Contents 1 Early life 1.1 Education 2 Career 3 Architectural style 3.1 Gallery 3.2 Bilbao effect 3.3 Criticism 4 Other aspects of career 4.1 Academia 4.2 Exhibition design 4.3 Stage design 4.4 Other designs 4.5 Software development 5 Personal life 6 In popular culture 7 Works 7.1 Exhibitions of Gehry's work 8 Awards and honors 8.1 Honorary doctorates 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Early life[edit] Gehry Residence in Santa Monica, California (1978) Gehry was born Frank Owen Goldberg[1] on February 28, 1929, in Toronto, Ontario, to parents Sadie Thelma (née Kaplanski/Caplan) and Irving Goldberg.[4] His father was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Russian Jewish parents, and his mother was a Polish Jewish immigrant born in Łódź.[5][6][7] A creative child, he was encouraged by his grandmother, Leah Caplan,[8] with whom he would build little cities out of scraps of wood.[9] With these scraps from her husband's hardware store, she entertained him for hours, building imaginary houses and futuristic cities on the living room floor.[4] His use of corrugated steel, chain link fencing, unpainted plywood and other utilitarian or "everyday" materials was partly inspired by spending Saturday mornings at his grandfather's hardware store. He would spend time drawing with his father, while his mother introduced him to the world of art. "So the creative genes were there", Gehry says. "But my father thought I was a dreamer, I wasn't gonna amount to anything. It was my mother who thought I was just reticent to do things. She would push me."[10] He was given the Hebrew name "Ephraim" by his grandfather, but only used it at his bar mitzvah.[1] Education[edit] In 1947, his family immigrated to the United States settling in California. Gehry got a job driving a delivery truck, and studied at Los Angeles City College, eventually to graduate from the University of Southern California's School of Architecture. During that time, he became a member of Alpha Epsilon Pi.[11] According to Gehry, "I was a truck driver in L.A., going to City College, and I tried radio announcing, which I wasn't very good at. I tried chemical engineering, which I wasn't very good at and didn't like, and then I remembered. You know, somehow I just started wracking my brain about, 'What do I like?' Where was I? What made me excited? And I remembered art, that I loved going to museums and I loved looking at paintings, loved listening to music. Those things came from my mother, who took me to concerts and museums. I remembered Grandma and the blocks, and just on a hunch, I tried some architecture classes."[12] Gehry graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture degree from USC in 1954.[citation needed] After graduating from college, he spent time away from the field of architecture in numerous other jobs, including service in the United States Army.[9] In the fall of 1956, he moved his family to Cambridge, where he studied city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He left before completing the program, disheartened and underwhelmed.[13] Gehry's left-wing ideas about socially responsible architecture were under-realized,[clarification needed] and the final straw occurred when he sat in on a discussion of one professor's "secret project in progress"—a palace that he was designing for right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista (1901–1973).[4]

Career[edit] Chiat/Day Building in Venice, California (1991) Part of the roof of the Fondation Louis Vuitton building as seen from the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, France (2016) New World Center in Miami Beach, Florida (2011) The tower at 8 Spruce Street in Lower Manhattan, completed in February 2011, has a stainless steel and glass exterior and is 76 stories high (2011) Gehry returned to Los Angeles to work for Victor Gruen Associates, to whom he had been apprenticed while at the USC School of Architecture. In 1957 he was given the chance to design and construct his first private residence at the age of 28, with friend and old classmate Greg Walsh. Built in Idyllwild, California for his wife Anita’s family neighbor Melvin David, "The David Cabin",[14] shows features that were to become synonymous with later work. The over 2,000 sq ft (190 m2) mountain retreat has unique design features with strong Asian influences, stemming from his earliest inspirations at the time like Shosoin Treasure House in Nara, Japan, among others. Beams protrude from the exterior sides, vertical grain douglas fir detail, and exposed, unfinished ceiling beams are prominent features. In 1961, he moved to Paris where he worked for architect Andre Remondet.[15] In 1962, Gehry established a practice in Los Angeles which became Frank Gehry and Associates in 1967[9] and then Gehry Partners in 2001.[16] Gehry's earliest commissions were all in Southern California, where he designed a number of innovative commercial structures such as Santa Monica Place (1980) and residential buildings such as the eccentric Norton House (1984) in Venice, California.[17] Among these works, however, Gehry's most notable design may be the renovation of his own Santa Monica, California residence.[18] Originally built in 1920 and purchased by Gehry in 1977, the house features a metallic exterior wrapped around the original building that leaves many of the original details visible.[19] Gehry still resides there. Other completed buildings designed by Gehry during the 1980s include the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium (1981) in San Pedro and the California Aerospace Museum (1984) at the California Museum of Science and Industry in Los Angeles. In 1989, Gehry was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize. The jury cited Gehry as "Always open to experimentation, he has as well a sureness and maturity that resists, in the same way that Picasso did, being bound either by critical acceptance or his successes. His buildings are juxtaposed collages of spaces and materials that make users appreciative of both the theatre and the back-stage, simultaneously revealed."