Frisian-language textArticles containing Turkish-language textArticles containing German-language textCS1 German-language sources (de)Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: Uses editors parameterArticles with German-language external linksPages with login required references or sourcesPages containing links to subscription-only contentCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse British English from August 2013Use dmy dates from January 2018Featured articlesCoordinates on WikidataArticles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (English)Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2017Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013Spoken articlesArticles with Curlie linksWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersArticles containing video clips


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikinewsWikiquoteWikivoyage Languages AcèhАдыгэбзэАдыгабзэAfrikaansAkanAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscАҧсшәаالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐArmãneashtiArpetanAsturianuAvañe'ẽАварAymar aruAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهBamanankanবাংলাBân-lâm-gúBasa BanyumasanБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎भोजपुरीBikol CentralBislamaБългарскиBoarischབོད་ཡིགBosanskiBrezhonegБуряадCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaChamoruChavacano de ZamboangaChi-ChewaChiShonaChiTumbukaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeitschDeutschދިވެހިބަސްDiné bizaadDolnoserbskiཇོང་ཁEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraEʋegbeفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskFulfuldeFurlanGaeilgeGaelgGagauzGàidhligGalego贛語Gĩkũyũگیلکیગુજરાતી𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni客家語/Hak-kâ-ngîХальмг한국어HausaHawaiʻiՀայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIgboIlokanoবিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরীBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaInterlingueᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitutИронIsiXhosaIsiZuluÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaKalaallisutಕನ್ನಡKapampanganКъарачай-малкъарქართულიKaszëbscziҚазақшаKernowekKinyarwandaKirundiKiswahiliКомиKongoKreyòl ayisyenKurdîКыргызчаLadinoЛезгиລາວلۊری شومالیLatgaļuLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLigureLimburgsLingálaLivvinkarjalaLa .lojban.LugandaLumbaartMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиMalagasyമലയാളംMaltiMāoriमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuBaso MinangkabauMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄MirandésМокшеньМонголမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlDorerin NaoeroNa Vosa VakavitiNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NapulitanoНохчийнNordfriiskNorfuk / PitkernNorskNorsk nynorskNouormandNovialOccitanОлык марийଓଡ଼ିଆOromooOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀपालिPälzischPangasinanپنجابیPapiamentuپښتوPatoisПерем Комиភាសាខ្មែរPicardPiemontèisTok PisinPlattdüütschPolskiΠοντιακάPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaReo tahitiRipoarischRomânăRomaniRumantschRuna SimiРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаGagana Samoaसंस्कृतम्SarduScotsSeelterskSesothoSesotho sa LeboaShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishسنڌيSiSwatiSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСловѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟŚlůnskiSoomaaligaکوردیSranantongoСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TaqbaylitTarandíneТатарча/tatarçaతెలుగుTetunไทยትግርኛТоҷикӣᏣᎳᎩTsetsêhestâheseತುಳುTürkçeTürkmençeTwiТыва дылУдмуртᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗУкраїнськаاردوئۇيغۇرچە / UyghurcheVahcuenghVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükVõroWalon文言West-VlamsWinarayWolof吴语XitsongaייִדישYorùbá粵語ZazakiZeêuwsŽemaitėška中文डोटेलीKabɩyɛ Edit links This page was last edited on 19 February 2018, at 23:01. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"4.196","walltime":"4.725","ppvisitednodes":{"value":51771,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":1106240,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":252156,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":17,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":41,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 3829.525 1 -total"," 47.86% 1832.642 2 Template:Reflist"," 22.31% 854.501 170 Template:Cite_web"," 14.34% 549.207 3 Template:Navboxes"," 11.08% 424.376 1 Template:Infobox_country"," 10.18% 389.890 1 Template:Infobox"," 10.01% 383.348 2 Template:Coord"," 9.39% 359.701 19 Template:Navbox"," 6.68% 255.787 48 Template:Cite_book"," 5.14% 196.937 42 Template:Cite_news"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"2.186","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":37463723,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1230","timestamp":"20180219230126","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":146,"wgHostname":"mw1268"});});


Germany - Photos and All Basic Informations

Germany More Links

This Is A Featured Article. Click Here For More Information.This Article Is Semi-protected.Listen To This ArticleGermany (disambiguation)Deutschland (disambiguation)West GermanyGeographic Coordinate SystemGerman LanguageFlag Of GermanyFlag Of GermanyCoat Of Arms Of GermanyCoat Of Arms Of GermanyDeutschlandliedDeutschlandliedLocation Of  Germany  (dark Green)– in Europe  (green & dark Grey)– in The European Union  (green)EuropeEuropean UnionBerlinGerman LanguageEthnic GroupsGermansEthnic Groups In EuropeAsian PeopleEthnic Groups In West AsiaTurkish PeopleList Of Ethnic Groups Of AfricaChristianityIrreligionIslamDemonymGermansPolitics Of GermanyFederalismConstitutionParliamentary SystemRepublicPresident Of GermanyFrank-Walter SteinmeierChancellor Of Germany (Federal Republic Of Germany)Angela MerkelBasic Law For The Federal Republic Of GermanyPresident Of The BundestagWolfgang SchäublePresident Of The BundesratMichael Müller (politician)Federal Constitutional Court Of GermanyAndreas VoßkuhleUpper HouseBundesrat Of GermanyLower HouseBundestagGeography Of GermanyList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaDemographics Of GermanyList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationList Of Countries And Territories By Population DensityGross Domestic ProductPurchasing Power ParityList Of Countries By GDP (PPP)List Of Countries By GDP (PPP) Per CapitaGross Domestic ProductList Of Countries By GDP (nominal)List Of Countries By GDP (nominal) Per CapitaGini CoefficientHuman Development IndexList Of Countries By Human Development IndexEuroEuro SignISO 4217Central European TimeCoordinated Universal TimeDaylight Saving TimeCentral European Summer TimeCoordinated Universal TimeRight- And Left-hand TrafficTelephone Numbers In GermanyTelephone Numbers In GermanyISO 3166ISO 3166-2:DECountry Code Top-level Domain.de.euHelp:IPA/EnglishAbout This SoundGerman LanguageHelp:IPA/Standard GermanAbout This SoundWikipedia:Media HelpFile:De-Bundesrepublik Deutschland.oggFederationParliamentary RepublicCentral EuropeWestern EuropeStates Of