Contents 1 Anti-pornography feminism 1.1 Harm to women during production 1.2 Social harm from exposure to pornography 1.2.1 Women reduced to sex objects 1.2.2 Enticement to sexual violence against females Rape of children 1.2.3 Distorted view of the human body and sexuality 1.2.4 Hatred of women 1.3 Anti-pornography feminist organizations and campaigns 1.4 Legislative and judicial efforts 1.4.1 Anti-pornography Civil Rights Ordinance 1.4.2 Pornography Victims' Compensation Act 1.4.3 R. v. Butler 1.4.4 Robinson v. Jacksonville Shipyards 2 Sex-positive and anti-censorship feminist views 2.1 Sex-positive feminism 2.2 Feminist critique of censorship 2.3 Feminist pornography 3 Specific issues 3.1 Pornography vs. erotica 3.2 Sex workers 4 Feminist pornographers 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Anti-pornography feminism[edit] External video Growing Up in a Pornified Culture, Gail Dines, TEDx Feminist opponents of pornography—such as Andrea Dworkin, Catharine MacKinnon, Robin Morgan, Diana Russell, Alice Schwarzer, Gail Dines, and Robert Jensen—argue that pornography is harmful to women, and constitutes strong causality or facilitation of violence against women. Catharine McKinnon and Andrea Dworkin had separately staked out a position that pornography was inherently exploitative toward women, and they called for a civil law to make pornographers accountable for harms that could be shown to result from the use, production, and circulation of their publications.[1] When Dworkin testified before the Meese Commission in 1986, she said that 65 to 75 percent of women in prostitution and hard-core pornography had been victims of incest or child sexual abuse.[2] Andrea Dworkin's activism against pornography during the 1980s brought her to national attention.[3] Harm to women during production[edit] Anti-pornography feminists, notably Catharine MacKinnon, charge that the production of pornography entails physical, psychological, and/or economic coercion of the women who perform and model in it. This is said to be true even when the women are being presented as enjoying themselves.[4][5][6] It is also argued that much of what is shown in pornography is abusive by its very nature. Gail Dines holds that pornography, exemplified by gonzo pornography, is becoming increasingly violent and that women who perform in pornography are brutalized in the process of its production.[7][8] Anti-pornography feminists point to the testimony of well known participants in pornography, such as Traci Lords and Linda Boreman, and argue that most female performers are coerced into pornography, either by somebody else, or by an unfortunate set of circumstances. The feminist anti-pornography movement was galvanized by the publication of Ordeal, in which Linda Boreman (who under the name of "Linda Lovelace" had starred in Deep Throat) stated that she had been beaten, raped, and pimped by her husband Chuck Traynor, and that Traynor had forced her at gunpoint to make scenes in Deep Throat, as well as forcing her, by use of both physical violence against Boreman as well as emotional abuse and outright threats of violence, to make other pornographic films. Dworkin, MacKinnon, and Women Against Pornography issued public statements of support for Boreman, and worked with her in public appearances and speeches. Social harm from exposure to pornography[edit] Women reduced to sex objects[edit] On-face ejaculation and anal sex are increasingly popular among men, following trends in porn.[9] MacKinnon and Dworkin defined pornography as "the graphic sexually explicit subordination of women through pictures or words".[10] The effects produced by those who view pornography are mixed and still widely debated. Generally, research has been focused around the effects of voluntary viewing of pornography. There have also been studies analyzing the inadvertent exposure to explicit sexual content, including: viewing naked photographs of people, people engaging in sexual acts, accidental web searches, or opening online links to pornographic material. It has been found that most exposure to pornography online is unsolicited and by accident. 42% of those who view online pornography are ages ranging between 10 and 17; 66% have experienced inadvertent exposure.[11] Jae Woong Shim of Sookmyung Women's University along with Bryant M. Paul of Indiana University published a controlled study looking at such inadvertent exposure to pornography in regards to the feeling of anonymity titled "The Role of Anonymity in the Effects of Inadvertent Exposure to Online Pornography Among Young Adult Males." The study consisted of 84 male students, ages 18 and older, volunteering from a large American university in the Midwest. After completing an arbitrary survey, they were shown a 10-second pop-up clip consisting either of sexual or nonsexual content. Half of the subjects exposed to either clip believed they were viewing the content nonanonymously. The other half believed they were anonymous, and they were not being monitored. They were then asked if they would rather view hardcore pornography, softcore pornography, or nonsexual material. The hardcore pornography depicted women as sexual objects, and male-superiority. The softcore pornography was less graphic. The nonsexual material was a video of a professor's lecture unrelated to sexual content.