Contents 1 Methodology 2 Description of the temperature record 2.1 Pleistocene 2.2 Initial Eocene thermal maxima 2.3 Cretaceous thermal optimum 2.4 Fluctuations during the remainder of the Phanerozoic 2.5 Late Proterozoic ice ages 2.6 Overall view 2.7 Other temperature changes in Earth's past 3 See also 4 References

Methodology[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2008) See also: Paleoclimatology, Paleothermometer, Marine isotope stage, and Timeline of glaciation Evidence for past temperatures comes mainly from isotopic considerations (especially δ18O); the Mg/Ca ratio of foram tests, and alkenones, are also useful. Often, many are used in conjunction to get a multi-proxy estimate for the temperature. This has proved crucial in studies on glacial/interglacial temperature.[1]

Description of the temperature record[edit] Pleistocene[edit] Reconstruction of the past 5 million years of climate history, based on oxygen isotope fractionation in deep sea sediment cores (serving as a proxy for the total global mass of glacial ice sheets), fitted to a model of orbital forcing (Lisiecki and Raymo 2005)[2] and to the temperature scale derived from Vostok ice cores following Petit et al. (1999).[3] The last 3 million years have been characterized by cycles of glacials and interglacials within a gradually deepening ice age. Currently, the Earth is in an interglacial period, beginning about 20,000 years ago (20 kya). The cycles of glaciation involve the growth and retreat of continental ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere and involve fluctuations on a number of time scales, notably on the 21 ky, 41 ky and 100 ky scales. Such cycles are usually interpreted as being driven by predictable changes in the Earth orbit known as Milankovitch cycles. At the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene (0.8 million years ago, close to the Brunhes–Matuyama geomagnetic reversal) there has been a largely unexplained switch in the dominant periodicity of glaciations from the 41 ky to the 100 ky cycle. The gradual intensification of this ice age over the last 3 million years has been associated with declining concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, though it remains unclear if this change is sufficiently large to have caused the changes in temperatures. Decreased temperatures can cause a decrease in carbon dioxide as, by Henry's Law, carbon dioxide is more soluble in colder waters, which may account for 30ppmv of the 100ppmv decrease in carbon dioxide concentration during the last glacial maximum. [1] Similarly, the initiation of this deepening phase also corresponds roughly to the closure of the Isthmus of Panama by the action of plate tectonics. This prevented direct ocean flow between the Pacific and Atlantic, which would have had significant effects on ocean circulation and the distribution of heat. However, modeling studies have been ambiguous as to whether this could be the direct cause of the intensification of the present ice age. This recent period of cycling climate is part of the more extended ice age that began about 40 million years ago with the glaciation of Antarctica. Initial Eocene thermal maxima[edit] Climate change during the last 65 million years. The true magnitude of the PETM is likely to be understated in this figure due to coarse sampling.[4] In the earliest part of the Eocene period, a series of abrupt thermal spikes have been observed, lasting no more than a few hundred thousand years. The most pronounced of these, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is visible in the figure at right. These are usually interpreted as caused by abrupt releases of methane from clathrates (frozen methane ices that accumulate at the bottom of the ocean), though some scientists dispute that methane would be sufficient to cause the observed changes[citation needed]. During these events, temperatures in the Arctic Ocean may have reached levels more typically associated with modern temperate (i.e. mid-latitude) oceans.[citation needed] During the PETM, the global mean temperature seems to have risen by as much as 5-8 °C (9-14 °F) to an average temperature as high as 23 °C (73 °F), in contrast to the global average temperature of today at just under 15 °C (60 °F). Geologists and paleontologists think that during much of the Paleocene and early Eocene, the poles were free of ice caps, and palm trees and crocodiles lived above the Arctic Circle, while much of the continental United States had a sub-tropical environment.[5] Cretaceous thermal optimum[edit] Main article: Cretaceous Thermal Maximum During the later portion of the Cretaceous, from 65 to 100 million years ago, average global temperatures reached their highest level during the last ~200 million years. This is likely to be the result of a favorable configuration of the continents during this period that allowed for improved circulation in the oceans and discouraged the formation of large scale ice sheet.[citation needed] Perhaps the visible anecdotal evidence of high temperatures during this period was the occurrence of deciduous forests extending all the way to the poles.