Contents 1 Background 2 Culture 2.1 Language 2.2 Religion 2.3 Cuisine 2.4 Family 3 Politics 4 Community 4.1 Immigration 4.2 Identity 4.3 Veterans 5 Holidays 6 Notable people 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links


Background[edit] Main articles: Demographics of Filipino Americans and History of Filipino Americans See also: Filipinos in Hawaii, Filipinos in the New York City metropolitan region, Filipinos of American descent, and Little Manila Five images of the Filipino settlement at Saint Malo, Louisiana Filipino sailors were the first Asians in North America.[15] The first recorded presence of Filipinos in what is now the United States dates back to October 1587 around Morro Bay, California, with the first permanent settlement in Louisiana in 1763,[16] with small settlements beginning in the 18th century.[17] Mass migration began in the early 20th century when, for a period following the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the Philippines was a territory of the United States. During the 1920s, a majority of Filipino workers who arrived in the United States lacked necessary training.[18] Philippine independence was recognized by the United States on July 4, 1946. After independence in 1946, Filipino American numbers continued to grow. Immigration was reduced significantly during the 1930s, except for those who served in the United States Navy, and increased following immigration reform in the 1960s.[19] The population of Filipino immigrant workers, as well the quality of their skills, improved following the passing of the Immigration Act of 1965.[18] The 2010 Census counted 3.4 million Filipino Americans, while the United States Department of State in 2011 estimated the total at 4 million, or 1.1% of the U.S. population. the total at 4 million, or 1.1% of the U.S. population. They are the country's second largest self-reported Asian ancestry group after Chinese Americans according to 2010 American Community Survey.[20][21] They are also the largest population of Overseas Filipinos.[22] Significant populations of Filipino Americans can be found in California, Hawaii, the New York metropolitan area and Illinois.


Culture[edit] See also: History of the Philippines, Culture of the Philippines, Balikbayan box, and Filipinas (magazine) The history of Spanish and American rule and contact with merchants and traders culminated in a unique blend of Eastern and Western cultures in the Philippines.[23] Filipino American cultural identity has been described as fluid, adopting aspects from various cultures;[24] that said there has not been significant research into the culture of Filipino Americans.[25] Fashion, dance, music, theater and arts have all had roles in building Filipino American cultural identities and communities.[26][page needed] In areas of sparse Filipino population, they often form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a "sense of family", which is a key feature of Filipino culture. These organizations generally arrange social events, especially of a charitable nature, and keep members up-to-date with local events.[27] Organizations are often organized into regional associations.[28] The associations are a small part of Filipino American life. Filipino Americans formed close-knit neighborhoods, notably in California and Hawaii.[29] A few communities have "Little Manilas", civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community.[30] Some Filipinos retain Philippine surnames, such as Bacdayan or Macapagal, while others derive from Japanese, Indian, and Chinese and reflect centuries of trade with these merchants preceding European and American rule.[31][32][33] Reflecting its 333 years of Spanish rule, many Filipinos adopted Hispanic surnames,[31] and celebrate fiestas.[34] Due to the legacy of colonization, Filipinos are considered Latinos of Asia.[35] Despite being from Asia, Filipinos are sometimes called "Latinos" due to their historical relationship to Spanish colonialism.[35] Similar to Puerto Rico, Filipinos have been subjected to both Spanish and American colonial structures and territory status.[36] This shared history may also contribute to why some Filipinos choose to also identify as Hispanic or Latino, while others may not and identify more as Asian Americans.[37] Only a small percentage of Filipino Americans identify as Latino.[38] Language[edit] Tagalog language spread in the United States. Filipino and English are constitutionally established as official languages in the Philippines, and Filipino is designated as the national language, with English in wide use.[39] Many Filipinos speak American English due to American colonial influence in the country's education system and due to limited Spanish education.[40] Among Asian Americans in 1990, Filipino Americans had the smallest percentage of individuals who had problems with English.[41] In 2000, among U.S.-born Filipino Americans, three quarters responded that English is their primary language.[42] Tagalog is the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers.[4] Many of California's public announcements and documents are translated into Tagalog.[43] Tagalog is also taught in some public schools, as well as in higher education.[44] Other significant Filipino languages are Ilocano and Cebuano.[45] Other languages spoken in Filipino American households include Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Bicolano and Waray.[46] However, fluency in Philippine languages tends to be lost among second- and third-generation Filipino Americans.[47] Other languages of the community include Spanish and Chinese (Minnan and Fujien).[5] Religion[edit] See also: Religion in the Philippines The Philippines is 90% Christian,[34][48] one of only two such countries in Asia, along with East Timor.[49] Following the European discovery of the Philippines by Ferdinand Magellan, Spaniards made a concerted effort to convert Filipinos to Catholicism; outside of the Muslim Sultanates in the Philippines, missionaries were able to covert large numbers of Filipinos.[48] and the majority are Roman Catholic, giving Catholicism a major impact on Filipino culture.[50] Other denominations include Protestants (Aglipayan, Episcopalian, and others), nontrinitarian (Iglesia ni Cristo and Jehovah's Witnesses), Muslims, Buddhist or nonreligious; religion has served as a dividing factor within the Philippines and Filipino American communities.[50] As Filipinos began to migrate to the United States, Filipino Roman Catholics were often not embraced by their American Catholic brethren, nor were they sympathetic to a Filipino-ized Catholicism. This led to creation of ethnic-specific parishes.[51] The first-ever American Church for Filipinos, San Lorenzo Ruiz Church in New York City, is named after the first saint from the Philippines, San Lorenzo Ruiz. This was officially designated as a church for Filipinos in July 2005, the first in the United States, and the second in the world, after a church in Rome.[52] In 2010, Filipino American Catholics were the largest population of Asian American Catholics, making up more than three fourths of Asian American Catholics.