[11] After being exposed to the inadvertent pop-up clip, researchers noted which of the three above content choices the subjects selected. Researchers then measured the participants’ sexist attitudes towards women using a questionnaire asking the agreeability of statements to women gaining more control over men. The higher the score, the higher the subjects are thought to hold sexist views. Those who believed they were anonymous were less likely to be conscious of their monitoring compared to the nonanonymous group. It turns out, those who were exposed to sexual content and believed they were anonymous, were the most likely to choose the hardcore pornography that depicts the most objectification of women. The next highest choice for the hardcore pornography was the group exposed to nonsexual material, yet believed to be anonymous. These two groups were the most likely to hold hostile sexist attitudes towards women after the 10 second inadvertent exposure to sexual content compared to before the study.[11] This indicates negative opinions towards women. It is concluded that being exposed to sexual content, even when it is unwanted, leads men to develop harsher sexist attitudes towards women. The greater intrigue for men to view hardcore and unusual pornography was greater when they believed to be doing so anonymously. This is most likely tied to the theory of deindividuation. The theory states that a person detaches his or her self from personal responsibility and awareness as an individual, and is more likely to act differently than when their behaviors are socially attached to his or her character. "When individuals perceive that no one knows what they are viewing, they are likely to experience reduced self-awareness, which, in turn, leads to being less considerate toward others".[11] This implies that these men would be less likely to view the pornography which harshly objectifies women if they know others would be aware if they do so, due to the perceived social consequences. Since the feeling of anonymity disregard social norms, there is a higher chance of pursuing more extreme stimuli. This study does not prove that the men willing to watch the hardcore pornography and hold more sexist views are more likely to act out these desires and beliefs toward women. Valerie Webber in her article "Shades of Gay: Performance of Girl-on-Girl Pornography and mobile authenticities" differentiates the sex depicted in porn and personal, private sexual encounters. At first, she argues that performing sex produces normative ideas about what makes sex authentic. These normative beliefs then transfer into personal experiences where people feel an obligation to perform sex as they have viewed it in pornography.[12] Webber discovered that there is no true authenticity surrounding sex. Sex through the lens of pornography is still legitimate, yet most performers exaggerate the act to make it more rousing and intimate to the audience. She explains that "performance…does not preclude authenticity. Performance is the means by which ‘authenticity’ is established as a category".[12] Yet the women interviewed had wide beliefs about what made sex authentic, most of which included a sense of intimacy. One interviewee pointed out that pornography is stigmatized for not being genuine, which is not true for all performers. Some are completely satisfied with the sex performed for porn, while others report low satisfaction.[12] Those who perform in pornography have different intentions for doing so, much like any other job. Some performers do it because they like pleasing their audience, some do it for personal pleasure, and some feel they are creating something of artistic value. As Webber puts it, "if fake equals ‘bad’, then good must equal ‘real’. The motives can be ‘pure’, but what those motives are can differ dramatically".[12] Performers are usually aware of what their audience expects from them and what viewers enjoy. Webber could theorize that women use this knowledge and personal intentions to produce pornography in which men anonymously consume, which then authenticates the normality of such depictions of sex as being appropriate and desirable. Enticement to sexual violence against females[edit] Anti-pornography feminists say that consumption of pornography is a cause of rape and other forms of violence against women. Robin Morgan summarizes this idea with her often-quoted statement, "Pornography is the theory, and rape is the practice."[13] Anti-pornography feminists charge that pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, and reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment. MacKinnon argued that pornography leads to an increase in sexual violence against women through fostering rape myths. Such rape myths include the belief that women really want to be raped and that they mean yes when they say no. Additionally, according to MacKinnon, pornography desensitizes viewers to violence against women, and this leads to a progressive need to see more violence in order to become sexually aroused, an effect she claims is well documented.[14] Rape of children[edit] Rape of a prepubescent child followed "habitual" consumption of child porn "within six months" although the men were previously "horrified at the idea", according to Gail Dines, that interviewed men in prison.[9] Distorted view of the human body and sexuality[edit] German radical feminist Alice Schwarzer is one proponent of this point of view, in particular in the feminist magazine Emma. Many opponents of pornography believe that pornography gives a distorted view of men and women's bodies, as well as the actual sexual act, often showing the performers with synthetic implants or exaggerated expressions of pleasure, as well as fetishes that are not the norm, such as watersports, being presented as popular and normal. Harry Brod offered a Marxist feminist view, "I [Brod] would argue that sex seems overrated [to men] because men look to sex for fulfillment of nonsexual emotional needs, a quest doomed to failure. Part of the reason for this failure is the priority of quantity over quality of sex which comes with sexuality's commodification."[15] Hatred of women[edit] Gail Dines said, "'[p]ornography is the perfect propaganda piece for patriarchy. In nothing else is their hatred of us quite as clear.'"