[citation needed] Fluctuations during the remainder of the Phanerozoic[edit] 500 Million Years of Climate Change[6] The Phanerozoic eon, encompassing the last 542 million years and almost the entire time since the origination of complex multi-cellular life, has more generally been a period of fluctuating temperature between ice ages, such as the current age, and "climate optima", similar to what occurred in the Cretaceous. Roughly 4 such cycles have occurred during this time with an approximately 140 million year separation between climate optima. In addition to the present, ice ages have occurred during the Permian-Carboniferous interval and the late Ordovician-early Silurian. There is also a "cooler" interval during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous, with evidence of increased sea ice, but the lack of continents at either pole during this interval prevented the formation of continental ice sheets and consequently this is usually not regarded as a full-fledged ice age. In between these cold period, warmer conditions were present and often referred to as climate optima. However, it has been difficult to determine whether these warmer intervals were actually hotter or colder than occurred during the Cretaceous optima. Late Proterozoic ice ages[edit] The Neoproterozoic era (1,000 to 541 million years ago), provides evidence of at least two and possibly more major glaciations. The more recent of these ice ages, encompassing the Marinoan & Varangian glacial maxima (about 560 to 650 million years ago), has been proposed as a snowball Earth event with continuous sea ice reaching nearly to the equator. This is significantly more severe than the ice age during the Phanerozoic. Because this ice age terminated only slightly before the rapid diversification of life during the Cambrian explosion, it has been proposed that this ice age (or at least its end) created conditions favorable to evolution. The earlier Sturtian glacial maxima (~730 million years) may also have been a snowball Earth event though this is unproven. The changes that lead to the initiation of snowball Earth events are not well known, but it has been argued that they necessarily lead to their own end. The widespread sea ice prevents the deposition of fresh carbonates in ocean sediment. Since such carbonates are part of the natural process for recycling carbon dioxide, short-circuiting this process allows carbon dioxide to accumulate in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect and eventually leads to higher temperatures and the retreat of sea ice.[7] Overall view[edit] Direct combination of these interpreted geological temperature records is not necessarily valid, nor is their combination with other more recent temperature records, which may use different definitions. Nevertheless, an overall perspective is useful even when imprecise. In this view time is plotted backwards from the present, taken as 2015 CE. It is scaled linear in five separate segments, expanding by about an order of magnitude at each vertical break. Temperatures in the left-hand panel are very approximate, and best viewed as a qualitative indication only.[8] Further information is given on the graph description page. Other temperature changes in Earth's past[edit] Prior to the Neoproterozoic, evidence of temperature changes and glaciation is usually too scattered and sporadic to draw firm conclusions though it seems likely that temperature fluctuations were also substantial during this period.[citation needed] Temperature reconstructions based on oxygen and silicon isotopes from rock samples have predicted much hotter Precambrian sea temperatures[9][10] These predictions suggest ocean temperatures of 55–85 °C during the period of 2,000 to 3,500 million years ago, followed by cooling to more mild temperatures of between 10-40 °C by 1,000 million years ago. Reconstructed proteins from Precambrian organisms has also provided evidence that the ancient world was much warmer than today.[11][12] However, other evidence suggests that the period of 2,000 to 3,000 million years ago was very generally colder and more glaciated than the last 500 million years.[citation needed] This is thought to be the result of solar radiation approximately 20% lower than today. Solar luminosity was 30% dimmer when the Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago,[13] and it is expected to increase in luminosity approximately 10% per billion years in the future.[14] On very long time scales, the evolution of the sun is also an important factor in determining Earth's climate. According to standard solar theories, the sun will gradually have increased in brightness as a natural part of its evolution after having started with an intensity approximately 70% of its modern value. The initially low solar radiation, if combined with modern values of greenhouse gases, would not have been sufficient to allow for liquid oceans on the surface of the Earth. However, evidence of liquid water at the surface has been demonstrated as far back as 3,500 million years ago. This is known as the faint young sun paradox and is usually explained by invoking much larger greenhouse gas concentrations in Earth's early history, though such proposals are poorly constrained by existing experimental evidence.