GermanyMember State Of The European UnionCapital CityList Of Cities In Germany By PopulationBerlinRuhrDortmundEssenHamburgMunichCologneFrankfurtStuttgartDüsseldorfLeipzigBremenDresdenHannoverNurembergGermanic TribesClassical AntiquityGermaniaGermania (book)Migration PeriodHoly Roman EmpireProtestant ReformationGerman ConfederationGerman Revolutions Of 1848–49Frankfurt ParliamentUnification Of GermanyPrussiaGerman EmpireWorld War IGerman Revolution Of 1918–19Weimar RepublicNazi Seizure Of PowerNazi GermanyWorld War IIHolocaustEnd Of World War II In EuropeAllied-occupied GermanyWest GermanyEast GermanySoviet Occupation ZoneRevolutions Of 1989German ReunificationGerman Unity DayGreat PowerEconomy Of GermanyList Of Countries By GDP (nominal)List Of Countries By GDP (PPP)List Of Countries By ExportsList Of Countries By ImportsDeveloped CountryList Of Countries By Human Development IndexWelfare In GermanyHealthcare In GermanyEnvironmental ProtectionHigher Education In GermanyEuropean Economic CommunityEuropean UnionSchengen AreaEurozoneUnited NationsNATOG7G20OECDCulture Of GermanyGerman ArtGerman PhilosophyMusic Of GermanySport In GermanyList Of GermansScience And Technology In GermanyNames Of GermanyGermaniaJulius CaesarRhineGerman LanguageDutch (disambiguation)Old High GermanVernacularLatinRomance LanguagesProto-GermanicTheodiscusProto-Indo-European LanguageTeutonsHistory Of GermanyEnlargeNebra Sky DiskMauer 1SchöningenNeandertalNeanderthalNeanderthal 1Swabian JuraLion-manVenus Of Hohle FelsNebra Sky DiskBronzeEuropean Bronze AgeNebra (Unstrut)Saxony-AnhaltUNESCOMemory Of The World ProgrammeGermaniaMigration PeriodFrankish RealmEnlargeGermanic PeoplesEthnogenesisNordic Bronze AgePre-Roman Iron AgeScandinaviaCeltGaulIranian PeoplesBaltsSlavic PeoplesCentral EuropeEastern EuropeAugustusRoman EmpireRhineUral MountainsRoman LegionPublius Quinctilius VarusBattle Of The Teutoburg ForestCheruscanArminiusTacitusGermania (book)Limes GermanicusAustriaBaden WürttembergBavariaHessenRhinelandGermanic WarsRoman ProvinceNoricumRaetiaGermania SuperiorGermania InferiorEnlargeWest FranciaEast FranciaFranceAlemanniFranksChattiSaxonsFrisiiSicambriThuringiiHunsMerovingianAustrasiaNeustriaDuchy Of AquitaineFrankish KingdomDuchy Of SaxonyDuchy Of BavariaWest SlavsSorbsVeletiObotritesEast FranciaHoly Roman EmpireCharlemagneCarolingian EmpireTreaty Of VerdunHoly Roman EmpireEast FranciaElbeNorth SeaAlpsOttonianStem DuchyOtto IHoly Roman EmperorPope Gregory VOtto IIIBurgundy (historical Region)SalianInvestiture ControversyEnlargeMartin LutherProtestant ReformationHouse Of HohenstaufenSlavsHistory Of German Settlement In Central And Eastern EuropeOstsiedlungHanseatic LeagueGolden Bull Of 1356Charles IV, Holy Roman EmperorPrince-electorGreat Famine Of 1315–1317Black DeathItalian City-statesRepublic Of VeniceRepublic Of FlorenceRepublic Of GenoaHans Holbein The ElderHans Holbein The YoungerAlbrecht DürerJohannes GutenbergPrintingDemocratization Of KnowledgeEnlargeHoly Roman EmpirePeace Of WestphaliaThirty Years' WarWittenbergMartin LutherThe Ninety-Five ThesesRoman Catholic ChurchProtestant ReformationPeace Of AugsburgLutheranismCuius Regio, Eius ReligioCalvinismHeresyElectorate Of CologneCologne WarThirty Years' WarPeace Of WestphaliaList Of States In The Holy Roman EmpireImperial ReformImperial StateImperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)House Of HabsburgCharles VI, Holy Roman EmperorPrince-electorPragmatic Sanction Of 1713War Of Austrian SuccessionTreaty Of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)Maria TheresaQueen ConsortFrancis I, Holy Roman EmperorGerman DualismHabsburg MonarchyKingdom Of PrussiaRussian EmpirePartitions Of PolandPolish–Lithuanian CommonwealthFrench Revolutionary WarsNapoleonic EraFinal Recess Of The ReichsdeputationFree Imperial CitiesConfederation Of The RhineNapoleonic WarsGerman ConfederationGerman EmpireGerman Colonial EmpireEnlargeGerman ConfederationNapoleonCongress Of ViennaStates Of The German ConfederationEmperor Of AustriaEuropean RestorationLiberalism In GermanyKlemens Von MetternichZollvereinNationalismFrench RevolutionHambach FestivalGerman QuestionRevolutions Of 1848French Revolution Of 1848Revolutions Of 1848 In The German StatesFrederick William IV Of PrussiaEnlargeGerman EmpirePalace Of VersaillesOtto Von BismarckWilliam I, German EmperorOtto Von BismarckMinister President Of PrussiaSecond Schleswig WarAustro-Prussian WarNorth German ConfederationAustrian EmpireFranco-Prussian WarGerman EmpirePalace Of VersaillesHouse Of HohenzollernGründerzeitUnification Of GermanyChancellor Of GermanyFrench Third RepublicWilhelm II, German EmperorNew ImperialismDual Alliance (1879)Multinational StateAustria-HungaryBenevolent NeutralityTriple Alliance (1882)EnlargeGerman EmpireKingdom Of PrussiaBerlin ConferenceList Of Former German ColoniesGerman East AfricaGerman South West AfricaTogolandKamerunGerman Colonial EmpireGerman New GuineaGerman MicronesiaGerman SamoaKiautschou Bay ConcessionNamibiaHerero And Namaqua GenocideHerero PeopleNama PeopleConcentration CampsAssassination Of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Of AustriaArchduke Franz Ferdinand Of AustriaWorld War IArmistice With GermanyGerman Revolution Of 1918–1919AbdicationTreaty Of VersaillesCentral PowersAllies Of World War IWorld War I CasualtiesAdolf HitlerGreater Poland Uprising (1918–19)November 1918 In Alsace-LorraineSchleswig Plebiscites, 1920Weimar RepublicNazi GermanyEnlargePhilipp ScheidemannWeimar RepublicReich ChancelleryRepublicGerman Revolution Of 1918–19President Of GermanyFriedrich EbertWeimar ConstitutionCommunistsBavarian Soviet RepublicKapp PutschReichswehrOccupation Of The RuhrHyperinflation In The Weimar RepublicDawes PlanGerman RentenmarkGolden TwentiesGreat DepressionGerman Federal Election, 1930Heinrich BrüningPaul Von HindenburgArticle 48 (Weimar Constitution)Causes Of The Great DepressionWeimar RepublicNazi PartyAdolf HitlerGerman Federal Election, July 1932Reichstag FireReichstag Fire DecreeCivil RightsNazi Concentration CampsDachau Concentration CampEnabling Act Of 1933Totalitarian StateGerman Referendum, 1933EnlargeAdolf HitlerNazi GermanyGerman AutobahnsHydroelectricRur DamZillierbach DamZwickau HauptbahnhofNuremberg LawsJewsSaar (League Of Nations)Remilitarization Of The RhinelandAnschlussSudetenlandMunich AgreementGerman Occupation Of CzechoslovakiaProtectorate Of Bohemia And MoraviaKristallnachtMolotov–Ribbentrop PactSoviet UnionInvasion Of PolandWorld War IIEnlargeWWIIGerman-occupied EuropeOperation WeserübungBattle Of The NetherlandsBattle Of BelgiumInvasion Of LuxembourgBattle Of FranceBattle Of BritainInvasion Of YugoslaviaBattle Of GreeceOperation BarbarossaAxis PowersOccupied EuropeNorth AfricaBattle Of StalingradNorth African CampaignItalian Campaign (World War II)Operation OverlordEastern Front (World War II)Battle Of The BulgeDeath Of Adolf HitlerBattle Of BerlinVictory In Europe DayAftermath Of World War IIWar Crimes Of The WehrmachtNuremberg TrialsThe HolocaustNazi Concentration CampsNazi Death CampsGenocideJewsPorajmosAction T4Jehovah's WitnessesPersecution Of Homosexuals In Nazi Germany And The HolocaustThe HolocaustNacht Und