[9] Anti-pornography feminist organizations and campaigns[edit] From the mid 1970s into the early 1980s, public rallies and marches protesting pornography and prostitution drew widespread support among women and men from across the political spectrum.[16] Beginning in the late 1970s, anti-pornography radical feminists formed organizations such as Women Against Pornography, Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media, Women Against Violence Against Women, Feminists Fighting Pornography, and like groups that provided educational events, including slide-shows, speeches, guided tours of the sex shops in areas like New York's Times Square and San Francisco's Tenderloin District, petitioning, and publishing newsletters, in order to raise awareness of the content of pornography and the sexual subculture in pornography shops and live sex shows.[17] Similar groups also emerged in the United Kingdom, including legislatively focused groups such as Campaign Against Pornography and Campaign Against Pornography and Censorship, as well as groups associated with radical feminism such as Women Against Violence Against Women and its direct action offshoot Angry Women.[18] Legislative and judicial efforts[edit] Anti-pornography Civil Rights Ordinance[edit] Many anti-pornography feminists—Dworkin and MacKinnon in particular—advocated laws which defined pornography as a civil rights harm and allowed women to sue pornographers in civil court. The Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance that they drafted was passed twice by the Minneapolis city council in 1983, but vetoed by Mayor Donald Fraser, on the grounds that the city could not afford the litigation over the law's constitutionality. The ordinance was successfully passed in 1984 by the Indianapolis city council and signed by Mayor William Hudnut, and passed by a ballot initiative in Bellingham, Washington in 1988, but struck down both times as unconstitutional by the state and federal courts. In 1986, the Supreme Court affirmed the lower courts' rulings in the Indianapolis case without comment. Many anti-pornography feminists supported the legislative efforts, but others objected that legislative campaigns would be rendered ineffectual by the courts, would violate principles of free speech, or would harm the anti-pornography movement by taking organizing energy away from education and direct action and entangling it in political squabbles.[19] Dworkin and MacKinnon responded to the alleged violation of free speech principles by pointing out that the Ordinance was designed with an explicit goal of preventing its misinterpretation and abuse for the purpose of censorship or discrimination against sexual minorities.[20] Their publication Pornography and Civil Rights serves as a manifesto backing the law, providing an extensive self-analysis and explanation of its intended meaning, and declaring the exact circumstances under which the law would apply. Pornography Victims' Compensation Act[edit] Another feminist approach was designed to permit survivors of crime when the crime was the result of pornographic influence to sue the pornographers. The Pornography Victims' Compensation Act of 1991 (previously known as the Pornography Victims Protection Act) was supported by groups including Feminists Fighting Pornography. Catharine MacKinnon declined to support the legislation, though aspects of it were based on her legal approach to pornography.[21] The bill was introduced in Congress, thus, had it passed, it would have applied nationwide. R. v. Butler[edit] The Supreme Court of Canada's 1992 ruling in R. v. Butler (the Butler decision) fueled further controversy, when the court decided to incorporate some elements of Dworkin and MacKinnon's legal work on pornography into the existing Canadian obscenity law. In Butler the Court held that Canadian obscenity law violated Canadian citizens' rights to free speech under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms if enforced on grounds of morality or community standards of decency; but that obscenity law could be enforced constitutionally against some pornography on the basis of the Charter's guarantees of sex equality. The Court's decision cited extensively from briefs prepared by the Women's Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF), with MacKinnon's support and participation. Dworkin opposed LEAF's position, arguing that feminists should not support or attempt to reform criminal obscenity law.[22] Robinson v. Jacksonville Shipyards[edit] Robinson v. Jacksonville Shipyards was a sexual harassment Federal district court case. It recognized as law that pornography could illegally contribute to sexual harassment through a workplace environment hostile to women.[23][24] The court's order included a ban on "displaying pictures, posters, calendars, graffiti, objects, promotional materials, reading materials, or other materials that are sexually suggestive, sexually demeaning, or pornographic, or bringing into the JSI [the employer's] work environment or possessing any such material to read, display or view at work." "A picture will be presumed to be sexually suggestive if it depicts a person of either sex who is not fully clothed or in clothes that are not suited to or ordinarily accepted for the accomplishment of routine work in and around the shipyard and who is posed for the obvious purpose of displaying or drawing attention to private portions of his or her body."[25] It is not clear whether the decision was directly attributable to the anti-pornography feminist analysis, if the influence was indirect, or if the outcome was coincidental, but counsel Legal Momentum was historically associated with the National Organization for Women (NOW), a leading feminist organization, suggesting that counsel was likely to have had knowledge of the feminist theory.