See also[edit] Climate state Global warming Global cooling Instrumental temperature record Milankovitch cycles Ocean heat content Satellite temperature measurements Sea surface temperature

References[edit] ^ Sigman, D.M.; E.A. Boyle (October 2000). "Glacial/interglacial variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide" (PDF). Nature. 407 (6806): 859–869. doi:10.1038/35038000. PMID 11057657. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-24.  ^ Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Raymo, Maureen E. (January 2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20: PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071.  Supplement: Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E. (2005). "Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of globally distributed benthic stable oxygen isotope records". Pangaea. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.704257.  Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E. (May 2005). "Correction to "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records"". Paleoceanography. 20 (2): PA2007. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.2007L. doi:10.1029/2005PA001164.  data: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.704257. ^ Petit, J. R.; Jouzel, J.; Raynaud, D.; Barkov, N. I.; Barnola, J. M.; Basile, I.; Bender, M.; Chappellaz, J.; Davis, J.; Delaygue, G.; Delmotte, M.; Kotlyakov, V. M.; Legrand, M.; Lipenkov, V.; Lorius, C.; Pépin, L.; Ritz, C.; Saltzman, E.; Stievenard, M. (1999). "Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica". Nature. 399: 429–436. doi:10.1038/20859.  ^ Zachos, J.; Pagani, M.; Sloan, L.; Thomas, E.; Billups, K. (2001). "Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present". Science. 292 (5517): 686–693. Bibcode:2001Sci...292..686Z. doi:10.1126/science.1059412. PMID 11326091.  ^ NOAA. "What's the hottest Earth's ever been?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ Veizer, J. (1999). "87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ18O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater". Chemical Geology. 161: 59–88. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(99)00081-9.  ^ Eyles, N.; Januszczak, N. (2004). "'Zipper-rift': A tectonic model for Neoproterozoic glaciations during the breakup of Rodinia after 750 Ma". Earth-Science Reviews. 65 (1–2): 1–73. Bibcode:2004ESRv...65....1E. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(03)00080-1.  ^ Royer, Dana (23 March 2014). "Dana Royer comment at RealClimate". RealClimate. Retrieved 26 March 2014.  ^ Knauth, L. Paul (2005). "Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: implications for the course of microbial evolution". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 219: 53–69. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.10.014.  ^ Shields, Graham A.; Kasting, James F. (2006). "A palaeotemperature curve for the Precambrian oceans based on silicon isotopes in cherts". Nature. 443: 969–972. doi:10.1038/nature05239.  ^ Gaucher, EA; Govindarajan, S; Ganesh, OK (2008). "Palaeotemperature trend for Precambrian life inferred from resurrected proteins". Nature. 451: 704–707. doi:10.1038/nature06510.  ^ Risso, VA; Gavira, JA; Mejia-Carmona, DF (2013). "Hyperstability and substrate promiscuity in laboratory resurrections of Precambrian b-lactamases". J Am Chem Soc. 135: 2899–2902. doi:10.1021/ja311630a.  ^ ^ v t e Global warming and climate change Temperatures Brightness temperature Effective temperature Geologic record Hiatus Historical climatology Instrumental record Paleoclimatology Paleotempestology Proxy data Record of the past 1,000 years Satellite measurements Causes Anthropogenic Attribution of recent climate change Aviation Biofuel Black carbon Carbon dioxide Deforestation Earth's energy budget Earth's radiation balance Ecocide Fossil fuel Global dimming Global warming potential Greenhouse effect (Infrared window) Greenhouse gases (Halocarbons) Land use, land-use change and forestry Radiative forcing Tropospheric ozone Urban heat island