[53] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Philippine cuisine A Filipino fusion food truck in the greater Los Angeles area A Filipino fusion food truck in the San Francisco Bay Area The number of Filipino restaurants does not reflect the size of the population.[54][55][56] Due to the restaurant business not being a major source of income for the community, few non-Filipinos are familiar with the cuisine.[57] Although American cuisine influenced Philippine cuisine,[58] it has been criticized by non-Filipinos.[59] Even on Oahu where there is a significant Filipino American population,[60] Philippine cuisine is not as noticeable as other Asian cuisines.[61] On television, Philippine cuisine has been criticized, such as on Fear Factor,[62] and praised, such as on Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations,[63] and Bizarre Foods America.[64] Filipino American chefs cook in many fine dining restaurants,[65] including Cristeta Comerford who is the executive chef in the White House,[55] though many do not serve Filipino cuisine in their restaurants.[65] Reasons given for the lack of Philippine cuisine in the U.S. include colonial mentality,[56] lack of a clear identity,[56] a preference for cooking at home[55] and a continuing preference of Filipino Americans for cuisines other than their own.[66] Philippine cuisine remains prevalent among Filipino immigrants,[67] with restaurants and grocery stores catering to the Filipino American community,[54][68] including Jollibee, a Philippines-based fast-food chain.[69] In the 2010s, there began to be successful and critically reviewed Filipino American restaurants have emerged in cities like New York City and Washington, D.C.[70] Bon Appetit named Bad Saint in Washington, D.C. "the second best new restaurant in the United States",[71] while Condé Nast Traveler chose Maharlika Moderno as an Editor's pick in New York City.[72] With this emergence of Filipino American restaurants, food critics like Andrew Zimmern have predicted that Filipino food will be "the next big thing" in American cuisine,[73] while restaurateurs like Nicole Ponseca have cited a Filipino Food Movement in the United States.[74] Family[edit] Filipino-Americans, similar to other people of color, undergo experiences that are unique to their own identities. These experiences derive from both the Filipino culture and American cultures individually and the dueling of these identities as well. These stressors, if great enough, can lead Filipino-Americans into suicidal behaviors.[75] Members of the Filipino community learn early on about kapwa, which is defined as “interpersonal connectedness or togetherness.[76]” With kapwa, many Filipino-Americans have a strong sense of needing to repay their family members for the opportunities that they have been able to receive. An example of this is a new college graduate feeling the need to find a job that will allow them to financially support their family and themself. This notion comes from “utang na loob,” defined as a debt that must be repaid to those who have supported the individual.[77] With kapwa and utang na loob as strong forces enacting on the individual, there is an “all or nothing” mentality that is being played out. In order to bring success back to one’s family, there is a desire to succeed for one’s family through living out a family’s wants as opposed to one’s own true desires.[78] This can manifest as one entering a career path that they are not passionate in, but select in order to help support their family.[79] Despite many of the stressors for these students deriving from family, it also becomes apparent that these are the reasons that these students are resilient. When family conflict rises in Filipino-American families, there is a negative association with suicide attempts.[75] This suggests that though family is a presenting stressor in a Filipino-American’s life, it also plays a role for their resilience.[75] In a study conducted by Yusuke Kuroki, family connectedness, whether defined as positive or negative to each individual, served as one means of lowering suicide attempts.[75]


Politics[edit] This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Last update: 2012 US general election (September 2017) Headquarters of the government in exile and temporary capital of the Commonwealth of the Philippines Filipino Americans have traditionally been socially conservative,[80] particularly with "second wave" immigrants;[81] the first Filipino American elected to office was Peter Aduja.[82] In the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election Republican president George W. Bush won the Filipino American vote over John Kerry by nearly a two-to-one ratio,[83] which followed strong support in the 2000 election.[84] However, during the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, Filipino Americans voted majority Democratic, with 50% to 58% of the community voting for President Barack Obama and 42% to 46% voting for Senator John McCain.[85][86] The 2008 election marked the first time that a majority of Filipino Americans voted for a Democratic presidential candidate.[87] According to the 2012 National Asian American Survey, conducted in September 2012,[88] 45% of Filipinos were independent or nonpartisan, 27% were Republican, and 24% were Democrats.[86] Additionally, Filipino Americans had the largest proportions of Republicans among Asian Americans polled, a position normally held by Vietnamese Americans, leading up to the 2012 election,[88] and had the lowest job approval opinion of Obama among Asian Americans.[88] In a survey of Asian Americans from thirty seven cities conducted by the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, it found that of the Filipino American respondents, 65% voted for Obama.[89] Due to scattered living patterns, it is nearly impossible for Filipino American candidates to win an election solely based on the Filipino American vote.[90] Filipino American politicians have increased their visibility over the past few decades. Ben Cayetano, former governor of Hawaii, became the first governor of Filipino descent in the United States. The number of Congress-members of Filipino descent doubled to numbers not reached since 1937, two when the Philippine Islands were represented by non-voting Resident Commissioners, due to the 2000 Senatorial Election. In 2009 three Congress-members claimed at least one-eighth Filipino ethnicity;[91] the largest number to date. Since the resignation of Senator John Ensign in 2011[92] (the only Filipino American to have been a member of the Senate), and Representative Steve Austria (the only Asian Pacific American Republican in the 112th Congress[93]) choosing not to seek reelection and retire,[94] Representative Robert C. Scott is the only Filipino American in the 113th Congress.[95]