Sex-positive and anti-censorship feminist views[edit] Sex-positive feminism[edit] Main article: Sex-positive feminism In this view, pornography is seen as being a medium for women's sexual expression. Sex-positive feminists view many radical feminist views on sexuality, including views on pornography, as being equally oppressive as those of patriarchal religions and ideologies, and argue that anti-pornography feminist discourse ignores and trivializes women's sexual agency. Ellen Willis (who coined the term "pro-sex feminism") states "As we saw it, the claim that 'pornography is violence against women' was code for the neo-Victorian idea that men want sex and women endure it."[26] Sex-positive feminists take a variety of views towards existing pornography. Many of these feminists see pornography as subverting many traditional ideas about women that they oppose, such as ideas that women do not like sex generally, only enjoy sex in a relational context, or that women only enjoy vanilla sex. They also argue that pornography sometimes shows women in sexually dominant roles and presents women with a greater variety of body types than are typical of mainstream entertainment and fashion, and that women's participation in these roles allows for a fulfillment of their sexual identity and free expression. Feminist critique of censorship[edit] Many feminists regardless of their views on pornography are opposed on principle to censorship. Even the feminists who see pornography as a sexist institution, also see censorship (including MacKinnon's civil law approach) as an evil. In its mission statement, Feminists for Free Expression argues that censorship has never reduced violence, but historically been used to silence women and stifle efforts for social change. They point to the birth control literature of Margaret Sanger, the feminist plays of Holly Hughes, and works like Our Bodies, Ourselves and The Well of Loneliness as examples of feminist sexual speech which has been the target of censorship. FFE further argues that the attempt to fix social problems through censorship, "divert[s] attention from the substantive causes of social ills and offer a cosmetic, dangerous 'quick fix.'" They argue that instead a free and vigorous marketplace of ideas is the best assurance for achieving feminist goals in a democratic society.[27] Critics of anti-pornography feminism accuse their counterparts of selective handling of social scientific evidence. Anti-pornography feminists are also critiqued as intolerant of sexual difference and is characterized as often indiscriminately supporting state censorship policy and are accused of complicity with conservative sexual politics and Christian Right groups. Several feminist anti-censorship groups have actively opposed anti-pornography legislation and other forms of censorship. These groups have included the Feminist Anti-Censorship Taskforce (FACT) and Feminists for Free Expression in the US and Feminists Against Censorship in the UK. Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon responded with a statement claiming that the idea that these raids reflected the application of pre-Butler standards and that it was actually illegal under Butler to selectively target LGBT materials.[28] However, opponents of Butler have countered that the decision simply reinforced an existing politics of censorship that pre-dated the decision.[29][30] Anti-censorship feminists[who?] question why only some forms of sexist communication (namely sexually arousing/explicit ones) should be banned, while not advocating bans against equally misogynist public discourse. Susie Bright notes, "It's a far different criticism to note that porn is sexist. So are all commercial media. That's like tasting several glasses of salt water and insisting only one of them is salty. The difference with porn is that it is people fucking, and we live in a world that cannot tolerate that image in public."[31] Feminist pornography[edit] Main article: Feminist pornography Pornography produced by and with feminist women is a small, but growing segment of the porn industry. According to Tristan Taormino, "Feminist porn both responds to dominant images with alternative ones and creates its own iconography."[32] Some pornographic actresses such as Nina Hartley,[33] Ovidie,[34] Madison Young, and Sasha Grey are also self-described sex-positive feminists, and state that they do not see themselves as victims of sexism. They defend their decision to perform in pornography as freely chosen, and argue that much of what they do on camera is an expression of their sexuality. It has also been pointed out that in pornography, women generally earn more than their male counterparts.[35] Feminist porn directors include Candida Royalle, Tristan Taormino, Madison Young, Shine Louise Houston, and Erika Lust. Some of these directors make pornography specifically for a female or genderqueer audience, while others try for a broad appeal across genders and sexual orientations.