[20] Though Gehry continued to design other notable buildings in California such as the Chiat/Day Building (1991) in Venice in collaboration with Claes Oldenburg, which is well known for its massive sculpture of binoculars, he also began to receive larger national and international commissions. These include Gehry's first European commission, the Vitra International Furniture Manufacturing Facility and Design Museum in Germany completed in 1989. This was soon followed by other major commissions including the Frederick Weisman Museum of Art[21] (1993) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the Cinémathèque Française[22] (1994) in Paris, and the Dancing House[23] (1996) in Prague. In 1997, Gehry vaulted to a new level of international acclaim[2] when the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao opened in Bilbao, Spain. Hailed by The New Yorker as a "masterpiece of the twentieth century" and legendary architect Philip Johnson as "the greatest building of our time",[24] the museum became famous for its striking yet aesthetically pleasing design and the economic effect that it had on the city. Since then, Gehry has regularly won major commissions and has further established himself as one of the world's most notable architects. His best received works include several concert halls for classical music, such as the boisterous and curvaceous Walt Disney Concert Hall (2003) in Downtown Los Angeles, which has been the centerpiece of the neighborhood's revitalization and has been labeled by the Los Angeles Times as "the most effective answer to doubters, naysayers, and grumbling critics an American architect has ever produced",[25] the open-air Jay Pritzker Pavilion (2004) adjacent to Millennium Park in Chicago,[26] and the understated New World Center (2011) in Miami Beach, which the LA Times called "a piece of architecture that dares you to underestimate it or write it off at first glance."[27] Other notable works include academic buildings such as the Stata Center (2004)[28] at MIT and the Peter B. Lewis Library (2008) at Princeton University,[29] museums such as the Museum of Pop Culture (2000) in Seattle, Washington,[30] commercial buildings such as the IAC Building (2007) in New York City,[31] and residential buildings such as Gehry's first skyscraper, the Beekman Tower at 8 Spruce Street (2011)[32] in New York City. Several recent and ongoing major works by Gehry around the world include the Dr Chau Chak Wing Building in the University of Technology Sydney, completed in 2014.[33] The Chau Chak Wing, with its 320,000 bricks in "sweeping lines" is described as "10 out of 10" on a scale of difficulty.[34] An ongoing project is the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi on Saadiyat Island in the United Arab Emirates.[35] Other significant projects such as the Mirvish Towers in Toronto,[36] and a multi-decade renovation of the Philadelphia Museum of Art are currently in the design stage. In October 2013, Gehry was appointed joint architect with Foster + Partners to design the "High Street" phase of the development of Battersea Power Station in London, Gehry's first project there.[37] However, in recent years, some of Gehry's more prominent designs have failed to go forward. In addition to unrealized designs such as a major Corcoran Art Gallery expansion in Washington, D.C., and a new Guggenheim museum near the South Street Seaport in New York City, Gehry was notoriously dropped by developer Bruce Ratner from the Pacific Park (Brooklyn) redevelopment project and was also dropped in 2014 as the designer of the World Trade Center Performing Arts Center; both of these projects were in New York City.[38] That said, some stalled projects have recently shown progress: after many years and a dismissal, Gehry was recently reinstated as architect for the Grand Avenue Project in Los Angeles and, though Gehry's controversial[39][40] [41] design of the National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial in Washington, D.C., has been subject to numerous delays during the approval process with the United States Congress, the project was finally approved in 2014 with a modified design. In 2014, two significant, long-awaited museums designed by Gehry opened: the Biomuseo,[42] a biodiversity museum in Panama City, Panama, and the Fondation Louis Vuitton,[43][44][45] a modern art museum in the Bois de Boulogne park in Paris, France, which opened to some rave reviews.[46] Also in 2014, Gehry was commissioned by River LA, formerly known as the Los Angeles River Revitalization Corporation, a nonprofit group founded by the city of Los Angeles in 2009 to coordinate river policy, to devise a wide-ranging new plan for the river.[47][48] In February 2015 the new building for the University of Technology, Sydney was officially opened, with a façade constructed from more than 320,000 hand-placed bricks and glass slabs, and costing AU$180 million. Gehry said he would "never again design a building quite like the "crumpled paper bag".[49] Gehry told the French newspaper La Croix in November 2016 that President of France François Hollande had assured the architect that he could relocate to France if Donald Trump was elected President of the United States.[50][51] The following month Gehry said that he had no plans to move.[52] He and Trump exchanged words in 2010 when Gehry's 8 Spruce Street, originally known as Beekman Tower, was built 1 foot (0.30 m) taller than the nearby Trump Building, which until then had been New York City's tallest residential building.[51][53]

Architectural style[edit] Said to "defy categorisation", Gehry and his work reflects a spirit of experimentation coupled with a respect for the demands of professional practice and has remained largely unaligned with broader stylistic tendencies or movements.[54] With his earliest educational influences rooted in modernism, Gehry's work has sought to escape modernist stylistic tropes while still remaining interested in some of its underlying transformative agendas. Continually working between given circumstances and unanticipated materializations, he has been assessed as someone who "made us produce buildings that are fun, sculpturally exciting, good experiences" although his approach may become "less relevant as pressure mounts to do more with less".[54] Gehry is sometimes associated with what is known as the "Los Angeles School" or the "Santa Monica School" of architecture. The appropriateness of this designation and the existence of such a school, however, remains controversial due to the lack of a unifying philosophy or theory. This designation stems from the Los Angeles area's producing a group of the most influential postmodern architects, including such notable Gehry contemporaries as Eric Owen Moss and Pritzker Prize-winner Thom Mayne of Morphosis, as well as the famous schools of architecture at the Southern California Institute of Architecture (co‑founded by Mayne), UCLA, and USC where Gehry is a member of the board of directors.