Natural Albedo Bond events Climate oscillations Climate sensitivity Cloud forcing Cosmic rays Feedbacks Glaciation Global cooling Milankovitch cycles Ocean variability AMO ENSO IOD PDO Orbital forcing Solar variation Volcanism Models Global climate model History History of climate change science Atmospheric thermodynamics Svante Arrhenius James Hansen Charles David Keeling Opinion and climate change Environmental ethics Media coverage of climate change Public opinion on climate change (Popular culture) Scientific opinion on climate change Scientists opposing the mainstream assessment Climate change denial Global warming conspiracy theory By country & region (Africa Arctic Argentina Australia Bangladesh Belgium Canada China Europe European Union Finland Grenada Japan Luxembourg New Zealand Norway Russia Scotland South Korea Sweden Tuvalu United Kingdom United States) Politics Clean Power Plan Climate change denial (Manufactured controversy) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) March for Science People's Climate March United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC / FCCC) Global climate regime Potential effects and issues General Abrupt climate change Anoxic event Arctic dipole anomaly Arctic haze Arctic methane release Climate change and agriculture Climate change and ecosystems Climate change and gender Climate change and poverty Current sea level rise Drought Economics of global warming Effect on plant biodiversity Effects on health Effects on humans Effects on marine mammals Environmental migrant Extinction risk from global warming Fisheries and climate change Forest dieback Industry and society Iris hypothesis Megadrought Ocean acidification Ozone depletion Physical impacts Polar stratospheric cloud Regime shift Retreat of glaciers since 1850 Runaway climate change Season creep Shutdown of thermohaline circulation By country Australia South Asia India Nepal United States Mitigation Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism Joint Implementation Bali Road Map 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference Governmental European Climate Change Programme G8 Climate Change Roundtable United Kingdom Climate Change Programme Paris Agreement United States withdrawal Regional climate change initiatives in the United States List of climate change initiatives Emissions reduction Carbon credit Carbon-neutral fuel Carbon offset Carbon tax Emissions trading Fossil-fuel phase-out Carbon-free energy Carbon capture and storage Efficient energy use Low-carbon economy Nuclear power Renewable energy Personal Individual action on climate change Simple living Other Carbon dioxide removal Carbon sink Climate change mitigation scenarios Climate engineering Individual and political action on climate change Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation Reforestation Urban reforestation Climate Action Plan Climate action Proposed adaptations Strategies Damming glacial lakes Desalination Drought tolerance Irrigation investment Rainwater storage Sustainable development Weather modification Programmes Avoiding dangerous climate change Land allocation decision support system Glossary of climate change Index of climate change articles Category:Climate change Category:Global warming Portal:Global warming Earth sciences portal Ecology portal Geology portal Paleontology portal Retrieved from "" Categories: Historical geologyClimate historyPaleoclimatologyPaleoceanographyHidden categories: Articles to be expanded from February 2008All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from April 2008Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017Pages using div col with deprecated parameters