Specific issues[edit] Pornography vs. erotica[edit] Some anti-pornography feminists, such as Gloria Steinem and Page Mellish, distinguish between "pornography" and "erotica", as different classes of sexual media, the former emphasizing dominance and the latter emphasizing mutuality. Steinem holds that, "These two sorts of images are as different as love is from rape, as dignity is from humiliation, as partnership is from slavery, as pleasure is from pain." Feminists who subscribe to this view hold that erotica promotes positive and pro-woman sexual values and does not carry the harmful effects of pornography.[36] Other anti-pornography feminists are more skeptical about this distinction, holding that all sexual materials produced in a patriarchal system are expressions of male dominance.[37] Andrea Dworkin wrote, "erotica is simply high-class pornography: better produced, better conceived, better executed, better packaged, designed for a better class of consumer."[38] However, some feminists tend not to make a distinction between pornography and erotica, and those who have addressed the distinction made by Steinem and others find it problematic. Ellen Willis holds that the term 'erotica' is needlessly vague and euphemistic, and appeals to an idealized version of what kind of sex people should want rather than what arouses the sexual feelings people actually have. She also emphasizes the subjectivity of the distinction, stating, "In practice, attempts to sort out good erotica from bad porn inevitably comes down to 'What turns me on is erotica; what turns you on is pornographic.'"[39] Some feminists[who?] make an analogous distinction between mainstream pornography and feminist pornography, viewing mainstream pornography as problematic or even wholly misogynistic, while praising feminist pornography.[40][41] Sex workers[edit] Main article: Feminist views on prostitution The work of feminist pornography includes studying women, children and men in the industry. Some feminists[who?] argue against pornography because it can be viewed as demeaning and degrading to women and men. Some[who?] argue that pornography is used by men as a guide to hate, abuse, and control women.[42]

Feminist pornographers[edit] In the 1970s and 1980s, Annie Sprinkle, Candida Royalle, and Nina Hartley were some of the first feminist-identified performers in the porn industry.[43] In 2002, Becky Goldberg produced the documentary "Hot and Bothered: Feminist Pornography," a look at women who direct, produce, and sell feminist porn. Feminist pornography is whenever the women is in control of the sexual situation, she is in control of what is being done to her and she enjoys it.[44] Goldberg's views on feminism and pornography is, "if you don't like what you see make your own". Courtney Trouble is a feminist performer and producer of queer porn. Her films feature "sexual and gender minorities." Trouble began in the business when she decided she did not see enough diversity in the business, and wanted to make a positive change.[43] Shine Louise Houston, owner of Pink and White Productions, produces porn that features reflect different types of sexuality, different genders, and queer people of color.[43] Lorraine Hewitt is the creative director of the Feminist Porn Awards based in Toronto, Canada.[43] Tristan Taormino is both a sex educator and feminist pornographer who has helped produce films, written books, owns her own website and has published many articles on topics related to sexuality, gender and articles on sex positive relationships. Taormino views porn as a positive part of life.

See also[edit] Feminist art movement Feminist Porn Award Feminist pornography Gender equality Go Topless Day Sex-positive feminism Sexualization Women's erotica Women's Pornography

References[edit] ^ MacKinnon, Catharine; Dworkin, Andrea (1988), Pornography and Civil Rights: A New Day for Women's Equality, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Organizing Against Pornography, ISBN 9780962184901  Available online. ^ Dworkin, Andrea (1989). "Pornography is a civil rights issue: 1986". In Dworkin, Andrea. Letters from a War Zone: Writings, 1976-1989. New York: E.P. Dutton. pp. 278, 300–301. ISBN 9780525248248.  Available to view online as: Dworkin, Andrea. "Pornography is a civil rights issue". No Status Quo. Nikki Craft. Retrieved 22 August 2015.  ^ Rapp, Linda (2009). "Dworkin, Andrea (1946-2005)" (pdf). GLBTQ Journal. Wik Wikholm (1–3): 3.  ^ Shrage, Laurie (Fall 2015), "Feminist perspectives on sex markets: pornography", Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ MacKinnon, Catharine (1983). "Not a moral issue". Yale Law & Policy Review. Yale Law School. 2 (2): 321–345. JSTOR 40239168. Sex forced on real women so that it can be sold at a profit to be forced on other real women; women's bodies trussed and maimed and raped and made into things to be hurt and obtained and accessed, and this presented as the nature of women; the coercion that is visible and the coercion that has become invisible—this and more grounds the feminist concern with pornography  Pdf. Reprinted as: MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1989), "Pornography: on morality and politics", in MacKinnon, Catharine A., Toward a feminist theory of the state, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp. 195–214, ISBN 9780674896468.  Also reprinted as: MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1987), "Not a moral issue", in MacKinnon, Catharine A., Feminism unmodified: discourses on life and law, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp. 146–162, ISBN 9780674298743.  