NebelPolesUkrainiansNazi Crimes Against Soviet POWsGerman-occupied EuropeForced Labour Under German Rule During World War IIGerman Casualties In World War IIExpulsion Of Germans After World War IIFormer Eastern Territories Of GermanyWeimar RepublicStrategic Bombing During World War IIHistory Of Germany (1945–90)EnlargeAllied-occupied GermanySaar ProtectorateOder-Neisse LinePotsdam ConferenceAllies Of World War IIWest GermanyEast GermanyWest GermanyEast GermanyBerlinBonnSocial Market EconomyMarshall PlanKonrad AdenauerFederal Chancellor Of The Federal Republic Of GermanyLudwig ErhardEconomic MiracleWirtschaftswunderNATOEuropean Economic CommunityEnlargeBerlin WallFall Of The Berlin WallBrandenburg GateEastern BlocWarsaw PactPolitburoSocialist Unity Party Of GermanyStasiCommand EconomyComeconCommunist PropagandaBerlin WallCold WarRonald ReaganMikhail GorbachovTear Down This Wall!John F. KennedyIch Bin Ein BerlinerFall Of CommunismDissolution Of The Soviet UnionGerman ReunificationDie WendeWilly BrandtOstpolitikIron CurtainEast GermansMonday Demonstrations In East GermanyTreaty On The Final Settlement With Respect To GermanyGerman Instrument Of SurrenderGerman ReunificationNew States Of GermanyGerman ReunificationHistory Of Germany Since 1990EnlargeGerman ReunificationReichstag (building)BundestagSuccessor StateBerlin/Bonn ActGerman Federal Election, 1998Social Democratic Party Of GermanyGerhard SchröderRed–green AllianceAlliance '90/The GreensAgenda 2010EnlargeEuropean UnionEuroLisbon TreatyEuropean UnionMaastricht TreatyEurozoneLisbon Treaty1999 NATO Bombing In YugoslaviaBundeswehrAfghanistanWar In Afghanistan (2001–present)TalibanGerman Federal Election, 2005Angela MerkelGrand Coalition (Germany)Free Democratic Party (Germany)Christian Democratic Union (Germany)Second Merkel CabinetThird Merkel CabinetEuropean IntegrationEnergy Transition In GermanySustainable EnergyBalanced Budget AmendmentAgeing Of EuropeNatalistic PoliticsIndustry 4.0European Migrant CrisisAfricaMiddle EastGeography Of GermanyEnlargeWestern EuropeCentral EuropeDenmarkPolandCzech RepublicAustriaSwitzerlandLuxembourgNetherlands47th Parallel North55th Parallel North5th Meridian East16th Meridian EastLake ConstanceList Of Countries By AreaAlpsZugspitzeNorth SeaBaltic SeaWilstermarschRhineDanubeElbePotashLigniteUraniumArable LandEnlargeLoreleiTemperateOceanic ClimateContinental ClimateNorth Atlantic CurrentGulf StreamPrecipitation (meteorology)CelsiusFahrenheitEcoregionEuropean-Mediterranean Montane Mixed ForestsArable LandForestWoodlandPasturesHuman SettlementStreetEnlargeGolden EagleBeechesOakDeciduousConifersReforestationSpruceFirPineLarchFernFlowersFungiMossesCentral European Red DeerCentral European BoarMouflonRed FoxEuropean BadgerEuropean HareEurasian BeaverPrussian BlueCornflowerFloral EmblemList Of National Parks Of GermanyJasmund National ParkVorpommern Lagoon Area National ParkMüritz National ParkWadden Sea National ParksHarz National ParkHainich National ParkBlack Forest National ParkSaxon Switzerland National ParkBavarian Forest National ParkBerchtesgaden National ParkBiosphere Reserves In GermanyNature Parks (Germany)List Of Zoos In GermanyBerlin Zoological GardenList Of Cities And Towns In GermanyList Of Cities In Germany By PopulationList Of Cities And Towns In GermanyMetropolitan Regions In GermanyRegiopolisConurbationRhine-RuhrDüsseldorfNorth Rhine-WestphaliaCologneBonnDortmundEssenDuisburgBochumTemplate:Largest Cities Of GermanyTemplate Talk:Largest Cities Of GermanyList Of Statistical Offices In GermanyList Of Cities In Germany By PopulationList Of Cities In GermanyStates Of GermanyList Of Cities In Germany By PopulationList Of Cities In Germany By PopulationList Of Cities In GermanyStates Of GermanyList Of Cities In Germany By PopulationBerlinBerlinHamburgHamburgBerlinBerlinBremenBremen (state)MunichMunichCologneCologneHamburgHamburgDresdenSaxonyMunichBavariaHannoverLower SaxonyCologneNorth Rhine-WestphaliaNurembergBavariaFrankfurtHesseDuisburgNorth Rhine-WestphaliaStuttgartBaden-WürttembergBochumNorth Rhine-WestphaliaDüsseldorfNorth Rhine-WestphaliaWuppertalNorth Rhine-WestphaliaDortmundNorth Rhine-WestphaliaBielefeldNorth Rhine-WestphaliaEssenNorth Rhine-WestphaliaBonnNorth Rhine-WestphaliaLeipzigSaxonyMünsterNorth Rhine-WestphaliaPolitics Of GermanyTaxation In GermanyFederal Budget Of GermanyFrank-Walter SteinmeierPresident Of GermanyAngela MerkelChancellor Of GermanyFederal RepublicParliamentary DemocraticRepresentative DemocracyBasic Law For The Federal Republic Of GermanyRule Of LawPresident Of GermanyFrank-Walter SteinmeierHead Of StateBundesversammlung (Germany)German Order Of PrecedencePresident Of The BundestagHead Of GovernmentEnlargeAngela MerkelExecutive (government)Prime MinisterLegislative PowerBundestagBundesrat Of GermanyDirect ElectionProportional RepresentationMixed Member Proportional RepresentationChristian Democratic Union (Germany)Social Democratic Party Of GermanyFree Democratic Party (Germany)Alliance '90/The GreensThe Left (Germany)German Federal Election, 2017Alternative For GermanyDebt-to-GDP RatioEurostatGovernment DebtGross Domestic ProductCredit RatingCredit Rating AgenciesStandard & Poor'sMoody'sFitch RatingsLaw Of GermanyJudiciary Of GermanyLaw Enforcement In GermanyEnlargeCivil Law (legal System)Roman LawGermanic LawFederal Constitutional Court Of GermanyJudicial ReviewInquisitorial SystemFederal Court Of Justice Of GermanyFederal Labor Court Of GermanyBundessozialgerichtFederal Finance Court Of GermanyFederal Administrative Court Of GermanyStrafgesetzbuchBürgerliches GesetzbuchPolitical CrimeLay JudgeSchöffeAdministrative LawStates Of GermanyCity-stateBerlinHamburgBremen (state)Lower SaxonyBremenBremerhavenStates Of GermanyRegierungsbezirkeDistricts Of GermanyList Of Rural Districts Of GermanyUrban Districts Of GermanyLower SaxonyLower SaxonyFree Hanseatic City Of BremenBremen (state)HamburgHamburgMecklenburg-VorpommernMecklenburg-VorpommernSaxony-AnhaltSaxony-AnhaltSaxonySaxonyBrandenburgBrandenburgBerlinBerlinThuringiaThuringiaHesseHesseNorth Rhine-WestphaliaNorth Rhine-WestphaliaRhineland-PalatinateRhineland-PalatinateBavariaBavariaBaden-WürttembergBaden-WürttembergSaarlandSaarlandSchleswig-HolsteinSchleswig-HolsteinStates Of GermanyBaden-WürttembergStuttgartBavariaMunichBerlinBerlinBrandenburgPotsdamBremen (state)BremenHamburgHamburgHesseWiesbadenMecklenburg-VorpommernSchwerinLower SaxonyHanoverNorth Rhine-WestphaliaDüsseldorfRhineland-PalatinateMainzSaarlandSaarbrückenSaxonyDresdenSaxony-AnhaltMagdeburgSchleswig-HolsteinKielThuringiaErfurtBerlinForeign Relations Of GermanyEnlarge2017 G20 Hamburg SummitHamburgEuropean UnionNATOOrganisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentG8G20World BankInternational Monetary FundFranco-German CooperationGerhard SchröderKosovo WarAtlanticismBundeswehrEnlargeEurofighter TyphoonGerman Air ForceGerman ArmyKommando SpezialkräfteGerman NavyGerman Air ForceBundeswehr Joint Medical ServiceStreitkräftebasisSIPRIEnlargeGerman NavyBrandenburg-class FrigateState Of Defence (Germany)Constitution Of GermanySecurityDaeshResolute Support MissionKosovoConscription In GermanyConscientious ObjectorsZivildienstVolunteer