Community[edit] Immigration[edit] See also: Illegal immigration to the United States, Illegal immigration amongst Asian Americans, and Multiple citizenship Quarters for Filipino workers at a salmon cannery in Nushagak, Alaska in 1917. Company labor camp for Filipino farm laborers on Ryer Island in 1940 The Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 (Republic Act No. 9225) made Filipino Americans eligible for dual citizenship in the United States and the Philippines.[96] Overseas suffrage was first employed in the May 2004 elections in which Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was reelected to a second term.[97] By 2005, about 6,000 Filipino Americans had become dual citizens of the two countries.[98] This act allow Filipino Americans to invest in the Philippines, through land purchases, which are limited to Filipino citizens and, with some limitations, former citizens.[99]), vote in Philippine elections, retire in the Philippines, and participate in representing the Philippine flag. In 2013, for the Philippine general election there were 125,604 registered Filipino voters in the United States and Caribbean, of which only 13,976 voted.[100] Dual citizens have been recruited to participate in international sports events including athletes representing the Philippines who competed in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens,[101] and the Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.[102] The Philippine government actively encourages Filipino Americans to visit or return permanently to the Philippines via the "Balikbayan" program and to invest in the country.[103] Filipinos remain one of the largest immigrant groups to date with over 40,000 arriving annually since 1979.[104] The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has a preference system for issuing visas to non-citizen family members of U.S. citizens, with preference based generally on familial closeness. Some non-citizen relatives of U.S. citizens spend long periods on waiting lists.[105] Petitions for immigrant visas, particularly for siblings of previously naturalized Filipinos that date back to 1984, were not granted until 2006.[106] As of 2016[update], over 380 thousand Filipinos were on the visa wait list, second only to Mexico and ahead of India, Vietnam and China.[107] Filipinos have the longest waiting times for family reunification visas, as Filipinos disproportionately apply for family visas; this has led to visa petitions filed in July 1989 still waiting to be processed in March 2013.[108] It has been documented that Filipinos were among those naturalized due to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.[109] In 2009, the Department of Homeland Security estimated that 270,000 Filipino were "unauthorized immigrants". This was an increase of 70,000 from a previous estimate in 2000. In both years, Filipinos accounted for 2% of the total. As of 2009[update], Filipinos were the fifth-largest community of illegal immigrants behind Mexico (6.65 million, 62%), El Salvador (530,000, 5%), Guatemala (480,000, 4%), and Honduras (320,000, 3%).[110] In January 2011, the Department of Homeland Security estimate of "unauthorized immigrants" from the Philippines remained at 270,000.[111] Filipinos who reside in the United States illegally are known within the Filipino community as "TnT's" (tago nang tago translated to "hide and hide").[112] Identity[edit] Main article: List of ethnic slurs § F See also: Hyphenated American Filipino Americans may be mistaken for members of other racial/ethnic groups, such as Latinos or Pacific Islanders;[113] this may lead to "mistaken" discrimination that is not specific to Asian Americans.[113] Filipino Americans additionally, have had difficulty being categorized, termed by one source as being in "perpetual absence".[114] In the period, prior to 1946, Filipinos were taught that they were American, and presented with an idealized America.[104] They had official status as United States nationals.[115] When ill-treated and discriminated by other Americans, Filipinos were faced with the racism of that period, which undermined these ideals.[116] Carlos Bulosan later wrote about this experience in America is in the Heart. Even pensionados, who immigrated on government scholarships,[104] were treated poorly.[116] In Hawaii, Filipino Americans often have little identification with their heritage,[117] and it has been documented that many disclaim their ethnicity.[118] This may be due to the "colonial mentality", or the idea that Western ideals and physical characteristics are superior to their own.[119] Although categorized as Asian Americans, Filipino Americans have not fully embraced being part of this racial category due to marginalization by other Asian American groups and or the dominant American society.[120] This created a struggle within Filipino American communities over how far to assimilate.[121] The term "white-washed" has been applied to those seeking to further assimilate.[122] Those who disclaim their ethnicity lose the positive adjustment to outcomes that are found in those who have a strong, positive, ethnic identity.[119] Of the ten largest immigrant groups, Filipino Americans have the highest rate of assimilation.[123] with exception to the cuisine;[124] Filipino Americans have been described as the most "Americanized" of the Asian American ethnicities.[125] However, even though Filipino Americans are the second largest group among Asian Americans, community activists have described the ethnicity as "invisible", claiming that the group is virtually unknown to the American public,[126] and is often not seen as significant even among its members.[127] This description has also been used in the political arena, given the lack of political mobilization.[128] In the mid-1990s it was estimated that some one hundred Filipino Americans have been elected or appointed to public office. This lack of political representation contributes to the perception that Filipino Americans are invisible.[129] The concept is also used to describe how the ethnicity has assimilated.[130] Few affirmative action programs target the group although affirmative action programs rarely target Asian Americans in general.[131] Assimilation was easier given that the group is majority religiously Christian, fluent in English, and have high levels of education.[132] The concept was in greater use in the past, before the post-1965 wave of arrivals.[133] The term "invisible minority" has been used to describe Asian Americans as a whole,[134][135] and the term "model minority" has been applied to Filipinos as well as other Asian American groups.[136] Filipino critics allege that Filipino Americans are ignored in immigration literature and studies.[137] As with fellow Asian Americans, Filipino Americans are viewed as "perpetual foreigners", even for those born in the United States.[138] This has resulted in physical attacks on Filipino Americans, as well as non-violent forms of discrimination.[139] In college and high school campuses, many Filipino American student organizations put on annual Pilipino Culture Nights to showcase dances, perform skits, and comment on the issues such as identity and lack of cultural awareness due to assimilation and colonization.