Preview. ^ "A Conversation With Catharine MacKinnon (transcript)". Think Tank. 1995. PBS. Retrieved 2009-09-01.  ^ Gail Dines (24 March 2007). Pornography & Pop Culture: Putting the Text in Context (Video). Wheelock College, Boston. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012.  Presentation at: Pornography & Pop Culture - Rethinking Theory, Reframing Activism. Archived at Google Video. See also News: Anti-pornography conference, March 2007. ^ Dines, Gail (23 June 2008). "Penn, porn and me". CounterPunch. CounterPunch. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009. The porn that makes most of the money for the industry is actually the gonzo, body-punishing variety that shows women's bodies being physically stretched to the limit, humiliated and degraded. Even porn industry people commented in a recent article in Adult Video News, that gonzo porn is taking its toll on the women, and the turnover is high because they can’t stand the brutal acts on the body for very long.  ^ a b c Bindel, Julie (2 July 2010). "The truth about the porn industry". The Guardian. Life & Style, subsection Women. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 17 July 2010.  ^ MacKinnon, Catharine (1987), "Francis Biddle's sister: pornography, civil rights, and speech", in MacKinnon, Catharine, Feminism unmodified: discourses on life and law, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p. 176, ISBN 9780674298743.  p 176. ^ a b c d Shim, Jae Woong; Paul, Bryant M. (2014). "The role of anonymity in the effects of inadvertent exposure to online pornography among young adult males". Social Behavior and Personality. Springer. 42 (5): 823–834. doi:10.2224/sbp.2014.42.5.823.  ^ a b c d Webber, Valerie (January–February 2013). "Shades of gay: performance of girl-on-girl pornography and mobile authenticities". Sexualities. Sage. 16 (1–2): 217–235. doi:10.1177/1363460712471119.  ^ Morgan, Robin (1978). "Theory and practice: pornography and rape". In Morgan, Robin. Going too far: the personal chronicle of a feminist. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 163–169. ISBN 9780394726120.  ^ Jeffries, Stuart (12 April 2006). "Are women human? (interview with Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 1 September 2009.  ^ Brod, Harry (1996). "Pornography and the alienation of male sexuality". In May, Larry; Strikwerda, Robert; Hopkins, Patrick D. Rethinking masculinity: philosophical explorations in light of feminism (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 242. ISBN 9780847682577.  ^ Chenier, Elise (2004). "Lesbian sex wars" (pdf). GLBTQ Journal. Wik Wikholm: 1–3. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ Brownmiller, Susan (1999), "The pornography wars", in Brownmiller, Susan, In our time: memoir of a revolution, Dial Press, p. 360, ISBN 9780385314862.  Details. This citation may be limited to Women Against Pornography and Feminists Fighting Pornography; slide shows, speeches, and tours; and their work being sited in New York. ^ "Angry Wimmin". Lefties. BBC Four. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 2009-09-01.  ^ Brownmiller, Susan (1999), "The pornography wars", in Brownmiller, Susan, In our time: memoir of a revolution, Dial Press, pp. 318–321, ISBN 9780385314862.  ^ MacKinnon, Catharine; Dworkin, Andrea (1988), "The ordinance: definition", in MacKinnon, Catharine; Dworkin, Andrea, Pornography and civil rights: a new day for women's equality, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Organizing Against Pornography, pp. 36–41, ISBN 9780962184901, The definition is closed, concrete, and descriptive, not open-ended, conceptual, or moral. It takes the risk that all damaging materials might not be covered in order to try to avoid misuse of the law as much as possible.  Available online. ^ MacKinnon, Catharine. "The rise of a feminist censor, 1983-1993". Media Coalition. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009.  ^ Mason-Grant, Joan (2004), "Appendix #30", in Mason-Grant, Joan, Pornography embodied from speech to sexual practice, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, p. 176, ISBN 9781461613039.  Preview. ^ "Robinson v. Jacksonville Shipyards, Inc., 760 F. Supp. 1486 (M.D. Fla. 1991)." March 8, 1991.  Nonlawyer's reference: Federal Supplement, vol. 760, starting at p. 1486; the case was decided in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida in 1991. ^ "Legal Momentum's history: 1987". Legal Momentum. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  Short summary by counsel in case, Legal Momentum. ^ "Women and the law". George Mason University. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  Details of decision including defendant's Statement of Prohibited Conduct, section C1. ^ Willis, Ellen. (18 October 2005). "Lust horizons: the 'voice' and the women's movement". Village Voice (50th Anniversary special ed.). Retrieved 2 September 2009.  ^ "FFE: Mission". Feminists for Free Expression (FFE). Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2009.  ^ MacKinnon, Catharine A.; Dworkin, Andrea (26 August 1994). "Statement by Catharine A. MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin regarding Canadian customs and legal approaches to pornography". Retrieved 1 September 2009.  (Archived at Andrea Dworkin Web Site.) ^ Strossen, Nadine (2000), "Lessons from enforcement: when the powerful get more powerful", in Strossen, Nadine, Defending pornography: free speech, sex, and the fight for women's rights, New York London: New York University Press, pp. 242–244, ISBN 9780814781494.  ^ Gotell, Lise (1997), "Shaping Butler: the new politics of anti-pornography", in Cossman, Brenda, Bad attitude/s on trial pornography, feminism, and the Butler decision, Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, p. 100, ISBN 9781282045750.  ^ Bright, Susie (October 1993). "The Prime of Miss Kitty MacKinnon" (pdf). East Bay Express. Jay Youngdahl. Retrieved 2 September 2009.  Republished as: Bright, Susie (1995). Sexwise. Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: Cleis Press. pp. 121–127. ISBN 9781573440035.  Archived at ^ Vogels, Josey (21 April 2009). "Female-friendly porn". Metro. Toronto, Canada: Free Daily News Group Inc. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  ^ Hartley, Nina (1998), "Confessions of a feminist porno star", in Delacoste, Frédérique; Alexander, Priscilla, Sex work: writings by women in the sex industry, San Francisco, California: Cleis Press, pp. 142–144, ISBN 9781573440424.  ^ Ovidie (2004). Porno manifesto [Porn manifesto] (in French). La Musardine. ISBN 9782842712372.  ^ Faludi, Susan (2000). Stiffed: the betrayal of the American man. New York: Perennial. ISBN 9780380720453.  ^ Steinem, Gloria (1983), "Erotica vs pornography", in Steinem, Gloria, Outrageous acts and everyday rebellions, New York: New American Library, ISBN 9780030632365.  ISBN 9780805042023 (2nd ed). ^ LeMoncheck, Linda (1997), "I only do it for the money: pornography, prostitution, and the business of sex", in LeMoncheck, Linda, Loose women, lecherous men a feminist philosophy of sex, New York, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 112, ISBN 9780195105568.  ^ Dworkin, Andrea (1981), "Preface", in Dworkin, Andrea, Pornography: men possessing women, London: Women's Press, p. 10, ISBN 9780704338760.  ^ Willis, Ellen (1981), "Feminism, moralism, and pornography", in Willis, Ellen, Beginning to see the light: pieces of a decade, New York: Knopf Distributed by Random House, ISBN 9780394511375.  ISBN 9780819562555 (2nd ed). ^ McIntosh, Mary (1996), "Liberalism and the contradictions of oppression", in Jackson, Stevi; Scott, Sue, Feminism and sexuality: a reader, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 333–341, ISBN 9780231107082.  ^ Valenti, Jessica (2009), "The porn connection", in Valenti, Jessica, The purity myth: how America's obsession with virginity is hurting young women, Berkeley, California: Seal Press, pp. 81–100, ISBN 9781580052535.  ^ Griffith, James D.; Adams, Lea T.; et al. (June 2012). "Pornography actors: a qualitative analysis of motivation and dislikes". North American Journal of Psychology. 14 (2): 245–256.  Publisher's website. ^ a b c d Vasquez, Tina (March 2012). "Ethical pornography". Herizons. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 25 (4): 32–36. Retrieved October 9, 2014.  ^ Long, Victoria (22 March 2005). "Girls girls girls: interview with Becky Goldberg". Iris: A Journal About Women. University of Virginia: 17–18. 

External links[edit] West, Caroline (Fall 2013), "Pornography and censorship", Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Shrage, Laurie (Fall 2015), "Feminist perspectives on sex markets: pornography", Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) Pornography Studies: This guide will help you find relevant materials for research relating to the study of pornography. Cavalier, Robert. "Feminism and pornography: a dialogical perspective". Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University.  v t e Pornography Pornography portal Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wiktionary Pornography Types Amateur pornography Cartoon pornography Hentai Tijuana bible Child pornography Erotica Simulated Feminist pornography Hardcore pornography Internet pornography Mobile porn Revenge porn Sexting Softcore pornography Genres Alt porn Bisexual pornography Bondage pornography Imagery of nude celebrities Celebrity sex tape Clothed female, naked male Clothed male, naked female Convent pornography Ethnic pornography Gang bang pornography Gay pornography Gonzo pornography Incest pornography Lesbianism in erotica Mormon pornography Queer pornography Rape pornography Reality pornography Tentacle erotica Transsexual pornography Women's pornography Related History of erotic depictions Pornographic film actor Organizations Adult Film Association of America Critics Adult Film Association Fans of X-Rated Entertainment Free Speech Coalition X-Rated Critics Organization Opposition to pornography Movements Anti-pornography movement in the United Kingdom Anti-pornography movement in the United States Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance Organizations Churchmen's Committee for Decent Publications Feminists Fighting Pornography Fight the New Drug The Marriage Vow No More Page 3 Stop Bild Sexism Stop Child Trafficking Now Stop Porn Culture Women Against Pornography Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media Pornography overuse Support groups NoFap The "S-fellowships" See also Content-control software Accountability software Parental controls Employee monitoring software Views Feminist views on pornography Religious views on pornography Media Pornographic film Parody Cartoon pornography Pornographic magazine List Pornographic video game Eroge Newspaper features Page 3 in The Sun (United Kingdom) By region Asia Bangladesh India Japan History Middle East North Korea Pakistan Philippines Turkey Europe Denmark Hungary Italy