Fire DepartmentGerman Red CrossEconomy Of GermanyEnlargeMercedes-Benz S-Class (C217)Automotive Industry In GermanyList Of Countries By ExportsSocial Market EconomyLabour ForceCapital StockInnovationList Of Countries By ExportsList Of Countries By GDP (nominal)List Of Countries By GDP (PPP)Tertiary Sector Of IndustryInformation TechnologyEurostatYouth UnemploymentOrganisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentWorkforce ProductivityEnlargeFrankfurtEuropean Central BankInternal MarketEuroEuropean Central BankFrankfurtHistory Of The AutomobileAutomotive Industry In GermanyList Of Countries By Motor Vehicle ProductionFortune Global 500DAXMercedes-BenzBMWSAP AGVolkswagenAudiSiemensAllianzAdidasPorscheDeutsche BahnDeutsche BankRobert Bosch GmbHSmall And Medium EnterprisesMittelstandHidden ChampionsStartup EcosystemStartup CompanyEnlargeEurozoneInternal Market (European Union)Volkswagen GroupWolfsburgDaimler AGStuttgartE.ONEssenAllianzMunichBMWMunichSiemensBerlinMunichRobert Bosch GmbHStuttgartBASFLudwigshafenDeutsche TelekomBonnMetro AGDüsseldorfTransport In GermanyRail Transport In GermanyEnlargeICE 3AutobahnHigh-speed RailInterCityExpressDeutsche BahnFrankfurt AirportMunich AirportLufthansaAir BerlinBerlin Tegel AirportDüsseldorf AirportBerlin Schönefeld AirportHamburg AirportCologne Bonn AirportLeipzig/Halle AirportPort Of HamburgList Of World's Busiest Container PortsEnergy In GermanyTelecommunications In GermanyWater Supply And Sanitation In GermanyEnlargeNuclear Power In GermanyNuclear Power PlantEnergy ConservationGreen TechnologyRenewable EnergyParis AgreementWater ManagementRenewable Energy CommercialisationList Of Countries By Greenhouse Gas EmissionsEnergy Transition In GermanyScience And Technology In GermanyEnlargeAlbert EinsteinNobel PrizeList Of Nobel Laureates By CountryResearch And DevelopmentEconomy Of GermanyNobel PrizeList Of Nobel Laureates By CountrySouth KoreaNobel Prize In PhysicsNobel Prize In ChemistryNobel Prize In Physiology Or MedicineHermann Von HelmholtzJoseph Von FraunhoferGabriel Daniel FahrenheitAlbert EinsteinSpecial RelativityGeneral RelativityMax PlanckQuantum MechanicsWerner HeisenbergMax BornWilhelm RöntgenX-rayOtto HahnRadiochemistryNuclear FissionFerdinand CohnRobert KochMicrobiologyMathematicianCarl Friedrich GaussDavid HilbertBernhard RiemannGottfried LeibnizKarl WeierstrassHermann WeylFelix KleinEnlargeEuropean Space Operations CentreDarmstadtList Of German Inventors And DiscoverersHans GeigerGeiger CounterKonrad ZuseFerdinand Von ZeppelinOtto LilienthalGottlieb DaimlerRudolf DieselHugo JunkersKarl BenzGerman Aerospace CenterEuropean Space AgencyAerospace EngineeringWernher Von BraunV-2 RocketPeenemünde Army Research CenterNASASaturn VHeinrich Rudolf HertzElectromagnetic RadiationMax Planck SocietyHelmholtz Association Of German Research CentresFraunhofer SocietyWendelstein 7-XGreifswaldFusion PowerGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz PrizeTourism In GermanyBerlinMecklenburg-VorpommernRomantic RoadGerman Wine RouteCastle RoadGerman Avenue RoadGerman Timber-Frame RoadNeuschwanstein CastleCologne CathedralReichstag BuildingHofbräuhausHeidelberg CastleDresden ZwingerFernsehturm BerlinAachen CathedralEuropa-ParkFreiburg Im BreisgauNeuschwanstein CastleObersee (Königssee)Europa-ParkFreiburgStralsundStralsundDemographics Of GermanyGermansEnlargeRussiaList Of Countries By PopulationList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories By Population DensityList Of Countries By Life ExpectancyTotal Fertility RateList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories By Fertility RateDeath RateBirth RateDanesSchleswig-HolsteinSorbsSlavic PeopleLusatiaFree State Of SaxonyBrandenburgRomani PeopleSintiFrisiansLower SaxonyGerman Nationality LawImmigration To GermanyUnited StatesImmigration To GermanyUrban AreaEnlargeList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories By Immigrant PopulationFederal Statistical Office Of GermanyEthnic GermanAussiedlerSpätaussiedlerGastarbeiterUnited Nations Department Of Economic And Social AffairsList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories By Immigrant PopulationList Of Countries By Immigrant PopulationAfro-GermansEastern BlocGerman Law Of ReturnReligion In GermanyProtestantRoman CatholicJewsHolocaustImmigration To GermanyState AtheismEvangelical ProtestantsMuslimsDresden FrauenkircheCologne CathedralLutheranReformedUnited And Uniting ChurchesPrussian Union Of Churches2011 German CensusChristianityProtestantsEvangelical Church In GermanyFree ChurchesGerman LanguageRoman Catholicism In GermanyEastern OrthodoxIrreligion In GermanyState AtheismIslam In GermanyFederal Office For Migration And RefugeesSunni IslamAlevitesShia IslamAhmadiyyaBuddhismJudaismHinduismGerman LanguageLanguages Of GermanyEnlargeGoethe InstitutGerman LanguageStandard GermanWest Germanic LanguagesLow GermanDutch LanguageAfrikaans LanguageFrisian LanguagesEnglish LanguageNorth Germanic LanguagesDenglischGerman DialectVariety (linguistics)LexiconPhonologySyntaxWorking LanguageEuropean CommissionEuropean UnionDanish LanguageLow GermanLow RhenishSorbian LanguagesRomany LanguageNorth Frisian LanguageSaterland Frisian LanguageEuropean Charter For Regional Or Minority LanguagesTurkish LanguageKurdish LanguagePolish LanguageBalkan LanguagesRussian LanguageGoethe-InstitutEducation In GermanyEnlargeHeidelberg UniversityGerman Universities Excellence InitiativeStates Of GermanyKindergartenCompulsory EducationGymnasium (school)RealschuleHauptschuleComprehensive SchoolDual Education SystemVocational TrainingList Of Universities In GermanyAbiturList Of Universities In GermanyList Of Oldest Universities In Continuous OperationHeidelberg UniversityLeipzig UniversityUniversity Of RostockUniversity Of GreifswaldUniversity Of BerlinWilhelm Von HumboldtGerman Universities Excellence InitiativeHumboldt University BerlinUniversity Of BremenUniversity Of CologneTU DresdenUniversity Of TübingenRWTH AachenFU BerlinHeidelberg UniversityUniversity Of KonstanzLMU MunichTechnical University Of MunichHealthcare In GermanyEnlargeLübeckUniversal Health CareOtto Von BismarckWorld Health OrganizationHealth Care SystemList Of Countries By Life ExpectancyInfant Mortality RateLive Birth (human)HIV/AIDSObesityCulture Of GermanyEnlargeChristmas MarketJenaSecularismGerman LiteratureGerman PhilosophyOktoberfestWeihnachtenAdvent WreathNativity PlayChristmas TreeStollenUNESCOWorld Heritage Sites In GermanyPublic Holidays In GermanyNational DayGerman Unity DayUprising Of 1953 In East GermanyBerlinBBCMusic Of GermanyEnlargeLudwig Van BeethovenSymphony No. 5 (Beethoven)Classical Music EraDieterich BuxtehudeJohann Sebastian BachGeorge Frideric HandelBaroque MusicLeopold MozartWolfgang Amadeus MozartLudwig Van BeethovenRomantic MusicCarl Maria Von WeberFelix MendelssohnRobert SchumannJohannes BrahmsRichard WagnerRichard Strauss20th-century Classical MusicKarlheinz StockhausenHans ZimmerNeue Deutsche WellePop MusicOstrockHeavy Metal MusicGerman RockGerman PunkPop RockIndie RockSchlager MusicElectronic MusicKraftwerkTangerine DreamTechnoHouse MusicFelix JaehnPaul Van DykPaul KalkbrennerScooter (band)German