[citation needed] Gehry's style at times seems unfinished or even crude, but his work is consistent with the California "funk" art movement in the 1960s and early 1970s, which featured the use of inexpensive found objects and non-traditional media such as clay to make serious art.[55] Gehry has been called "the apostle of chain-link fencing and corrugated metal siding".[56] However, a retrospective exhibit at New York's Whitney Museum in 1988 revealed that he is also a sophisticated classical artist, who knows European art history and contemporary sculpture and painting.[55] Gallery[edit] "El Peix", fish sculpture located in front of the Port Olímpic, in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (1992) Dancing House in Prague (1996) Neuer Zollhof in Düsseldorf, Germany (1999) The Museum of Pop Culture in Seattle (2000) Gehry Tower in Hanover, Germany (2001) Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (2002) Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles (2003) Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (2003) Stata Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2004) BP Pedestrian Bridge, Millennium Park, Chicago (2004) MARTa Herford, Herford, Germany (2005) Hotel Marqués de Riscal in Elciego, Spain (2006) The headquarters of IAC in Manhattan, New York City (2007) Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (2008) Gallery of African American Art, Ohr-O'Keefe Museum Of Art campus in Biloxi, Mississippi (2010) Dr Chau Chak Wing Building in Sydney, Australia (2014) Bilbao effect[edit] The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain After the phenomenal success of Gehry's design for the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, critics began referring to the economic and cultural revitalization of cities through iconic, innovative architecture as the "Bilbao effect".[57] In the first 12 months after the museum was opened, an estimated US$160 million were added to the Basque economy. Indeed, over $3.5 billion has been added to the Basque economy since the building opened.[58] In subsequent years there have been many attempts to replicate this effect through large-scale eye-catching architectural commissions that have been both successful and unsuccessful, such as Daniel Libeskind's expansion of the Denver Art Museum and buildings by Gehry himself such as the almost universally well-received Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles and the more controversial Museum of Pop Culture in Seattle.[59] Though some link the concept of the Bilbao Effect to the notion of starchitecture, Gehry has consistently rejected the label of a starchitect.[60] Criticism[edit] Though much of Gehry's work has been well-received, reception of Gehry's work is not always positive. Art historian Hal Foster reads Gehry's architecture as, primarily, in the service of corporate branding.[61] Criticism of his work includes complaints over design flaws that the buildings waste structural resources by creating functionless forms, do not seem to belong in their surroundings or enhance the public context of their locations, and are apparently designed without accounting for the local climate.[62][63][64] Moreover, the socialist magazine Jacobin pointed out that Gehry's work can be summed up as architecture for the super-wealthy, in the sense that it is expensive, not resourceful, and does not serve the interests of the overwhelming majority. The article criticized Gehry's statement that, “In the world we live in, 98 percent of what gets built and designed today is pure shit.”[65]

Other aspects of career[edit] Academia[edit] In January 2011, Gehry joined the University of Southern California (USC) faculty, as the Judge Widney Professor of Architecture.[66] He has since continued in this role at his alma mater. In addition to his position at USC, Gehry has held teaching positions at Harvard University, the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of Toronto, Columbia University, the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, and at Yale University where he is still teaching as of 2017.[67] Though Gehry is often referred to as a "starchitect", Gehry has repeatedly expressed his disdain for the term, insisting instead that he is only an architect.[60][68] Steve Sample, President of the University of Southern California, told Gehry that "...After George Lucas, you are our most prominent graduate". As of December 2013[update], Gehry has received over a dozen honorary degrees from various universities (see #Honorary doctorates). In February 2017, MasterClass announced an online architecture course taught by Gehry that was then released in July.[69] Exhibition design[edit] Gehry has been involved in exhibition designs at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art dating back to the 1960s. In 1965 Gehry designed the exhibition display for the "Art Treasures of Japan" exhibition at the LACMA. This was followed soon after by the exhibition design for the "Assyrian Reliefs" show in 1966 and the "Billy Al Bengston Retrospective" in 1968. The LACMA then had Gehry design the installation for the "Treasures of Tutankhamen" exhibition in 1978 followed by the "Avant-Garde in Russia 1910–1930" exhibition in 1980. The subsequent year Gehry designed the exhibition for "Seventeen Artists in the 60's" at the LACMA followed soon after by the "German Expressionist Sculpture Exhibition" in 1983. In 1991/92, Gehry designed the installation of the landmark exhibition "Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany", which opened at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and traveled to the Art Institute of Chicago, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington and the Altes Museum in Berlin.[70][71] In 2014, Gehry was asked to design an exhibition on the work of Alexander Calder at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art's Resnick Pavilion, again invited by the museum's curator Stephanie Barron.[72] The exhibition began on November 24, 2013, and ran through July 27, 2014. In addition to his long-standing involvement with exhibition design at the LACMA, Gehry has also designed numerous exhibition installations with other institutions. In 1998, "The Art of the Motorcycle" exhibition opened at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum with its installation designed by Gehry. This exhibition subsequently traveled to the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao and the Guggenheim Las Vegas. In 2014, he curated an exhibition of photography by his close friend and businessman Peter Arnell that ran from March 5 through April 1 at Milk Studios Gallery in Los Angeles.