[140] Filipino American gay, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual identities are often shaped by immigration status, generation, religion, and racial formation.[141] Veterans[edit] See also: Filipino Veterans Fairness Act, 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment, and 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiment Manila American Cemetery and Memorial During World War II, some 250,000 to 400,000 Filipinos served in the United States Military,[142][143] in units including the Philippine Scouts, Philippine Commonwealth Army under U.S. Command, and recognized guerrillas during the Japanese Occupation. In January 2013, ten thousand surviving Filipino American veterans of World War II lived in the United States, and a further fourteen thousand in the Philippines,[144] although some estimates found eighteen thousand or fewer surviving veterans.[145] The U.S. government promised these soldiers all of the benefits afforded to other veterans.[146] However, in 1946, the United States Congress passed the Rescission Act of 1946 which stripped Filipino veterans of the promised benefits. One estimate claims that monies due to these veterans for back pay and other benefits exceeds one billion dollars.[143] Of the sixty-six countries allied with the United States during the war, the Philippines is the only country that did not receive military benefits from the United States.[127] The phrase "Second Class Veterans" has been used to describe their status.[127][147] Many Filipino veterans traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for these benefits .[148] Since 1993, numerous bills have been introduced in Congress to pay the benefits, but all died in committee. Representative Hanabusa submitted legislation to award Filipino Veterans with a Congressional Gold Medal.[149] Known as the Filipino Veterans of World War II Congressional Gold Medal Act, it was referred to the Committee on Financial Services and the Committee on House Administration.[150] As of February 2012 had attracted 41 cosponsors.[151] In January 2017, the medal was approved.[152] There was a proposed lawsuit to be filed in 2011 by The Justice for Filipino American Veterans against the Department of Veterans Affairs.[153] In the late 1980s, efforts towards reinstating benefits first succeeded with the incorporation of Filipino veteran naturalization in the Immigration Act of 1990.[127] Over 30,000 such veterans had immigrated, with mostly American citizens, receiving benefits relating to their service.[154] Similar language to those bills was inserted by the Senate into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009[155] which provided a one time payment of at least 9,000 USD to eligible non-US Citizens and 15,000 USD to eligible US Citizens via the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation Fund.[156] These payments went to those recognized as soldiers or guerrillas or their spouses.[157] The list of eligibles is smaller than the list recognized by the Philippines.[158] Additionally, recipients had to waive all rights to possible future benefits.[159] As of March 2011, 42 percent (24,385) of claims had been rejected;[160] By September 2012, that number was further reduced to some 24 thousand, using the "Missouri list" (the Approved Revised Reconstructed Guerilla Roster kept by the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in St Louis, MO.) In the 113th Congress, Representative Joe Heck reintroduced his legislation to allow documents from the Philippine government and the U.S. Army to be accepted as proof of eligibility.[161] Known as H.R. 481, it was referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs.[162] In 2013, the U.S. released a previously classified report detailing guerrilla activities, including guerrilla units not on the "Missouri list".[163] In September 2012, the Social Security Administration announced that non-resident Filipino World War II veterans were eligible for certain social security benefits; however an eligible veteran would lose those benefits if they visited for more than one month in a year, or immigrated.[164] Congressional Gold Medal Beginning in 2008, a bipartisan effort started by Mike Thompson and Tom Udall an effort began to recognize the contributions of Filipinos during World War 2; by the time Barack Obama signed the effort into law in 2016, a mere fifteen thousand of those veterans were estimated to be alive.[165] Finally in October 2017, the recognition occurred with the awarding of a Congressional Gold Medal.[166] When the medal was presented by the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, several surviving veterans were at the ceremony.[167] The medal now resides in the National Museum of American History.[168]


Holidays[edit] Congress established Asian Pacific American Heritage Month in May to commemorate Filipino American and other Asian American cultures. Upon becoming the largest Asian American group in California, October was established as Filipino American History Month to acknowledge the first landing of Filipinos on October 18, 1587 in Morro Bay, California. It is widely celebrated by Fil-Ams.[169][170] Major & Regional Celebrations in the United States Date Name Region January Winter Sinulog[171] Philadelphia April PhilFest[172] Tampa, FL May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Nationwide, USA May Asian Heritage Festival[173] New Orleans May Filipino Fiesta and Parade[174] Honolulu May FAAPI Mother's Day[175] Philadelphia May Flores de Mayo[176] Nationwide, USA June Philippine Independence Day Parade New York City June Philippine Festival[177] Washington, D.C. June Philippine Day Parade[178] Passaic, NJ June Pista Sa Nayon[179] Vallejo, CA June New York Filipino Film Festival at The ImaginAsian Theatre New York City June Empire State Building commemorates Philippine Independence[180] New York City June Philippine–American Friendship Day Parade[181] Jersey City, NJ June 12 Fiesta Filipina[182] San Francisco June 12 Philippine Independence Day Nationwide, USA June 19 Jose Rizal's Birthday[183] Nationwide, USA June Pagdiriwang[184] Seattle July Fil-Am Friendship Day[185] Virginia Beach, VA July Pista sa Nayon[186] Seattle July Philippine Weekend[187] Delano, CA August 15 to 16 Philippine American Exposition[188] Los Angeles August 15 to 16 Annual Philippine Fiesta[189] Secaucus, NJ August Summer Sinulog[190] Philadelphia August Historic Filipinotown Festival[191] Los Angeles August Pistahan Festival and Parade[192] San Francisco September 25 Filipino Pride Day[193] Jacksonville, FL September Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture (FPAC)[194] Los Angeles September AdoboFest[195] Chicago October Filipino American History Month Nationwide, USA October Filipino American Arts and Culture Festival (FilAmFest)[196] San Diego November Chicago Filipino American Film Festival (CFAFF)[197] Chicago December 16 to 24 Simbang Gabi Christmas Dawn Masses[198] Nationwide, USA December 25 Pasko Christmas Feast[199] Nationwide, USA December 30 Jose Rizal Day Nationwide, USA


Notable people[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of Filipino Americans.