ArtCaspar David FriedrichWanderer Above The Sea Of FogFranz MarcArt Of EuropeAlbrecht DürerHans Holbein The YoungerMatthias GrünewaldLucas Cranach The ElderRenaissancePeter Paul RubensJohann Baptist ZimmermannBaroqueCaspar David FriedrichCarl SpitzwegRomanticismMax LiebermannImpressionismMax ErnstSurrealismOtto Schmidt-HoferFranz IfflandJulius Schmidt-FellingNovember Group (German)Die BrückeDer Blaue ReiterWassily KandinskyExpressionismNew ObjectivityWeimar RepublicNeo-expressionismPerformance ArtConceptual ArtGeorg BaselitzAnselm KieferJörg ImmendorffA. R. PenckMarkus LüpertzPeter Robert KeilRainer FettingMartin KippenbergerGerhard RichterSigmar PolkeNeo RauchBernd And Hilla BecherHanne DarbovenHans-Peter FeldmannHans HaackeJoseph BeuysHA SchultAris KalaizisNeo RauchNew Leipzig SchoolAndreas GurskyDocumentaBerlin BiennaleTransmedialeArt CologneArchitecture Of GermanyCarolingian ArchitectureOttonian ArchitectureRomanesque ArchitectureBrick GothicRenaissance ArchitectureBaroque ArchitectureWeser RenaissanceDresdenMatthäus Daniel PöppelmannJohann Balthasar NeumannGeorg Wenzeslaus Von KnobelsdorffAsam BrothersWessobrunner SchoolUpper Swabian Baroque RouteJohann Michael FeuchtmayerFeuchtmayerJohann Baptist ZimmermannDominikus ZimmermannVernacular ArchitectureFachwerkhausClassicismHistoricism (art)GründerzeitHanover School Of ArchitectureNurembergGottfried SemperGeorg Hermann NicolaiSchloss NeuschwansteinRomanesque RevivalList Of Spa Towns In GermanyList Of Seaside Resorts In GermanySiegfried BingGeorg HirthBruno MöhringArt NouveauResort ArchitectureRügenFachwerkhausBernkastel-KuesHohenzollern CastleSwabiaElbe Philharmonic HallHamburgExpressionist ArchitectureArt DecoJohann Friedrich HögerErich MendelsohnDominikus BöhmFritz Schumacher (architect)Modern ArchitectureDeutscher WerkbundHermann MuthesiusNew Objectivity (architecture)BauhausWalter GropiusLudwig Mies Van Der RoheSkyscraperList Of German ArchitectsHans KollhoffSergei Enwerowitsch TschobanChristoph Kohl (architect)Helmut JahnBehnisch ArchitektenGerkan, Marg And PartnersOle ScheerenJürgen Mayer (architect)Oswald Mathias UngersGottfried BöhmFrei OttoPritzker PrizeGerman LiteratureGerman PhilosophyEnlargeBrothers GrimmGrimms' Fairy TalesWalther Von Der VogelweideWolfram Von EschenbachJohann Wolfgang Von GoetheFriedrich SchillerGotthold Ephraim LessingTheodor FontaneBrothers GrimmGerman FolkloreDeutsches WörterbuchGerhart HauptmannThomas MannHermann HesseHeinrich BöllGünter GrassFrankfurt Book FairLeipzig Book FairGottfried LeibnizRationalismAge Of EnlightenmentImmanuel KantGerman IdealismJohann Gottlieb FichteGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich HegelFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph SchellingArthur SchopenhauerCommunist TheoryKarl MarxFriedrich EngelsFriedrich NietzschePerspectivismGottlob FregeAnalytic PhilosophyMartin HeideggerOswald SpenglerFrankfurt SchoolMax HorkheimerTheodor AdornoHerbert MarcuseJürgen HabermasMedia Of GermanyEnlargeDeutsche WelleBonnMass MediaBertelsmannAxel Springer AGProSiebenSat.1 MediaDeutsche Presse-AgenturTelevision In GermanyPublic BroadcastingCommercial BroadcastingList Of Radio Stations In GermanyDeutsche WelleDeutschlandradioARD (broadcaster)List Of Newspapers In GermanyList Of Magazines In GermanyBildTabloid JournalismDie ZeitSüddeutsche ZeitungFrankfurter Allgemeine ZeitungDie WeltDer SpiegelStern (magazine)Focus (German Magazine)Video Gaming In GermanyGamescomTurricanAnno (series)The SettlersGothic SeriesSpellForceFIFA Manager (video Game Series)Far CryCrysisBlue ByteCrytekDeep SilverKalypso MediaPiranha BytesYager DevelopmentSocial Network GameBigpoint GamesGameforgeGoodgame StudiosWoogaCinema Of GermanyCinema Of GermanyMax SkladanowskyBabelsberg StudioPotsdamUFA GmbHBavaria FilmGerman ExpressionismRobert WieneFriedrich Wilhelm MurnauFritz LangMetropolis (1927 Film)Josef Von SternbergThe Blue AngelSound FilmMarlene DietrichLeni RiefenstahlTriumph Of The WillEnlargeBabelsberg StudioRubble FilmWolfgang StaudteDie Mörder Sind Unter UnsSomewhere In BerlinWerner KrienDeutsche Film-AktiengesellschaftMarriage In The ShadowsKurt MaetzigDer Untertan (film)Die Geschichte Vom Kleinen MuckKonrad WolfDivided Heaven (film)Frank BeyerJacob The Liar (1975 Film)HeimatfilmFilms Based On Works By Edgar WallaceKarl May Film AdaptationsSex Report FilmSchulmädchen-ReportNew German CinemaVolker SchlöndorffWerner HerzogWim WendersRainer Werner FassbinderChariots Of The Gods (film)Das BootThe NeverEnding Story (film)Otto – Der FilmRun Lola RunDer Schuh Des ManituResident Evil (film)Good Bye, Lenin!Head-On (film)The White RibbonAnimals UnitedCloud Atlas (film)Academy Award For Best Foreign Language FilmThe Tin Drum (film)Nowhere In AfricaThe Lives Of OthersList Of German-speaking Academy Award Winners And NomineesEuropean Film AwardEuropean Film AcademyBerlin International Film FestivalGolden BearFilm FestivalDeutscher FilmpreisGerman CuisineEnlargeBlack Forest CakeList Of German DessertsBavarian CuisineSwabian CuisinePizzaSushiChinese FoodGreek CuisineIndian CuisineDoner KebabBread In EuropeList Of German CheesesBratwurstWeisswurstCurrywurstOrganic FoodGerman WineList Of German Wine RegionsBeer In GermanyList Of Countries By Beer Consumption Per CapitaReinheitsgebotMichelin GuideList Of Michelin Starred RestaurantsSport In GermanyEnlargeGermany National Football Team2014 FIFA World CupFootball In GermanyFootball In GermanyGerman Football AssociationBundesligaList Of Attendance Figures At Domestic Professional Sports LeaguesGermany National Football TeamFIFA World CupUEFA European ChampionshipFIFA Confederations Cup1974 FIFA World Cup2006 FIFA World CupUEFA Euro 1988Sport In GermanySport In GermanyBasketball BundesligaHandball-BundesligaGermany Men's National Volleyball TeamIce Hockey In GermanyGerman Open Tennis ChampionshipsEquestrianismSport In GermanyWater SportsSailingRowing (sport)Swimming (sport)Sport In GermanyBMWMercedes-BenzPorsche24 Hours Of Le MansAudiMichael SchumacherList Of Formula One World Drivers' ChampionsSebastian VettelNico RosbergGermany At The OlympicsOlympic GamesAll-time Olympic Games Medal Count1936 Summer Olympics1936 Winter OlympicsGarmisch-PartenkirchenMunich1972 Summer OlympicsGerman FashionEnlargeClaudia SchifferSupermodelProduct DesignBauhausLudwig Mies Van Der RoheDieter RamsBraun (company)Fashion IndustryBerlin Fashion WeekBread And Butter TradeshowKarl LagerfeldJil SanderWolfgang JoopPhilipp PleinMichael MichalskyHugo BossEscadaAdidasPuma SEEsprit HoldingsTriumph InternationalSupermodelClaudia SchifferHeidi KlumTatjana PatitzNadja AuermannToni GarrnGerman FashionPortal:GermanyPortal:EuropeIndex Of Germany-related ArticlesOutline Of GermanyBook:GermanyWikipedia:BooksLanguages Of GermanyDanish LanguageLow German LanguageUpper Sorbian LanguageLower Sorbian LanguageRomani LanguageNorth Frisian LanguageTurkish LanguageBerlinBonnDanish LanguageLow GermanSorbian LanguagesRomani LanguageFrisian LanguagesEuropean Charter For Regional Or Minority LanguagesHelp:IPA/Standard GermanWürttembergFranconiaLippeDuchy Of NassauUnionskirche, IdsteinBundespräsidialamtWayback MachineInternational Monetary FundInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-411-20916-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-406-47638-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781107020733Hagen SchulzeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-674-80688-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-525-20768-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-525-20768-9Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of AmericaBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierThe Art NewspaperInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8147-1381-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-36836-0Scarecrow PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0810863101International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-26430-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-30199-8Investiture ControversyDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-631-18117-0Hajo HolbornDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4027-2885-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-571-23141-6Gerald FeldmanInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-62132-8Fritz Klein (historian)Gerald FeldmanInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-62132-8Gerald FeldmanInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-62132-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-14-303469-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-14-303790-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9783861531173International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-53120-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-88557-089-9Wayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-56521-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-231-11200-0Wayback MachineWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-486-56531-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-56898-134-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-49964-XCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Editors ParameterDer SpiegelWayback MachineWayback MachineWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-58843-503-3Federal Ministry Of Justice (Germany)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-936999-51-8Gerhard CasperJournal Of Legal StudiesDigital Object IdentifierJSTORBundesrat Of GermanyLandtag Of North Rhine-WestphaliaStatistisches BundesamtStatistisches BundesamtEuropean CommissionDeutsche WelleBundeswehrBundeswehrBundeswehrBundeswehrThe World FactbookCentral Intelligence AgencyWayback MachineWayback MachineSt. Petersburg TimesWayback MachineFortune (magazine)International Transport ForumADACDeutsche BahnInternational Standard Serial NumberWayback MachineWayback MachineJürgen SchmidhuberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7139-9611-1York UniversityInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-921548-37-0Wayback MachineFederal Ministry Of The Interior (Germany)Wayback MachineUnited Nations Department Of Economic And Social AffairsWayback MachineWayback MachineFederal Statistical Office Of GermanyWayback MachineFederal Statistical Office Of GermanyWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-9812473-1-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7881-8179-5Federal Statistical Office Of GermanyWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-658-05957-6File:Konfessionen Deutschland Zensus 2011.pngBerkley Center For Religion, Peace, And World AffairsFederal Statistical Office Of GermanyWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-9812115-1-1European CommissionEuropa (web Portal)European CommissionEuropa (web Portal)European CommissionEuropa (web Portal)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-9805843-1-3Academic Ranking Of World UniversitiesLibrary Of CongressFederal Research DivisionGfKForeign Office (Germany)USA TodayInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-907462-45-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-89678-589-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-860678-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-8365-0091-4Wayback MachineKjell EspmarkInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-55002-744-0Deutsche WellePC Games (magazine)David BordwellInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-07-115141-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4411-5901-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1571134689Wayback MachineWayback MachineCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780393058840File:Germany (Spoken Article) Part 1.oggWikipedia:Media HelpWikipedia:Spoken ArticlesWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsBBC NewsThe World FactbookCentral Intelligence AgencyDMOZEncyclopædia BritannicaOrganisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentEuropean UnionOpenStreetMapInternational FuturesTemplate:Germany TopicsTemplate Talk:Germany TopicsIndex Of Germany-related ArticlesHistory Of GermanyTimeline Of German HistoryHistoriography Of GermanyMilitary History Of GermanyGermanic PeoplesMigration PeriodFranciaHoly Roman EmpireOstsiedlungConfederation Of The RhineGerman ConfederationFrankfurt ConstitutionNorth German ConfederationUnification Of GermanyGerman EmpireHistory Of Germany During World War IWeimar RepublicNazi GermanyNazi GermanyHistory Of Germany (1945–90)Allied-occupied GermanyFlight And Expulsion Of Germans (1944–50)East GermanyWest GermanyGerman ReunificationHistory Of Germany Since 1990Geography Of GermanyAdministrative Divisions Of GermanyStates Of GermanyDistricts Of GermanyList Of Cities And Towns In GermanyList Of Earthquakes In GermanyGeology Of GermanyList Of Islands Of GermanyList Of Lakes Of GermanyCategory:Mountains Of GermanyCategory:Rivers Of GermanyPolitics Of GermanyBundestagBundesrat Of GermanyBundeswehrCabinet Of GermanyChancellor Of Germany (1949–)Basic Law For The Federal Republic Of GermanyJudiciary Of GermanyElections In GermanyForeign Relations Of GermanyHuman Rights In GermanyIntersex Rights In GermanyLGBT Rights In GermanyTransgender Rights In GermanyLaw Of GermanyLaw Enforcement In GermanyList Of Political Parties In GermanyPresident Of GermanyEconomy Of GermanyAgriculture In GermanyAutomotive Industry In GermanyBanking In GermanyDeutsche BundesbankMiddle German Chemical TriangleEconomic History Of GermanyEnergy In GermanyList Of Exports Of GermanyGerman ModelList Of German States By GDPCategory:Mining In GermanyMittelstandScience And Technology In GermanyFrankfurt Stock ExchangeTaxation In GermanyTelecommunications In GermanyTourism In GermanyTrade Unions In GermanyTransport In GermanyWelfare In GermanyCategory:German SocietyCrime In GermanyDemographics Of GermanyDrug Policy Of GermanyEducation In GermanyGermansCategory:Ethnic Groups In GermanyHealthcare In GermanyImmigration To GermanyPensions In GermanyReligion In GermanySocial Issues In GermanyCulture Of GermanyDeutschlandliedArchitecture Of GermanyGerman ArtCategory:Arts In GermanyCinema Of GermanyCoat Of Arms Of GermanyGerman CuisineCategory:Dance In GermanyGerman FashionCategory:Festivals In GermanyFlag Of GermanyGerman LanguageGerman LiteratureInternet In GermanyMedia Of