[73] Stage design[edit] In 1983, Gehry created the stage design for Lucinda Childs' dance Available Light, set to music by John Adams. It premiered at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles at the "Temporary Contemporary", and was subsequently seen at the Brooklyn Academy of Music Opera House in New York City, and the Theatre de la Ville in Paris. The set consisted of two levels angled in relation to each other, with a chain-link backdrop.[74] The pieces was revived in 2015,[75] and was performed, among other places, in Los Angeles and Philadelphia, where it was presented by FringeArts, which commissioned the revival.[76] In 2012 Gehry designed the set for the Los Angeles Philharmonic's opera production of Don Giovanni, performed at the Walt Disney Concert Hall. In April 2014 Gehry designed a set for an "exploration of the life and career of Pierre Boulez" by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, which was performed in November of that year.[77] Other designs[edit] Wiggle side chair In addition to architecture, Gehry has made a line of furniture, jewelry for Tiffany & Co., various household items, sculptures, and even a glass bottle for Wyborowa Vodka. His first line of furniture, produced from 1969 to 1973, was called "Easy Edges", constructed out of cardboard. Another line of furniture released in the spring of 1992 is "Bentwood Furniture". Each piece is named after a different hockey term. He was first introduced to making furniture in 1954 while serving in the U.S. Army, where he designed furniture for the enlisted soldiers. In many of his designs, Gehry is inspired by fish. "It was by accident I got into the fish image", claimed Gehry. One thing that sparked his interest in fish was the fact that his colleagues were recreating Greek temples. He said, "Three hundred million years before man was fish....if you gotta go back, and you're insecure about going forward...go back three hundred million years ago. Why are you stopping at the Greeks? So I started drawing fish in my sketchbook, and then I started to realize that there was something in it."[78] As a result of his fascination, the first Fish Lamps were fabricated between 1984 and 1986. They employed wire armatures molded into fish shapes, onto which shards of plastic laminate ColorCore are individually glued. Since the creation of the first lamp in 1984, the fish has become a recurrent motif in Gehry's work, most notably in the Fish Sculpture at La Vila Olímpica del Poblenou in Barcelona (1989–92) and Standing Glass Fish for the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden (1986).[79] Gehry has previously collaborated with luxury jewelry company Tiffany & Co creating six distinct jewelry collections: the Orchid collection, Fish collection, Torque collection, Equus collection, Axis collection and Fold collection. In addition to jewelry, Gehry designed other items including a distinctive collector's chess set as well as a series of tableware items including vases, cups and bowls for the company.[80] In 2004, Gehry designed the official trophy for the World Cup of Hockey.[81] He redesigned the trophy for the next tournament in 2016.[82] In 2014, Gehry was one of the 6 "iconoclasts" selected by French fashion house Louis Vuitton to design a piece using their iconic monogram pattern as part of their "Celebrating Monogram" campaign.[83] In 2015, Gehry designed his first yacht.[84] Software development[edit] Gehry's firm was responsible for innovation in architectural software.[85] His firm spun off another firm called Gehry Technologies that was established in 2002. In 2005, Gehry Technologies began a partnership with Dassault Systèmes to bring innovations from the aerospace and manufacturing world to AEC and developed Digital Project software as well as GTeam software. In 2014, Gehry Technologies was acquired by software company Trimble Navigation.[86] Its client list includes Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Herzog & de Meuron, Jean Nouvel, Coop Himmelb(l)au and Zaha Hadid.

Personal life[edit] In 1952, Gehry (then Goldberg) married Anita Snyder. According to an interview with Gehry on the genealogy program Finding Your Roots, he changed his name in 1956 to Frank O. Gehry in part because of the antisemitism he had experienced as a child and as an undergraduate at USC. Gehry and Snyder divorced in 1966. He married his current wife, Panamanian Berta Isabel Aguilera, in 1975. He has two daughters from his first marriage and two sons from his second marriage. Having grown up in Canada, Gehry is an avid fan of ice hockey. He began a hockey league in his office, FOG (which stands for Frank Owen Gehry), though he no longer plays with them.[87] In 2004, he designed the trophy for the World Cup of Hockey.[88] Gehry holds dual citizenship in Canada and the United States. He lives in Santa Monica, California, and continues to practice out of Los Angeles. Gehry is known for his sometimes cantankerous personality. During a trip to Oviedo, Spain, to accept the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award in October 2014, he received a significant amount of attention, both positive and negative, for publicly flipping off a reporter at a press conference who accused him of being a "showy" architect.[89][90] Gehry is a member of the California Yacht Club in Marina Del Rey, California, and enjoys sailing with his fiberglass-hulled yacht, "Foggy".[91] Gehry also serves on the Leadership council of The New York Stem Cell Foundation.[92]

In popular culture[edit] In 2004, he voiced himself on the children's TV show Arthur, where he helped Arthur and his friends design a new treehouse.[93] Gehry also voiced himself in the 2005 episode of The Simpsons called "The Seven-Beer Snitch", in which he designs a concert hall for the fictional city of Springfield. Gehry has since voiced that he regrets his appearance since a joke about his design technique has led people to misunderstand his architectural process.[94] In 2006, filmmaker Sydney Pollack made a documentary about Gehry's work called Sketches of Frank Gehry. The film, which followed Gehry over the course of five years and painted a positive portrait of his character, was well-received critically.[95] In 2009, architecturally-inspired ice cream sandwich company Coolhaus named a cookie and ice cream combination after Gehry. Dubbed the "Frank Behry", it features Strawberries & Cream gelato and snickerdoodle cookies.[96][97]