References[edit] ^ "ASIAN ALONE OR IN ANY COMBINATION BY SELECTED GROUPS: 2016". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 15 October 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "PCT1 TOTAL POPULATION: Universe:Total population, 2010 Census Summary File 2". 2010 Census. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 4 December 2012.  ^ a b c Melen McBride, RN, PhD. "HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE OF FILIPINO AMERICAN ELDERS". Stanford University School of Medicine. Stanford University. Retrieved 8 June 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b "Statistical Abstract of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2006-07-11.  ^ a b Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. pp. 333–334. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.  ^ "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths, Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2014. Religious Affiliations Among U.S. Asian American Groups - Filipino: 89% Christian (21% Protestant (12% Evangelical, 9% Mainline), 65% Catholic, 3% Other Christian), 1% Buddhist, 0% Muslim, 0% Sikh, 0% Jain, 2% Other religion, 8% Unaffiliated[not in citation given]  "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2017. Filipino Americans: 89% All Christian (65% Catholic, 21% Protestant, 3% Other Christian), 8% Unaffiliated, 1% Buddhist  ^ "Fil-Am: abbreviation Filipino American.", allwords.com, Date accessed: 29 April 2011 Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III; Roger L. Kemp (18 February 2016). Immigration and America's Cities: A Handbook on Evolving Services. McFarland. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7864-9633-4.  Stanley I. Thangaraj; Constancio Arnaldo; Christina B. Chin (5 April 2016). Asian American Sporting Cultures. NYU Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4798-4016-8.  ^ Jon Sterngass (2007). Filipino Americans. Infobase Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4381-0711-0.  ^ Mabalon, Dawn, Little Manila is in the Heart (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013), 20, 37. ^ Marina Claudio-Perez (October 1998). "Filipino Americans" (PDF). The California State Library. State of California. Retrieved 30 April 2011. Filipino Americans are often shortened into Pinoy Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by the early Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines. Others claim that it implies "Filipino" thoughts, deeds and spirit.  ^ Mercene, Floro L. (2007). Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. The University of the Philippines Press. p. 161. ISBN 971-542-529-1. Retrieved 1 July 2009.  Rodel Rodis (25 October 2006). "A century of Filipinos in America". Inquirer. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ Rodel Rodis (25 October 2006). "A century of Filipinos in America". Inquirer. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ "Labor Migration in Hawaii". UH Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ "Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 15 March 2017. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate.  Rodolfo Severino (2011). Where in the World is the Philippines?: Debating Its National Territory. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 10. ISBN 978-981-4311-71-7.  Muhammad Munawwar (23 February 1995). Ocean States: Archipelagic Regimes in the Law of the Sea. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-7923-2882-5.  Thomas Leonard; Jurgen Buchenau; Kyle Longley; Graeme Mount (30 January 2012). Encyclopedia of U.S. - Latin American Relations. SAGE Publications. p. 732. ISBN 978-1-60871-792-7.  ^ Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 20 August 2011. Most people think of Asians as recent immigrants to the Americas, but the first Asians—Filipino sailors—settled in the bayous of Louisiana a decade before the Revolutionary War.  ^ "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 2009-04-05.  Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 25 February 2012.  ^ Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 19 May 2011. Some of the Filipinos who left their ships in Mexico ultimately found their way to the bayous of Louisiana, where they settled in the 1760s. The film shows the remains of Filipino shrimping villages in Louisiana, where, eight to ten generations later, their descendants still reside, making them the oldest continuous settlement of Asians in America.  Loni Ding (2001). "1763 FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 19 May 2011. These are the "Louisiana Manila men" with presence recorded as early as 1763.  Ohamura, Jonathan (1998). Imagining the Filipino American Diaspora: Transnational Relations, Identities, and Communities. Studies in Asian Americans Series. Taylor & Francis. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4. Retrieved 30 September 2012.  ^ a b "Fil-Ams in the U.S." FACSPS. Retrieved 2016-11-10.  ^ "Introduction, Filipino Settlements in the United States" (PDF). Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. March 1995. Retrieved 19 April 2009.  ^ "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012.  ^ Public Information Office (9 November 2015). 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John Ensign of Nevada.  Maxwell, Rahasaan (5 March 2012). Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs. Cambridge University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-107-37803-2. Retrieved 8 August 2014. These numbers include politicians with only the slightest connection to the Philippines. For example, Bobby Scott of Virginia is commonly considered an African American and his only connection to the Philippines is one maternal grandmother. John Ensign of Nevada only has one Filipino great-grandparent.  ^ Peter Urban (3 May 2011). "In final speech to Senate, Ensign apologizes to colleagues". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 3 May 2011.  ^ Samson Wong (15 November 2012). "The Party With The Parity". AsianWeek. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ Jonathan Strong (17 January 2012). "How Rep. Steve Austria Became a Sacrificial Republican". Roll Call. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  Rachel Weiner (30 December 2011). "Ohio Republican Rep. Steve Austria retiring". Washington Post. 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From "Little Brown Brothers" to "Forgotten Asian Americans": Race, Space, and Empire in Filipino Los Angeles (Ph.D.). University of Washington.  David, E.J.R. (6 April 2016). "Why Are Filipino Americans Still Forgotten and Invisible?". Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, LLC. Retrieved 16 March 2017.  ^ a b c d Nakano, Satoshi (June 2004). "The Filipino World War II veterans equity movement and the Filipino American community" (PDF). Seventh Annual International Philippine Studies. Center for Pacific And American Studies: 53–81. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ Maxwell, Rahsaan (2012). Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs. Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–208, 274. ISBN 978-1-107-00481-8. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ Okamura, Jonathan Y. (1998). Imagining the Filipino American diaspora: transnational relations, identities, and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4. Retrieved 15 March 2010.  Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Mendoza, Susanah Lily L. (2002). Between the homeland and the diaspora: the politics of theorizing Filipino and Filipino American identities : a second look at the poststructuralism-indigenization debates. Psychology Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-415-93157-1. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Buenavista, Tracy Lachica; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly (2009). "Contextualizing Asian American education through critical race theory: An example of U.S. Pilipino college student experiences" (PDF). New Directions for Institutional Research. 2009 (142): 69–81. doi:10.1002/ir.297. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Belinda A. Aquino (10 December 2006). "The Filipino Century in Hawaii: Out of the Crucible" (PDF). Center for Philippine Studies. University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ "The Invisible Minority". The Harvard Crimson. January 17, 2003.  ^ "America's 'Invisible' Minority Is Ready for Its Closeup". Voice of America. February 23, 2015.  ^ Nguyen, Mimi Thi (2007). Thuy Linh N. Tu, ed. Alien encounters: popular culture in Asian America. Duke University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8223-3922-9. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  Cropp, Fritz; Frisby, Cynthia M.; Mills, Dean (2003). Journalism across cultures. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwel. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-8138-1999-0. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  Tojo Thatchenkery (31 March 2000). "Asian Americans Under the Model Minority Gaze". International Association of Business Disciplines National Conference. modelminority.com. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  Ho-Asjoe, Henrietta (2009). William Baragar Bateman, ed. Praeger handbook of Asian American health: taking notice and taking action. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-313-34703-0. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Espiritu, Yen Le (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives Across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-23527-4. Retrieved July 20, 2012.  ^ Baker, Lee D. (2004). Life in America: Identity and Everyday Experience. John Wiley & Sons. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4051-0564-4. Retrieved July 18, 2012.  ^ Tiongson, Antonio T.; Gutierrez, Edgardo Valencia (2006). Ricardo Valencia Gutierrez, ed. Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities And Discourse. Temple University Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 978-1-59213-122-8. Retrieved April 28, 2013.  ^ "In the Court of the Sultan: Orientalism, Nationalism, and Modernity in Philippine and Filipino American Dance" (PDF). Sites.uci.edu. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ IV, Martin F. Manalansan (2003-12-10). Global Divas: Filipino Gay Men in the Diaspora. Duke University Press Books. ISBN 9780822332176.  ^ Evangeline Canonizado Buell; Evelyn Luluguisen; Lillian Galedo; Eleanor Hipol Luis (2008). Filipinos in the East Bay. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-5832-5.  Maria Virginia Yap Morales (2006). Diary of the war: World War II memoirs of Lt. Col. Anastacio Campo. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-971-550-489-8.  ^ a b "Asian Heritage in the National Park Service Cultural Resources Programs" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Keith Rogers (21 January 2013). "100-year-old Filipino-American veteran dies". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 26 January 2013. About 10,000 live in the United States and 14,000 are in the Philippines.  ^ Joseph Pimental (12 January 2011). "Bill to give Filipino WWII veterans full equality". Asian Journal. Retrieved 6 March 2011.  Matsukawa, Lori (11 May 2017). "Filipino American WWII veteran gets Congressional Gold Medal". KING. Seattle, Washington. Retrieved 16 May 2017. Julian Nicholas is one of about 18,000 surviving Filipino American veterans from World War II, and he's getting a congressional gold medal at age 91.  ^ Josh Levs (23 February 2009). "U.S. to pay 'forgotten' Filipino World War II veterans". CNN. Retrieved 10 March 2011.  ^ Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  Kimberely Jane T. Tan (7 September 2009). "Fil-Am photographer pays tribute to 'America's second-class veterans'". GMA News. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Chen, Edith Wen-Chu (2010). Yoo, Grace J., ed. Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-313-34751-1. Retrieved 27 April 2011.  ^ Richard Simon (30 January 2013). "Philippine vets still fighting their battle over WWII". Stars and Stripes. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ "Committees: H.R.111 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ "Cosponsors: H.R.111 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Richard, Sam (3 January 2017). "If not full recompense, Gold Medal is welcome recognition for WW II Filipino soldiers". East Bay Times. Hercules, California. Retrieved 16 May 2017.  ^ Henni Espinosa (17 January 2011). "Filipino Veterans Group Pursues Lawsuits Despite New Equality Bill". Balitang America. Archived from the original on 2011-11-16. Retrieved 6 March 2011.  ^ "World War II Filipino Veteran Rights". Filipino American Curriculum Project. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-04-05.  ^ Maze, Rick (2008-01-29). "Senate puts Filipino vet pensions in stimulus" (News Article). Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. Retrieved 2009-01-30. Buried inside the Senate bill, which includes tax cuts and new spending initiatives intended to create jobs in the U.S., the Filipino payment was inserted at the urging of Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, the new chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee and a longtime supporter of monthly pensions for World War II Filipino veterans.  ^ Bayron, Heda (2009-03-25). "Filipino War Veterans Take Advantage of Delayed US Response". Voice Of America. Retrieved 2013-04-09.  "Stimulus Bill Provides $198 Million for Filipino Veterans". Public and Intergovernmental Affairs. United States Depart of Veterans Affairs. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2009-04-05.  ^ Representative Joe Heck (5 February 2013). "Bidding Farewell to Two Members of the Las Vegas Mighty Five (House of Representatives - February 05,2013)". Thomas. Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 February 2013. Congress finally acknowledged the dedicated service of many of these denied veterans when it established the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation Fund in 2009.  ^ Jaleco, Rodney (2009-03-28). "Excluded Fil-Vets Now Eligible for Lump-Sum Money". ABS-CBN. Archived from the original on 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2009-03-30.  ^ Joseph G. Lariosa (9 January 2011). "Filipino Veterans Fairness bill filed at US Congress". GMA News. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2012. The bill likewise proposes to invalidate the "quit claim" or the waiver of the right of Filipino veterans to receive future benefits, like a lifetime monthly pension, as provided for in the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation (FVEC) of the $787-billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).  ^ JFAV (23 March 2011). "WW II Filvet to lead delegation to US Congress for full equity". Asian Journal. Retrieved 30 March 2011.  Tarra Quismundo (23 February 2013). "US willing to review Filipino veterans' denied claims". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 4 March 2013.  ^ Dymphina Calica-La Putt (26 September 2012). "Heck introduces bill to aid denied Filipino WWII vets". Asian Journal. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  Dymphna Calica-La Putt (2 February 2013). "Nevada Solon to resubmit bill on Filvets compensation". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Asian Journal. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ "Committees: H.R.481 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  ^ Chuck N. Baker (6 March 2013). "Filipino soldiers who fought for the U.S. now battle for benefits". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 7 March 2013.  ^ Cynthia De Castro (18 September 2012). "Special benefits available for WW II vets outside of US". Asian Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2013.  ^ Richards, Sam (3 January 2017). "If not full recompense, Gold Medal is welcome recognition for WW II Filipino soldiers". East Bay Times. Hercules, California. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Castillo, Walbert (25 October 2017). "Fought and forgotten: Filipino World War II veterans honored with medal 75 years later". USA Today. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  Brekke, Dan (25 October 2017). "To Help Heal an Unhappy History, Congress Awards Medal to Filipino World War II Vets". The California Report. San Francisco, California. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Basco, Isabella (27 October 2017). "Filipino WWII veterans officially awarded US Congressional Gold Medal". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Hilbig, Valeska; Machado, Melinda (26 October 2017). "Smithsonian Collects Filipino Congressional Gold Medal". National Museum of American History. Smithsonian. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Santos, Hector. "Sulat sa Tanso". Archived from the original on 2006-08-26. Retrieved 2006-08-28.  ^ "history". Asian Pacific heritage. Retrieved 2006-08-28.  ^ "Filipino Apostolate" (PDF). Our Lady of Hope Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Philadelphia. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 23, 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ "PhilFest 2011". Philippine Cultural Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ "Asian Heritage Festival 2011". Asian/Pacific American Society. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ Tiffany Hill. "Field Guide: Filipino Fun". Honolulu Magazine. Aio. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  Paul Raymund Cortes (3 June 2011). "19 Annual Filipino Fiesta". Philippine Consulate General Honolulu. Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ "Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc". Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011. FAAPI also continues to hold the annual Mother of the Year celebration (started in 1950s) to honor motherhood on Mothers Day in May.  ^ "Flores de Mayo at Santacruzan". Center for Southeast Asian Studies Northern Illinois University. Northern Illinois University. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Mark Rabago (26 June 2006). "First-ever Flores de Mayo on Saipan tonight". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  "Flores de Mayo at the San Gabriel Mission". Asian Journal. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ Jose Antonio Vargas (11 June 2006). "Where Everyone Gets to Tagalog". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  "Washington Concert for Children's Choir". Manila Standard. 16 April 1993. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Rodney J. Jaleco (18 November 2009). "Fil-Am is deputy mayor of US Capital". ABS-CBN North America News Bureau. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Filipino Art Exhibition and Workshop". Events and Programs Schedule. Passaic Public Library. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Jim Belarmino (6 April 1995). "Philippine parade in Passaic, N.J. on June 11". Filipino Reporter. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Vallejo Pista Sa Nayon". Philippine Cultural Committee. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ Quinto, Olivia J. "Empire State lights up for Filipinos—again". Archived from the original on 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2006-08-28.  ^ "Jersey City's Filipino community holds the 19th annual Friendship Day Parade and Festival". The Jersey Journal. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Ricardo Kaulessar (18 July 2010). "Rain on their parades". Hudson Reporter. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  "GMA stars grace New Jersey Fil-Am Day parade". The Philippine Star. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Vanessa Cubillo (29 July 2010). "PHOTOS: 2010 Philippine American Friendship Day Parade". Jersey City Independent. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Fiesta Filipina USA". Fiesta Filipina USA. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  "San Francisco celebrates a Philippine Independence weekend". Linda B. Bollido. 2 July 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Marconi Calindas (27 June 2009). "RP stars celebrate Independence Day with Fil-Ams". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Golin Harris (30 June 2009). "The Filipino Channel Awards Kapamilya Circle Member 1 Million Philippine Pesos During Wowowee; San Jose Woman Wins At Special U.S. Edition Of Game Show". Business Wire. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Jose Rizal Day in Carson on June 19". Asian Journal. 18 June 2011. Archived from the original on November 16, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  "Chicago Celebrates 150 years of Dr. Jose P. Rizal". Filipino American Historical Society of Chicago. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ Holton, Paul, ed. (2007). Fodor's Seattle. New York: Random House Digital, Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4000-1854-3. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Filipino Cultural Heritage Society of Washington. "Pagdiriwang Philippine Festival". Festal 2011. Seattle Center. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ Angelique Miller (16 May 2008). "Fil-Am Friendship Day slated for July 5". GMA News. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  Patrick K. Lackey (5 July 1992). "Filipinos in are come together on July fourth \ Diverse group seeking unity". The Virginia-Pilot. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ "Pista Sa Nayon". Retrieved 19 June 2011.  "Seafair Highlights: Hollywood-themed parade". The Seattle Times. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  Evi Sztajino (25 July 2008). "Seafair events to close streets around the city". Seattle Post Intelligencer. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Filipino weekend". United Filipino weekend.com. Retrieved 2006-08-28.  Kasiner, Dorothy (2000). Delano Area 1930–2000. Chicago, Illinois: Arcadia Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7385-0775-0. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Philippine–American Expo". California Examiner. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  Cynthia De Coastro (21 December 2010). "Bernardo Bernardo: A Man of Many Hats". Asian Journal. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Philippine Fiesta". philippinefiesta.com. Retrieved 2006-08-28.  Don Tagala (18 August 2010). "Philippine Fiesta Draws Thousands to the East Coast". Balitang America. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "St. Augustine Church, Philadelphia: Immigration & Filipino Transformation". Scribe Video Center. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  Dr. Vivienne SM. Angeles (1998). ""Sinulog" in Philadelphia". The Pluralism Project. Harvard University. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ "Historic Filipinotown festival set this week". GMA News. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  "Historic Filipinotown Festival/5KRun". Asian Journal. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ "Pistahan Parade and Festival". Filipino American Arts Exposition. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  Luis Chong (13 August 2010). "This Weekend: Huge Array of Filipino Eats at S.F.'s Annual Pistahan Festival". SF Weekly. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ "Filipino Pride Day". We Filipinos Inc. 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  Deirdre Conner (18 June 2009). "Festival highlights Jacksonville's Filipino culture". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ "FilAmArts". The Association for the Advancement of Filipino American Arts and Culture. Retrieved 8 June 2011.  ^ "The Filipino American Network's Adobo Festival".  ^ "FilAmFest". Retrieved 2009-06-08.  "San Diego FilAmFest set for Oct. 5". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Philippines. 28 September 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2017.  Malou Amparo (10 October 2011). "Kicking off Pilipino-American History Month at the 8th Annual FilAmFest in San Diego". Bakitwhy.com. Kasama Media, LLC. Retrieved 16 March 2017.  ^ "Chicago Filipino American Film Festival".  ^ Gonzalez, Joaquin Lucero (2009). Filipino American faith in action: immigration, religion, and civic engagement. New York: NYU Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8147-3197-0. Retrieved 18 June 2011.  ^ "Christmas: A National Fiesta". Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 