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages العربية Edit links This page was last edited on 16 March 2018, at 13:30. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.612","walltime":"0.718","ppvisitednodes":{"value":12000,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":287367,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":31444,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":21,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":3,"limit":500},"unstrip-depth":{"value":0,"limit":20},"unstrip-size":{"value":19875,"limit":5000000},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 571.344 1 -total"," 37.58% 214.707 1 Template:Life_timeline"," 36.78% 210.126 1 Template:Graphical_timeline"," 20.51% 117.200 1 Template:Reflist"," 14.28% 81.603 12 Template:Cite_journal"," 10.19% 58.209 6 Template:Citation_needed"," 9.78% 55.880 1 Template:Global_warming"," 9.29% 53.102 1 Template:Navbox_with_collapsible_groups"," 9.07% 51.818 6 Template:Fix"," 8.88% 50.754 50 Template:Timeline_Note"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.194","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":5676832,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1332","timestamp":"20180321212918","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":845,"wgHostname":"mw1332"});});

Geologic_temperature_record - Photos and All Basic Informations

Geologic_temperature_record More Links

Global Temperature RecordTimeline Of The Evolutionary History Of LifeTemplate:Life TimelineTemplate Talk:Life TimelineWaterUnicellular OrganismEvolution Of PhotosynthesisEukaryoteMulticellular OrganismSilurianDinosaurMammalFlowering PlantHistory Of EarthAge Of The EarthOrigin Of Water On EarthEarliest Known Life FormsLate Heavy BombardmentGeological History Of OxygenGeological History Of OxygenGreat Oxygenation EventEvolution Of Sexual ReproductionEdiacaran BiotaCambrian ExplosionHumanPhanerozoicProterozoicArcheanHadeanMesoarcheanHuronian GlaciationCryogenianAndean-Saharan GlaciationKaroo Ice AgeQuaternary GlaciationCartesian Coordinate SystemGeologic Time ScaleTimeline Of GlaciationTemplate:Human TimelineTemplate:Nature TimelineEarthEnvironment (biophysical)GeologyOceanographyPaleoclimatologyPaleothermometerMarine Isotope StageTimeline Of GlaciationΔ18OForamaniferaAlkenoneEnlargeΔ18OOrbital ForcingVostok StationPleistoceneIce AgeHoloceneLast Glacial MaximumOrbital ForcingMilankovitch CyclesMiddle PleistoceneBrunhes–Matuyama ReversalGeomagnetic Reversal100,000-year ProblemGreenhouse GasCarbon DioxideTemperature RecordHenry's LawIsthmus Of PanamaPlate TectonicsAntarcticaEnlargeEoceneGeologic PeriodPaleocene-Eocene Thermal MaximumMethaneClathratesWikipedia:Citation NeededArctic OceanWikipedia:Citation NeededCretaceous Thermal MaximumCretaceousMyrWikipedia:Citation NeededPolar Forests Of The CretaceousWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargePhanerozoicEon (geology)PermianCarboniferousOrdovicianSilurianJurassicNeoproterozoicMyrMyrSnowball EarthCambrian ExplosionGreenhouse EffectTemperature RecordFile:All Palaeotemps.pngEnlargeWikipedia:Citation NeededMyrAncestral Sequence ReconstructionMyrWikipedia:Citation NeededSunSolar LuminosityFaint Young Sun ParadoxClimate StateGlobal WarmingGlobal CoolingInstrumental Temperature RecordMilankovitch CyclesOcean Heat ContentSatellite Temperature MeasurementsSea Surface TemperatureDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierTemplate:Global WarmingTemplate Talk:Global WarmingGlobal WarmingClimate ChangeBrightness TemperatureEffective TemperatureGlobal Warming HiatusHistorical ClimatologyInstrumental Temperature RecordPaleoclimatologyPaleotempestologyProxy (climate)Temperature Record Of The Past 1000 YearsSatellite Temperature MeasurementsGlobal WarmingAttribution Of Recent Climate ChangeEnvironmental Impact Of AviationBiofuelBlack CarbonCarbon DioxideGlobal Warming And DeforestationEarth's Energy BudgetEarth's Energy BudgetEcocideFossil FuelGlobal DimmingGlobal Warming PotentialGreenhouse EffectInfrared WindowGreenhouse GasHalocarbonLand Use, Land-use Change And ForestryRadiative ForcingTropospheric OzoneUrban Heat IslandNatural EnvironmentAlbedoBond EventClimate OscillationClimate SensitivityCloud ForcingCosmic RayClimate Change FeedbackGlacial PeriodGlobal CoolingMilankovitch CyclesThermohaline CirculationAtlantic Multidecadal OscillationEl Niño-Southern OscillationIndian Ocean DipolePacific Decadal OscillationOrbital