GermanyMusic Of GermanyNames Of GermanyGerman PhilosophyPrussian VirtuesSport In GermanyTelevision In GermanyList Of World Heritage Sites In GermanyOutline Of GermanyIndex Of Germany-related ArticlesBook:GermanyCategory:GermanyPortal:GermanyTemplate:States Of The Federal Republic Of GermanyTemplate Talk:States Of The Federal Republic Of GermanyGermanyStates Of GermanyBaden-WürttembergBaden-WürttembergBavariaBavariaBrandenburgBrandenburgHesseHesseLower SaxonyLower SaxonyMecklenburg-VorpommernMecklenburg-VorpommernNorth Rhine-WestphaliaNorth Rhine-WestphaliaRhineland-PalatinateRhineland-PalatinateSaarlandSaarlandSaxonySaxonySaxony-AnhaltSaxony-AnhaltSchleswig-HolsteinSchleswig-HolsteinThuringiaThuringiaStates Of GermanyCity-stateBerlinBerlinBremen (state)Bremen (state)HamburgHamburgSouth BadenSouth BadenWürttemberg-BadenWürttemberg-BadenWürttemberg-HohenzollernWürttemberg-HohenzollernTemplate:Sovereign States Of EuropeTemplate Talk:Sovereign States Of EuropeList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories In EuropeList Of Sovereign StatesAlbaniaAndorraArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBosnia And HerzegovinaBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGeorgia (country)GreeceHungaryIcelandRepublic Of IrelandItalyKazakhstanLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgRepublic Of MacedoniaMaltaMoldovaMonacoMontenegroKingdom Of The NetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUkraineUnited KingdomVatican CityEuropeList Of States With Limited RecognitionAbkhaziaRepublic Of ArtsakhKosovoNorthern CyprusSouth OssetiaTransnistriaDependent TerritoryFaroe IslandsDenmarkAkrotiri And DhekeliaGibraltarBritish Overseas TerritoriesBailiwick Of GuernseyIsle Of ManJerseyCrown DependenciesÅland IslandsAutonomous Administrative DivisionÅland ConventionSvalbardUnincorporated AreaSvalbard TreatyNorthern IrelandCountries Of The United KingdomGood Friday AgreementIslandTemplate:Countries Bordering The Baltic SeaTemplate Talk:Countries Bordering The Baltic SeaBaltic SeaDenmarkEstoniaFinlandLatviaLithuaniaPolandRussiaSwedenTemplate:Member States Of The European UnionTemplate Talk:Member States Of The European UnionMember State Of The European UnionEuropean UnionAustriaBelgiumBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDenmark And The European UnionEstoniaFinlandFranceGreeceHungaryRepublic Of IrelandItalyLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgMaltaNetherlandsPolandPoland In The European UnionPortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenUnited KingdomHistory Of European Union–United Kingdom RelationsFuture Enlargement Of The European UnionTemplate:North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationTemplate Talk:North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNATONorth Atlantic TreatyNATO SummitNATO OperationsEnlargement Of NATONorth Atlantic CouncilSupreme Headquarters Allied Powers EuropeAllied Air CommandAllied Land CommandAllied Maritime CommandAllied Joint Force Command BrunssumAllied Joint Force Command NaplesAllied Command TransformationNATO Parliamentary AssemblyStandardization AgreementSecretary General Of NATOChairman Of The NATO Military CommitteeSupreme Allied Commander EuropeAllied Command TransformationMember States Of NATOAlbanian Armed ForcesBelgian Armed ForcesBulgarian Armed ForcesCanadian Armed ForcesRepublic Of Croatia Armed ForcesArmy Of The Czech RepublicDanish DefenceEstonia Defence ForcesFrench Armed ForcesBundeswehrHellenic Armed ForcesHungarian Defence ForceMilitary Of IcelandItalian Armed ForcesLatvian National Armed ForcesLithuanian Armed ForcesLuxembourg ArmyMilitary Of MontenegroArmed Forces Of The NetherlandsNorwegian Armed ForcesPolish Armed ForcesPortuguese Armed ForcesRomanian Armed ForcesSlovak Armed ForcesSlovenian Armed ForcesSpanish Armed ForcesTurkish Armed ForcesBritish Armed ForcesUnited States Armed ForcesForeign Relations Of NATOAtlantic Treaty AssociationEuro-Atlantic Partnership CouncilMediterranean DialogueIstanbul Cooperation InitiativePartnership For PeacePortal:NATOTemplate:Organisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentTemplate Talk:Organisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentOrganisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentConvention On The Organisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentOECD Anti-Bribery ConventionOECD Guidelines For Multinational EnterprisesOECD Guidelines For The Testing Of ChemicalsTemplate:G8 NationsTemplate Talk:G8 NationsGroup Of EightG8+5CanadaFranceItalyJapanRussiaUnited KingdomUnited StatesEuropean UnionG8+5BrazilChinaIndiaMexicoSouth AfricaGroup Of SixG7Group Of EightTemplate:G20Template Talk:G20G20ArgentinaArgentinaAustraliaAustraliaBrazilBrazilCanadaCanadaChinaChinaEuropean UnionEuropean UnionFranceFranceGermanyIndiaIndiaIndonesiaIndonesiaItalyItalyJapanJapanMexicoMexicoRussiaRussiaSaudi ArabiaSaudi ArabiaSouth AfricaSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSouth KoreaTurkeyTurkeyUnited KingdomUnited KingdomUnited StatesUnited StatesTemplate:World Trade OrganizationTemplate Talk:World Trade OrganizationWorld Trade OrganizationWorld Trade Organization Accession And MembershipAppellate BodyDispute Settlement BodyInternational Trade CentreTimeline Of The World Trade OrganizationCriticism Of The World Trade OrganizationDoha Development RoundSingapore IssuesQuota EliminationPeace ClauseGeneral Agreement On Tariffs And TradeAgreement On AgricultureAgreement On The Application Of Sanitary And Phytosanitary MeasuresAgreement On Technical Barriers To TradeAgreement On Trade Related Investment MeasuresGeneral Agreement On Trade In ServicesAgreement On Trade-Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property RightsAgreement On Government ProcurementInformation Technology AgreementMarrakech AgreementDoha DeclarationBali PackageMinisterial ConferenceWorld Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 1996World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 1998World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 1999World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 2001World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 2003World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 2005World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 2009World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 2011World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 2013World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Of 2015Roberto AzevêdoDirector-General Of The World Trade OrganizationPascal LamySupachai PanitchpakdiAlejandro JaraRufus YerxaEconomy Of AfghanistanEconomy Of AlbaniaEconomy Of AlgeriaEconomy Of AngolaEconomy Of Antigua And BarbudaEconomy Of ArgentinaEconomy Of ArmeniaEconomy Of AustraliaEconomy Of BahrainEconomy Of BangladeshEconomy Of BarbadosEconomy Of BelizeEconomy Of BeninEconomy Of BoliviaEconomy Of BotswanaEconomy Of BrazilEconomy Of BruneiEconomy Of Burkina FasoEconomy Of BurmaEconomy Of BurundiEconomy Of CambodiaEconomy Of CameroonEconomy Of CanadaEconomy Of Cape VerdeEconomy Of The Central African RepublicEconomy Of ChadEconomy Of ChileEconomy Of ChinaEconomy