Further reading[edit] Espiritu, Yen (1995). Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-56639-317-1.  Crisostomo, Isabelo T. (1996). Filipino achievers in the USA & Canada: profiles in excellence. Bookhaus Publishers. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-931613-11-1.  Labrador, Roderick N. Building Filipino Hawai'i (University of Illinois Press, 2015) 170pp Bankston III, Carl L. (2005). "Filipino Americans". In Min, Pyong Gap. Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Pine Forge Press. pp. 180–202, 368. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5.  Isaac, Allan Punzalan (2006). American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America. U of Minnesota Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8166-4274-8.  Pido, Antonio J. A. (1986). The Pilipinos in America: macro/micro dimensions of immigration and integration. CMS Migration and Ethnicity Series. Center for Migration Studies. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-913256-78-7.  Tiongson, Antonio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Guiterrez, Edgardo, eds. (2006). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-59213-121-1.  Archive Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union, Local 7 Records, 1915–1985; Predominantly 1933–1982. 46.31 cubic feet. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Carlos Bulosan Papers, 1914–1976. 4.65 cubic feet, 17 microfilm reels. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Chris D. Mensalvas Papers, 1935–1974. .25 cubic feet, 1 sound cassette. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Chris D. Mensalvas Photograph Collection, 1937–1956. 1 folder of photographic prints. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Trinidad Rojo Papers, 1923–1991. 2.81 cubic feet. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Filipino Americans. Eloisa Gomez Borah (2012). "Americans of Filipino Descent - FAQs". UCLA Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles.  "FANHS National". Filipino American National Historical Society. 2014.  "Filipino American Heritage Website". Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. Smithsonian Institution. 2008.  de Castro, Christian; Abarquez-de la Cruz, Prosy (9 October 2012). "The Filipino American Library". Filipino American Heritage Institute.  "Filipino American Reseources". Lemieux Library. Seattle University.  "Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center". Smithsonian Institution.  v t e Filipino Americans Demographics • History Alaska Hawaii New York City v t e Asian Americans1, 2 Central Asian3 Mongolian Uzbek East Asian Chinese Hong Kong Tibetan4 Fuzhou/Hokchiu Hakka Japanese Hawaii Korean Taiwanese South Asian5 Bangladeshi Bengali Bhutanese Indian Indo-Caribbean Bengali Punjabi Sindhi Tamil Nepalese Pakistani Baloch Pashtun Punjabi Sindhi Sri Lankan Tamil Southeast Asian Burmese Cambodian Filipino Hmong Indonesian Laotian Malaysian Mien Singaporean Thai Vietnamese Other Hispanic and Latino Punjabi Mexican Multiracial American Afro-Asian Amerasian Eurasian History General Immigration Military Topics Arts and Entertainment Demographics Politics Stereotypes Religion Buddhists Christians Catholics Protestants Hindus Jainism Muslims Sikhs Regions California Hawaii Maryland New York City Puerto Rico Washington Notes 1 The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. [1][2] 2 The United States Government classified Kalmyks as Asian until 1951, when Kalmyk Americans were reclassified as White Americans.[3] 3 The U.S. Census Bureau considers Mongolians and Uzbeks as Central Asians,[4] but a specific Central Asian American group similar to Middle Eastern American does not yet exist.[5] 4 The U.S. Census Bureau reclassifies anyone identifying as "Tibetan American" as "Chinese American".[6] 5 Bengali Americans may be classified as Bangladeshi or Indian.[7] Punjabi Americans may be classified as Indian or Pakistani.[8] Tamil Americans may be classified as Indian or Sri Lankan. v t e Demographics of the United States Demographic history By economic and social Affluence Educational attainment Emigration Home-ownership Household income Immigration Income inequality Language LGBT Middle classes Personal income Poverty Social class Unemployment by state Wealth By religion Baha'is Buddhists Christians Catholics Coptics Protestants Hindus Jains Jews Muslims Ahmadiyyas Neopagans Non-religious Rastafaris Scientologists Sikhs Zoroastrians By continent and ethnicity Africa African diaspora in the Americas Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans Bahamian Americans Belizean Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Jamaican Americans Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans Black Hispanic and Latino Americans African immigrants to the United States Central Africans in the United States Horn Africans in the United States North Africans in the United States Southeast Africans in the United States Southern Africans in the United States West Africans in the United States Asia Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans East Asia Chinese Americans Hong Kong Americans Tibetan Americans Japanese Americans Korean Americans Mongolian Americans Taiwanese Americans South Asia Bangladeshi Americans Bhutanese Americans Indian Americans Nepalese Americans Pakistani Americans Romani Americans Sri Lankan Americans Southeast Asia Burmese Americans Cambodian Americans Filipino Americans Hmong Americans Indonesian Americans Laotian Americans Malaysian Americans Singaporean Americans Thai Americans Vietnamese Americans West Asia Arab Americans Assyrian Americans Iranian Americans Israeli Americans Jewish Americans Europe White Americans English Americans French Americans German Americans Irish Americans Italian Americans Scandinavian Americans Slavic Americans Spanish Americans Non-Hispanic whites White Hispanic and Latino Americans Oceania Pacific Islands Americans Chamorro Americans Native Hawaiians Samoan Americans Tongan Americans Euro Oceanic Americans Australian Americans New Zealand Americans North America Native Americans and Alaska Natives Canadian Americans Cuban Americans Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans (Stateside) South America Hispanic and Latino Americans Brazilian Americans Colombian Americans Ecuadorian Americans Multiethnic Melungeon People of the United States / Americans American ancestry Maps of American ancestries 2010 Census Race and ethnicity in the Census Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Racism v t e Overseas Filipinos Africa Egypt Libya Nigeria South Africa Uganda Americas Canada Cuba Honduras Mexico United States Demographics History Alaska Hawaii New York City area Asia East Asia China Hong Kong Japan South Korea Taiwan South Asia India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Southeast Asia Indonesia Malaysia Singapore Thailand West Asia Bahrain Israel Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Turkey United Arab Emirates Europe Austria Belgium France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Oceania Australia New Zealand Palau United States portal Asian Americans portal Philippines portal Society portal Social sciences portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Filipino_Americans&oldid=827168116" Categories: Filipino AmericanAsian-American societyFilipino diaspora by countryHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listAll articles with failed verificationArticles with failed verification from September 2016"Related ethnic groups" needing confirmationArticles using infobox ethnic group with image parametersArticles containing Filipino-language textWikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2017Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2017All Wikipedia articles in need of updatingArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2016All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2009


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