ForcingSolar VariationVolcanismClimate ModelGlobal Climate ModelHistory Of Climate Change ScienceAtmospheric ThermodynamicsSvante ArrheniusJames HansenCharles David KeelingEnvironmental EthicsMedia Coverage Of Climate ChangePublic Opinion On Climate ChangeClimate Change In Popular CultureScientific Opinion On Climate ChangeList Of Scientists Opposing The Mainstream Scientific Assessment Of Global WarmingClimate Change DenialGlobal Warming Conspiracy TheoryClimate Change Opinion By CountryClimate Change In AfricaClimate Change In The ArcticClimate Change In ArgentinaClimate Change In AustraliaClimate Change In BangladeshClimate Change In BelgiumClimate Change In CanadaClimate Change In ChinaClimate Change In EuropeClimate Change In The European UnionClimate Change In FinlandClimate Change In GrenadaClimate Change In JapanClimate Change In LuxembourgClimate Change In New ZealandClimate Change In NorwayClimate Change In RussiaClimate Change In ScotlandClimate Change In South KoreaClimate Change In SwedenClimate Change In TuvaluClimate Change In The United KingdomClimate Change In The United StatesPolitics Of Global WarmingClean Power PlanClimate Change DenialManufactured ControversyIntergovernmental Panel On Climate ChangeMarch For SciencePeople's Climate MarchUnited Nations Framework Convention On Climate ChangeGlobal Climate RegimeEffects Of Global WarmingAbrupt Climate ChangeAnoxic EventArctic Dipole AnomalyArctic HazeArctic Methane ReleaseClimate Change And AgricultureClimate Change And EcosystemsClimate Change And GenderClimate Change And PovertyCurrent Sea Level RiseDroughtEconomics Of Global WarmingEffect Of Climate Change On Plant BiodiversityEffects Of Global Warming On Human HealthEffects Of Climate Change On HumansEffects Of Climate Change On Marine MammalsEnvironmental MigrantExtinction Risk From Global WarmingFisheries And Climate ChangeForest DiebackClimate Change, Industry And SocietyIris HypothesisMegadroughtOcean AcidificationOzone DepletionPhysical Impacts Of Climate ChangePolar Stratospheric CloudRegime ShiftRetreat Of Glaciers Since 1850Runaway Climate ChangeSeason CreepShutdown Of Thermohaline CirculationEffects Of Global Warming On AustraliaEffects Of Global Warming On South AsiaEffects Of Global Warming On IndiaClimate Change Adaptation In NepalNational Climate AssessmentClimate Change MitigationKyoto ProtocolClean Development MechanismJoint ImplementationBali Road Map2009 United Nations Climate Change ConferenceEuropean Climate Change ProgrammeG8 Climate Change RoundtableUnited Kingdom Climate Change ProgrammeParis AgreementUnited States Withdrawal From The Paris AgreementRegional Climate Change Initiatives In The United StatesList Of Climate Change InitiativesCarbon CreditCarbon-neutral FuelCarbon OffsetCarbon TaxEmissions TradingFossil-fuel Phase-outCarbon Capture And StorageEfficient Energy UseLow-carbon EconomyNuclear PowerRenewable EnergyIndividual Action On Climate ChangeSimple LivingCarbon Dioxide RemovalCarbon SinkClimate Change Mitigation ScenariosClimate EngineeringIndividual And Political Action On Climate ChangeReducing Emissions From Deforestation And Forest DegradationReforestationUrban ReforestationClimate Action PlanClimate ActionAdaptation To Global WarmingDamGlacial LakeDesalinationDrought ToleranceIrrigationRainwater TankSustainable DevelopmentWeather ModificationAvoiding Dangerous Climate ChangeLand Allocation Decision Support SystemGlossary Of Climate ChangeIndex Of Climate Change ArticlesCategory:Climate ChangeCategory:Global WarmingPortal:Global WarmingPortal:Earth SciencesPortal:EcologyPortal:GeologyPortal:PaleontologyHelp:CategoryCategory:Historical GeologyCategory:Climate HistoryCategory:PaleoclimatologyCategory:PaleoceanographyCategory:Articles To Be Expanded From February 2008Category:All Articles To Be ExpandedCategory:Articles Using Small Message BoxesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From April 2008Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From February 2017Category:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link