Of ColombiaEconomy Of The Democratic Republic Of The CongoEconomy Of The Republic Of The CongoEconomy Of Costa RicaEconomy Of Côte D'IvoireEconomy Of CubaEconomy Of DjiboutiEconomy Of DominicaEconomy Of The Dominican RepublicEconomy Of EcuadorEconomy Of EgyptEconomy Of El SalvadorEconomy Of FijiEconomy Of GabonEconomy Of The GambiaEconomy Of Georgia (country)Economy Of GhanaEconomy Of GrenadaEconomy Of GuatemalaEconomy Of GuineaEconomy Of Guinea-BissauEconomy Of GuyanaEconomy Of HaitiEconomy Of HondurasEconomy Of Hong KongEconomy Of IcelandEconomy Of IndiaEconomy Of IndonesiaEconomy Of IsraelEconomy Of JamaicaEconomy Of JapanEconomy Of JordanEconomy Of KazakhstanEconomy Of KenyaEconomy Of South KoreaEconomy Of KuwaitEconomy Of KyrgyzstanEconomy Of LaosEconomy Of LesothoEconomy Of LiberiaEconomy Of LiechtensteinEconomy Of MacauEconomy Of The Republic Of MacedoniaEconomy Of MadagascarEconomy Of MalawiEconomy Of MalaysiaEconomy Of The MaldivesEconomy Of MaliEconomy Of MauritaniaEconomy Of MauritiusEconomy Of MexicoEconomy Of MoldovaEconomy Of MongoliaEconomy Of MontenegroEconomy Of MoroccoEconomy Of MozambiqueEconomy Of NamibiaEconomy Of NepalEconomy Of New ZealandEconomy Of NicaraguaEconomy Of NigerEconomy Of NigeriaEconomy Of NorwayEconomy Of OmanEconomy Of PakistanEconomy Of PanamaEconomy Of Papua New GuineaEconomy Of ParaguayEconomy Of PeruEconomy Of The PhilippinesEconomy Of QatarEconomy Of RussiaEconomy Of RwandaEconomy Of Saint Kitts And NevisEconomy Of Saint LuciaEconomy Of Saint Vincent And The GrenadinesEconomy Of SamoaEconomy Of Saudi ArabiaEconomy Of SenegalEconomy Of SeychellesEconomy Of Sierra LeoneEconomy Of SingaporeEconomy Of The Solomon IslandsEconomy Of South AfricaEconomy Of Sri LankaEconomy Of SurinameEconomy Of SwazilandEconomy Of SwitzerlandEconomy Of TajikistanEconomy Of TaiwanEconomy Of TanzaniaEconomy Of ThailandEconomy Of TogoEconomy Of TongaEconomy Of Trinidad And TobagoEconomy Of TunisiaEconomy Of TurkeyEconomy Of UgandaEconomy Of UkraineEconomy Of The United Arab EmiratesEconomy Of The United StatesEconomy Of UruguayEconomy Of VenezuelaEconomy Of VietnamEconomy Of YemenEconomy Of ZambiaEconomy Of ZimbabweEconomy Of The European UnionEconomy Of AustriaEconomy Of BelgiumEconomy Of BulgariaEconomy Of CroatiaEconomy Of CyprusEconomy Of The Czech RepublicEconomy Of DenmarkEconomy Of EstoniaEconomy Of FinlandEconomy Of FranceEconomy Of GermanyEconomy Of GreeceEconomy Of HungaryEconomy Of The Republic Of IrelandEconomy Of ItalyEconomy Of LatviaEconomy Of LithuaniaEconomy Of LuxembourgEconomy Of MaltaEconomy Of The NetherlandsEconomy Of PolandEconomy Of PortugalEconomy Of RomaniaEconomy Of SlovakiaEconomy Of SloveniaEconomy Of SpainEconomy Of SwedenEconomy Of The United KingdomSpecial Administrative Regions Of The People's Republic Of ChinaChinese TaipeiTemplate:Council Of EuropeTemplate Talk:Council Of EuropeCouncil Of EuropeSecretary General Of The Council Of EuropeCommittee Of Ministers Of The Council Of EuropeParliamentary Assembly Of The Council Of EuropeCongress Of The Council Of EuropeEuropean Court Of Human RightsCommissioner For Human RightsEuropean Commission For The Efficiency Of JusticeEuropean Commission Against Racism And IntoleranceGold: Founding Member. Blue: Later (current) Full Members.Member States Of The Council Of EuropeAlbaniaAndorraArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelgiumBosnia And HerzegovinaBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGeorgia (country)GreeceHungaryIcelandRepublic Of IrelandItalyLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgRepublic Of MacedoniaMaltaMoldovaMonacoMontenegroKingdom Of The NetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUkraineUnited KingdomCanadaHoly SeeIsraelJapanMexicoUnited StatesSovereign Military Order Of MaltaCzechoslovakiaSaar ProtectorateMacedonia Naming DisputeTemplate:OSCETemplate Talk:OSCEOrganization For Security And Co-operation In EuropeAlbaniaAndorraArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBosnia And HerzegovinaBulgariaCanadaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGeorgia (country)GreeceHoly SeeHungaryIcelandRepublic Of IrelandItalyKazakhstanKyrgyzstanLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgRepublic Of MacedoniaMaltaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMontenegroNetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTajikistanTurkeyTurkmenistanUkraineUnited KingdomUnited StatesUzbekistanAfghanistanAlgeriaAustraliaEgyptIsraelJapanJordanMoroccoSouth KoreaThailandTunisiaParliamentary Assembly Of The Organization For Security And Co-operation In EuropeODIHRHigh Commissioner On National MinoritiesOSCE Representative On Freedom Of The MediaHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberIntegrated Authority FileNational Diet LibraryBiblioteca Nacional De EspañaHelp:CategoryCategory:GermanyCategory:Central European CountriesCategory:Countries In EuropeCategory:Federal RepublicsCategory:G7 NationsCategory:G8 NationsCategory:G20 NationsCategory:German-speaking Countries And TerritoriesCategory:Member States Of NATOCategory:Member States Of The Council Of EuropeCategory:Member States Of The European UnionCategory:Member States Of The Union For The MediterraneanCategory:Member States Of The United NationsCategory:States And Territories Established In 1871Category:States And Territories Established In 1949Category:States And Territories Established In 1990Category:Articles Containing Danish-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Low German-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Upper Sorbian-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Lower Sorbian-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Romani-language TextCategory:Articles Containing North Frisian-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Turkish-language TextCategory:Articles Containing German-language TextCategory:CS1 German-language Sources (de)Category:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Editors ParameterCategory:Articles With German-language External LinksCategory:Pages With Login Required References Or SourcesCategory:Pages Containing Links To Subscription-only ContentCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Semi-protected PagesCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Move-protected PagesCategory:Use British English From August 2013Category:Use Dmy Dates From January 2018Category:Featured ArticlesCategory:Coordinates On WikidataCategory:Articles With HAudio MicroformatsCategory:Articles Including Recorded Pronunciations (English)Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2008Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2017Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2011Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2010Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2016Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2014Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2013Category:Spoken ArticlesCategory:Articles With Curlie LinksCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Articles Containing Video ClipsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link