Works[edit] Main article: List of works by Frank Gehry Exhibitions of Gehry's work[edit] In October 2014, the first major European exhibition of Gehry's work debuted at the Centre Pompidou in Paris, France.[98] Other museums or major galleries that have done exhibitions on Gehry's architecture or design include the Leo Castelli Gallery in 1983 and the Walker Art Center in 1986 whose exhibition then traveled to the Toronto Harbourfront Museum, the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, the LACMA and the Whitney Museum. Subsequently, further museums that have done major exhibitions on Gehry's work include the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art in 1992, the Gagosian Gallery in 1984, 1992 and 1993, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 2001, the Guggenheim Bilbao in 2002, the Jewish Museum in Manhattan in 2010 and the Milan Triennale, first in 1988 and then in 2010, with an exhibition entitled "Frank Gehry from 1997." In 2015, LACMA held a major retrospective of Gehry's work.[99] Gehry participated in the 1980 Venice Biennale's La Strada Novissima installation. He also contributed to the 1985 Venice Biennale with an installation and performance named Il Corso del Coltello done in collaboration with Claes Oldenburg. His projects were featured in the 1996 Venice Biennale. He subsequently contributed to the 2008 Venice Biennale with the installation Ungapatchket. In October 2015, 21 21 Design Sight in Tokyo held the exhibition Frank Gehry. I Have An Idea, curated by Japanese architect Tsuyoshi Tane.[100]

Awards and honors[edit] The Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health of the Cleveland Clinic in Las Vegas, Nevada (2010) 1987: Fellow of American Academy of Arts and Letters 1988: Elected into the National Academy of Design 1989: Pritzker Architecture Prize 1992: Praemium Imperiale 1994: The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize 1995: Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award 1998: National Medal of Arts[101] 1998: Gold Medal Award, Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 1999: AIA Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects 2000: Cooper–Hewitt National Design Award Lifetime Achievement[102] 2002: Companion of the Order of Canada[103] 2004: Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service 2006: Inductee, California Hall of Fame 2007: Henry C. Turner Prize for Innovation in Construction Technology from the National Building Museum (on behalf of Gehry Partners and Gehry Technologies) 2009: Order of Charlemagne 2012: Twenty-five Year Award, American Institute of Architects 2014: Prince of Asturias Award 2014: Commandeur of the Ordre National de la Légion d'honneur, France 2015: J. Paul Getty Medal 2016: Harvard Arts Medal 2016: Leonore and Walter Annenberg Award for Diplomacy through the Arts, Foundation for Arts and Preservation in Embassies 2016: Presidential Medal of Freedom Gehry was elected to the College of Fellows of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in 1974, and he has received many national, regional and local AIA awards. He is a Senior Fellow of the Design Futures Council and serves on the steering committee of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. External video Frank Gehry: My days as a young rebel, 44:28, TED Talks[104] Frank Gehry: A master architect asks, Now what?, 21:56, TED Talks[105] Honorary doctorates[edit] 1987: California Institute of the Arts 1987: Rhode Island School of Design 1989: Otis College of Art and Design 1989: Technical University of Nova Scotia 1993: Occidental College 1995: Whittier College 1996: Southern California Institute of Architecture 1998: University of Toronto 2000: Harvard University 2000: University of Edinburgh 2000: University of Southern California 2000: Yale University 2002: City College of New York 2004: School of the Art Institute of Chicago 2013: Case Western Reserve University 2013: Princeton University 2014: Juilliard School 2015: University of Technology Sydney 2017: University of Oxford

See also[edit] Architecture portal Contemporary architecture Organization of the artist Thin-shell structure

References[edit] Notes ^ a b c Reinhart, Anthony (July 28, 2010) "Frank Gehry clears the air", Globe and Mail ^ a b Tyrnauer, Matt (June 30, 2010). "Architecture in the Age of Gehry". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2010-07-22.  ^ for the design, see: "Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial: Design" ^ a b c Chollet, Laurence B. (2001). The Essential Frank O. Gehry. New York: The Wonderland Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-8109-5829-5.  ^ Finding Your Roots, February 2, 2016, PBS ^ Green, Peter S. (June 30, 2005). "In the News: Warsaw Jewish Museum In Poland". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ Gorin, Abbott (Spring 2015) "A Golden Age of Jewish Architects" Jewish Currents ^ Ouroussoff, Nicolai (October 25, 1998) "I'm Frank Gehry, and This Is How I See the World" Los Angeles Times Magazine ^ a b c Templer, Karen (December 5, 1999). "Frank Gehry". Salon. Retrieved 2007-08-25.  ^ Lacayo, Richard; Levy, Daniel S. (June 26, 2000). "Architecture: The Frank Gehry Experience". Time. 155 (26). p. 64. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved March 22, 2015.  ^ Engel, Eliot L. (August 2, 2013). "Congratulating the Alpha Epsilon Pi International Fraternity". Capitol Words. Retrieved 2014-01-23. [permanent dead link] ^ "Biography and Video Interview of Frank Gehry at Academy of Achievement". Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2015.  ^ Isenberg, Barbara (2012). Conversations with Frank Gehry. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 40–43. ISBN 9780307959720.  ^ Sisson, Patrick (August 21, 2015). "21 First Drafts: Frank Gehry's David Cabin". Curbed.  ^ Goldberger (2015), pp.110-111 Lazo, Caroline Evensen (2006) Frank Gehry. Twenty-First Century Books Hawthorne, Christopher (October 8, 2014) "In Paris, a Passion for All Things Frank Gehry" Los Angeles Times ^ Gehry Partners, LLP website Archived December 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Molloy, Jonathan C. (February 28, 2013). "AD Classic: Norton House / Frank Gehry". Retrieved 2013-05-25.  ^ Head, Jeffrey (October 21, 2009). "Frank Gehry: The Houses". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "Gehry House - Frank Gehry". Great Buildings Collection. Retrieved 2010-06-03.  ^ "Jury Citation: Frank Gehry: 1989 Laureate". Pritzker Architecture Prize. 1989. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Colwell, Hailey (August 5, 2015). "Modeling the museum for 17 years". The Frederick Weisman Museum of Art, University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on May 10, 2006. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "American Center, Paris". 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "Dancing House". 2006. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Tyrnauer, Matt (August 2010). "Architecture in the Age of Gehry". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 27, 2012.  ^ Roston, Eric (October 11, 2004). "Windy City Redux". Time. Retrieved 2008-07-30.  ^ Hawthorne, Christopher (September 21, 2013). "Frank Gehry's Walt Disney Concert Hall is inextricably of L.A." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-12-09.  ^ Hawthorne, Christopher (January 24, 2011). "Architecture review: Frank Gehry's New World Center in Miami Beach". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "The Stata Center". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Cliatt, Cass (September 11, 2008). "Architect Gehry seeks to inspire with Princeton's Lewis Library design". Archived from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Staff. "Experience Music Project". Fodors. Archived from the original on August 18, 2010. Retrieved 2015-03-22.  ^ Ouroussoff, Nicolai (March 22, 2007). "Gehry's New York Debut: Subdued Tower of Light". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-25.  ^ Ouroussoff, Nicolai (February 9, 2011). "8 Spruce Street by the Architect Frank Gehry – Review". The New York Times.  ^ "UTS City Campus Master Plan". University of Technology Sydney. Retrieved 2014-08-30.  ^ Gilmore, Heath (August 30, 2014). "Frank Gehry's Sydney building sculpture revealed". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2014-08-30.  ^ "Projects by Nouvel and Gehry Finally Moving Forward on Saadiyat Island". Architectural Record. January 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ Bozikovic, Alex (December 7, 2013). "Frank Gehry and David Mirvish's Tall Order in Toronto". The Globe & Mail. Retrieved 2013-12-08.  ^ "Superstar Architects Gehry and Foster to design Battersea Power Station's High Street". October 23, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-23.  ^ Tommasini, Anthony (December 7, 2013). "Arts Hub for All May Work for None". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-12-08.  ^ Pogrebin, Robin (February 6, 2012). "Eisenhower as Barefoot Boy? Family Objects to a Memorial". The New York Times.  ^ Campbell, Robert (October 13, 2012). "Pressing Pause, for Cause, On the Eisenhower Memorial". Boston Globe.  ^ Kennicott, Philip (December 17, 2011). "Review: Frank Gehry's Eisenhower Memorial reinvigorates the genre". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-04-24.  ^ "The Biomuseo, the great works of Frank Gehry". Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ "Eliasson show due to open Paris' Louis Vuitton museum". Collector Tribune. March 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-21.  ^ "Foundation Louis Vuitton: Frank Gehry". January 8, 2007. Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ Riding, Alan (October 3, 2006). "Vuitton Plans a Gehry-Designed Arts Center in Paris". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ Kennicott, Philip (September 2014). "Gehry's Paris Coup". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2014-10-24.  ^ Hawthorne, Christopher (August 9, 2015). "Frank Gehry agreed to make over the L.A. River -- with one big condition / How Frank Gehry's L.A. River make-over will change the city and why he took the job". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "Frank Gehry's controversial L.A. River plan gets cautious, low-key rollout". Los Angeles Times. 2016-06-18. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-07-27.  ^ "Frank Gehry says his 'crumpled paper bag' building will remain a one-off". The Guardian. Australian Associated Press. February 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ Dreyfus, Stéphane (November 4, 2016). "Frank Gehry, 'l'art-chitecte'". La Croix.  ^ a b Perlson, Hili (November 15, 2016). "With Trump Elected, Frank Gehry Wants to Move to France". Artnet News.  ^ La Rose, Lauren (December 3, 2016). "Architect Frank Gehry 'very worried' about Donald Trump". Toronto. The Canadian Press. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "Donald Trump versus Frank Gehry". Los Angeles Times. 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ a b Power, Julie (6 February 2015). "Frank Gehry: the Mad Hatter who transformed Sydney's skyline". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 September 2017.  ^ a b "Frank Owen Gehry". May 28, 2015. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2015.  ^ Adams, B. (1988) "Frank Gehry's Merzbau". Art in America 76: pp.139–144 ^ Rybczynski, Witold (September 2002). "The Bilbao Effect". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Horn, Eli (December 25, 2014). "Bilbao's Economy Purrs From Effect of Guggenheim Museum". Jewish Business News. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Rybczynski, Witold (November 22, 2008). "When Buildings Try Too Hard". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ a b Taylor-Foster, James (December 8, 2013). "Frank Gehry: 'I'm Not a Starchitect'". Retrieved 2013-12-08.  ^ Foster, Hal (August 23, 2001). "Why all the hoopla?". London Review of Books. 23 (16). Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ Favermann, Mark (November 7, 2007). "MIT Sues Architect Frank Gehry Over Flaws at Stata Center". Berkshire Fine Arts. Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ Speck, Jeff (2012) Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time New York: North Point Press. pp.243-45. ISBN 978-0-86547-772-8 ^ Vincent, Roger (March 17, 2017). "There's another Frank Gehry building going up in town. It's under the radar in El Segundo". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 March 2017.  ^ Cocotas, Alex (June 2016). "Design for the one percent". Jacobin. Retrieved 7 June 2016.  ^ USC News (January 18, 2011). "Architect Frank Gehry Named Judge Widney Professor (press release)". Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2011.  ^ "Frank O. Gehry" Yale School of Architecture website ^ "Frank Gehry: 'Don't Call Me a Starchitect'". The Independent. December 17, 2009. Retrieved 2013-12-08.  ^ Kaller, Hadlet (February 17, 2017). "Now Anyone Can Take a Class with Frank Gehry". Architectural Digest. Retrieved 2017-03-18.  ^ Muchnic, Suzanne (February 6, 1992), "LACMA 'Degenerate' Exhibit to Make a Stop in Germany" Los Angeles Times ^ Wilson, William (February 15, 1991) "Revisiting the Unthinkable: Nazi Germany's 'Degenerate Art' Show at LACMA" Los Angeles Times ^ Fleishman, Jeffrey (February 28, 2014) "Frank Gehry and Alexander Calder, a captivating union at LACMA" Los Angeles Times ^ "When Architects Curate: Frank Gehry’s Peter Arnell Retrospective at Milk Studios | Object Lessons". Blouin Artinfo. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ Lazar, Julie (1983) "Interview: Frank Gehry" in Available Light Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. ISBN 0-914357-01-8 ^ Lazar, Julie (June 3, 2015) "'Available Light' Returns to the Stage After Three Decades" KCET ^ "Available Light" FringeArts ^ Staff (April 23, 2014). "Architect Frank Gehry to Create Set Design for Chicago Symphony Orchestra Focused on Pierre Boulez". Broadway World. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ Pollack, Sydney (dir.) (1985) American Masters: Sketches of Frank Gehry (TV documentary) PBS. Accessdate=2008-11-17 ^ "Frank Gehry: Fish Lamps, November 7 - December 21, 2013" Gagosian Gallery, London ^ "Frank Gehry's Tiffany Chess Set Is a Miniature Architectural Marvel". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ Adams, Noah (September 3, 2004). "Frank Gehry's World Cup of Hockey Trophy". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-10-24.  ^ Seravalli, Frank. "World Cup of Hockey Trophy Gets a Facelift". The Sports Network. Retrieved 2017-03-16.  ^ "Louis Vuitton: Celebrating Monogram Project". Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ Ward, Vicky (October 5, 2015). "Frank Gehry's First-Ever Yacht Looks Like Nothing You've Ever Seen". Town & Country. Retrieved 2015-10-13.  ^ Appelbaum, Alec (February 11, 2009). "New York Times: Frank Gehry's Software Keeps Buildings on Budget". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-13.  ^ Ferro, Shaunacy (September 11, 2014), Frank Gehry's Software Company Acquired Fast Company. ^ Goldberger (2015) ^ Baurick, Tristan (May 13, 2004). "Architect's love of the game inspiration behind Cup trophy", Ottawa Citizen, p. C2. ^ Schledahl, Peter (2014-10-27). "Frank Gehry's Digital Defiance". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 27, 2014.  ^ McKenny, Leesha (October 27, 2014). "Frank Gehry gives the finger in response to accusations of "showy architecture"". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2014-10-27.  ^ Browne, Alix (April 19, 2009). "Love for Sail". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ "Leadership Council". New York Stem Cell Foundation. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ Booth, John (October 10, 2011). "The 15 Geekiest Episodes of PBS's Arthur". Wired. Retrieved 2013-08-14.  ^ Chaban, Matt (September 5, 2011). "Frank Gehry Really, Really Regrets His Guest Appearance on The Simpsons". The New York Observer. Retrieved 2011-09-10.  ^ Sketches of Frank Gehry. Rotten Tomatoes. ^ Staff (May 20, 2014). "How to Construct an Epic Ice Cream Sandwich Like an Architect". Food & Wine. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.  ^ Coolhaus (December 2, 2009). "Frank Behry Tribute Video!". Blogspot. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ Giovannini, Joseph (October 20, 2014). "An Architect's Big Parisian Moment Two Shows for Frank Gehry, as His Vuitton Foundation Opens". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-10-24.  ^ "Frank Gehry - LACMA". Los Angeles County Museum of Art.  ^ Balboa, Rafael A.; Scaroni, Federico (November 4, 2015). "Frank Gehry: I have an idea". Editoriale Domus Spa. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "Lifetime Honors - National Medal of Arts". National Endowment for the Arts. Archived from the original on 2011-08-06. Retrieved 2011-08-30.  ^ "Lifetime Achievement Winner: Frank Gehry". Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010.  ^ "The Governor General of Canada > Find a Recipient". Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 2015-09-14.  ^ "Frank Gehry: My days as a young rebel". TED Talks. 1990. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  ^ "Frank Gehry: A master architect asks, Now what?". TED Talks. 2002. Retrieved September 29, 2015.  Bibliography Dal Co, Francesco; Forster, Kurt W.; Arnold, Hadley (1998). Frank O. Gehry: The Complete Works. New York: The Monacelli Press. ISBN 978-1-885254-63-4.  Gehry, Frank O.; Colomina, Beatriz; Friedman, Mildred; Mitchell, William J.; Ragheb, J. Fiona; Cohen, Jean-Louis; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; Museo Guggenheim Bilbao (May 2001). Frank Gehry Architect (Hardcover). Guggenheim Publications. p. 390. ISBN 978-0810969292.  Goldberger, Paul (2015). Building Art: The Life and Work of Frank Gehry. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780307701534. OCLC 913514521.  Rattenbury, Kester (2006) Architects Today Laurence King Publishers ISBN 978-1-85669-492-6 Staff (1995) "Frank Gehry 1991-1995" El Croquis Further reading Bletter, Rosemarie Haag; Walker Art Center (1986). The Architecture of Frank Gehry. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0-8478-0763-0.  ISBN 978-0-8478-0763-5. Friedman, Mildred (ed.); Sorkin, Michael (December 17, 1999). Gehry Talks: Architecture + Process (Hardcover) (1st ed.). New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-2165-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Gehry, Frank O. (2004). Gehry Draws. Violette Editions. ISBN 978-1-900828-10-9.  Richardson, Sara S. (1987). Frank O. Gehry: A Bibliography. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies. ISBN 1-55590-145-X.  van Bruggen, Coosje (December 30, 1999) [1997]. Frank O. Gehry: Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (Hardcover) (1st ed.). New York: Guggenheim Museum Pubns. ISBN 978-0-8109-6907-0. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frank Gehry. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Frank Gehry Library resources about Frank Gehry Resources in your library Resources in other libraries By Frank Gehry Resources in your library Resources in other libraries Gehry Partners, LLP, Gehry's architecture firm Gehry Technologies, Inc., Gehry's technology firm Frank Gehry at TED Frank Gehry on Charlie Rose Frank Gehry on IMDb "Frank Gehry collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  "Frank Gehry collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Fish Forms: Lamps by Frank Gehry Exhibition (2010) at The Jewish Museum (New York) STORIES OF HOUSES: Frank Gehry's House in California Bidding for the National Art Museum of China’s new site Gehry Draws on Violette Editions Frank Gehry architecture on Google Maps 5 Wonderful Buildings of Futurist Architect Frank Gehry v t e Frank Gehry Completed works 8 Spruce Street Anaheim Ice Art Gallery of Ontario Biomuseo Binoculars Building BP Pedestrian Bridge Cabrillo Marine Aquarium California Science Center Air & Space Building Cinémathèque Française Dancing House Disney Village Dr Chau Chak Wing Building DZ Bank building Gehry Residence Gehry Tower Guggenheim Museum Bilbao IAC Building NYC Jay Pritzker Pavilion Louis Vuitton Foundation Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health Loyola Law School Maggie's Centre at Dundee Merriweather Post Pavilion Museum of Pop Culture Neuer Zollhof New World Center Novartis Pharma A.G. Campus Ohr-O'Keefe Museum Of Art Peter B. Lewis Building Ray and Maria Stata Center Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts Santa Monica Place Serpentine Gallery 2008 Summer Pavilion Sleep Train Pavilion Team Disney Anaheim University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Vitra Design Museum Walt Disney Concert Hall Weisman Art Museum Works under construction / proposed Estació de la Sagrera (2012) World Trade Center Performing Arts Center (2015) Guggenheim Abu Dhabi (2017) Grand Avenue Project (On hold) Philadelphia Museum of Art Expansion (On hold) Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial (Proposed) Associated with Aaron Betsky Dan Dworsky Vlado Milunić Permasteelisa Sydney Pollack Concepts Cardboard furniture Digital Project Organization of the artist Pop culture Easy Edges "The Seven-Beer Snitch" Sketches of Frank Gehry Commons Wikibooks Wikinews Wikiquote v t e Pritzker Architecture Prize laureates Philip Johnson (1979) Luis Barragán (1980) James Stirling (1981) Kevin Roche (1982) I. M. Pei (1983) Richard Meier (1984) Hans Hollein (1985) Gottfried Böhm (1986) Kenzo Tange (1987) Gordon Bunshaft and Oscar Niemeyer (1988) Frank Gehry (1989) Aldo Rossi (1990) Robert Venturi (1991) Álvaro Siza Vieira (1992) Fumihiko Maki (1993) Christian de Portzamparc (1994) Tadao Ando (1995) Rafael Moneo (1996) Sverre Fehn (1997) Renzo Piano (1998) Norman Foster (1999) Rem Koolhaas (2000) Herzog & de Meuron (2001) Glenn Murcutt (2002) Jørn Utzon (2003) Zaha Hadid (2004) Thom Mayne (2005) Paulo Mendes da Rocha (2006) Richard Rogers (2007) Jean Nouvel (2008) Peter Zumthor (2009) Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA (2010) Eduardo Souto de Moura (2011) Wang Shu (2012) Toyo Ito (2013) Shigeru Ban (2014) Frei Otto (2015) Alejandro Aravena (2016) Rafael Aranda, Carme Pigem, and Ramón Vilalta / RCR Arquitectes (2017) v t e Laureates of the Wolf Prize in Arts Architecture Ralph Erskine (1983/4) Fumihiko Maki / Giancarlo De Carlo (1988) Frank Gehry / Jørn Utzon / Denys Lasdun (1992) Frei Otto / Aldo van Eyck (1996/7) Álvaro Siza Vieira (2001) Jean Nouvel (2005) David Chipperfield / Peter Eisenman (2010) Eduardo Souto de Moura (2013) Phyllis Lambert (2016) Music Vladimir Horowitz / Olivier Messiaen / Josef Tal (1982) Isaac Stern / Krzysztof Penderecki (1987) Yehudi Menuhin / Luciano Berio (1991) Zubin Mehta / György Ligeti (1995/6) Pierre Boulez / Riccardo Muti (2000) Mstislav Rostropovich / Daniel Barenboim (2004) Giya Kancheli / Claudio Abbado (2008) Plácido Domingo / Simon Rattle (2012) Jessye Norman / Murray Perahia (2015) Painting Marc Chagall / Antoni Tàpies (1981) Jasper Johns (1986) Anselm Kiefer (1990) Gerhard Richter (1994/5) Louise Bourgeois (2002/3) Michelangelo Pistoletto (2006/7) Rosemarie Trockel (2011) Sculpture Eduardo Chillida (1984/5) Claes Oldenburg (1989) Bruce Nauman (1993) James Turrell (1998) Louise Bourgeois (2002/3) Michelangelo Pistoletto (2006/7) Olafur Eliasson (2014) Laurie Anderson / Lawrence Weiner (2017) Paul McCartney / Ádám Fischer (2018) Agriculture Arts Chemistry Mathematics Medicine Physics Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89113091 LCCN: n82013991 ISNI: 0000 0001 2321 240X GND: 11890888X SELIBR: 206588 SUDOC: 026886456 BNF: cb119045157 (data) BIBSYS: 90528685 ULAN: 500010962 MusicBrainz: cfeebb80-9dd1-4161-b67b-1c084c8b5d19 NLA: 36543652 NDL: 01077129 NKC: jn20000601729 BNE: XX995836 RKD: 121131 SNAC: w6jd53zm Retrieved from "" Categories: 1929 birthsArchitects from CaliforniaArchitects from Los AngelesArt in the Greater Los Angeles AreaCanadian architectsCanadian emigrants to the United StatesCanadian JewsCanadian people of Polish-Jewish descentColumbia University facultyCompanions of the Order of CanadaDeconstructivismHarvard Graduate School of Design alumniJewish architectsLiving peopleMembers of the European Academy of Sciences and ArtsNational Design Award winnersOrganic architecturePeople from TorontoPostmodern architectsPritzker Architecture Prize winnersRecipients of the Praemium ImperialeRecipients of the Royal Gold MedalUnited States Army soldiersUnited States National Medal of Arts recipientsUSC School of Architecture alumniWolf Prize in Arts laureatesYale School of Architecture facultyPeople associated with the Philadelphia Museum of ArtPresidential Medal of Freedom recipientsHonorary Members of the Royal AcademyHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from January 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksWebarchive template wayback linksUse mdy dates from August 2017Use American English from August 2017All Wikipedia articles written in American EnglishArticles with hCardsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2015Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2014Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2013All articles containing potentially dated statementsCS1 maint: Extra text: authors listAC with 16 elementsWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiersWikipedia articles with ULAN identifiersWikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiersWikipedia articles with NLA identifiersWikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers

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