United Kingdom Americas Canada United States Possible effects Internet sex addiction Pornography addiction Pornophobia STDs in the porn industry Other effects Laws General Adult film industry regulations Legal objections to pornography in the United States Legal status of Internet pornography Legislation and cases Legislation United Kingdom Audiovisual Media Services Regulations 2014 British Board of Film Classification Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship Obscene Publications Act 1959 Possession of Extreme Pornographic Images Video Recordings Act 2010 United States Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance Child Online Protection Act Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act Custodian of Records Child Protection Restoration and Penalties Enhancement Act of 1990 Communications Decency Act Pornography Victims Compensation Act Europe (excluding UK) Bulgaria Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Russia Spain Sweden Ukraine Asia China India Indonesia Hong Kong Kazakhstan Japan Malaysia Maldives Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Turkey United Arab Emirates Americas Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Jamaica Mexico African Nigeria South Africa Oceania Australia New Zealand Cases American Booksellers v. Hudnut California v. Freeman Jacobellis v. Ohio Miller v. California R v Butler R v Glad Day Bookshops Inc R v Peacock Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc. Stanley v. Georgia United States v. Extreme Associates United States v. Playboy Entertainment Group Other Meese Report President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography Child pornography laws By country Australia Canada India Japan Netherlands Philippines Portugal United Kingdom United States Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 New York v. Ferber Osborne v. Ohio PROTECT Act of 2003 United States v. Williams Other COPINE scale Debate regarding child pornography laws Dost test Legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography United States v. X-Citement Video, Inc. People Actors Actresses by decade African-American Asian AVN Hall of Fame members British Gay male List of pornographic actors who appeared in mainstream films List of mainstream actors who have appeared in pornographic films Directors By genre Bisexual Gay Lesbian Transsexual By country American British Canadian Czech French German Hungarian Italian Japanese Romanian Spanish Swedish Awards Adult Broadcasting Awards AVN Award Hall of Fame GayVN Awards AV Open Sexual Freedom Awards Fans of Adult Media and Entertainment Award Feminist Porn Award Grabby Awards Hot d'Or Japanese Adult Video Awards (1991–2008) PorYes SHAFTA Awards Transgender Erotica Awards UK Adult Film and Television Awards Urban X Award Venus Award XBIZ Award XRCO Award Hall of Fame members Events Adultcon AVN Adult Entertainment Expo Barcelona International Erotic Film Festival Brussels International Festival of Eroticism Exotic Erotic Ball Exxxotica HUMP Porn Sunday Miscellaneous Adult movie theater Adult video arcade Blue Movie Golden Age of Porn Panda pornography "Porno chic" Pornographication Pornotopia R18 certificate Rule 34 Sex shop Sexualization X rating See also Erotica Art Comics Film Literature Photography Ribaldry Pornography related articles v t e Feminism Women Girls Femininity History Social Women's history Feminist history Timeline of women's rights (other than voting) Suffrage Women's suffrage Timeline Majority-Muslim countries In the United States Australia Canada Japan Kuwait New Zealand Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Wales United States In states Utah General First-wave Second-wave Third-wave Fourth-wave Timeline Timeline of second-wave Variants Analytical Anarchist Anti-abortion Atheist Conservative Cultural Cyber Democratic confederalism Difference Eco Vegetarian Equality Fat French French post-structuralist Gender Global Graffiti Hip-hop/Hip hop Individualist Labor Lesbian Liberal Equity Lipstick Material Maternal Neo New Post Postcolonial Postmodern Post-structural 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CountryCategory:Feminists By NationalityPortal:FeminismTemplate:Feminism SidebarTemplate Talk:Feminism SidebarViolence Against WomenFeminist PornographyFeminist Views On SexualityFeminist Views On ProstitutionFeminist Views On BDSMPornographyFeminismFeminist Sex WarsAnti-pornographySex-positiveGail DinesTED (conference)Andrea DworkinCatharine MacKinnonRobin MorganDiana E. 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ZaltaStanford Encyclopedia Of PhilosophyHelp:CS1 ErrorsCatharine MacKinnonYale Law & Policy ReviewYale Law SchoolJSTORCatharine MacKinnonCatharine MacKinnonToward A Feminist Theory Of The StateHarvard University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780674896468Catharine MacKinnonCatharine MacKinnonFeminism UnmodifiedHarvard University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780674298743Think TankGail DinesWheelock CollegeGoogle VideoGail DinesCounterPunchCounterPunchJulie BindelThe GuardianGuardian Media GroupCatharine MacKinnonCatharine MacKinnonInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780674298743Springer Science+Business MediaDigital Object IdentifierSexualities (journal)Sage PublicationsDigital Object IdentifierRobin MorganRobin MorganInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780394726120The GuardianGuardian Media GroupInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780847682577Susan BrownmillerSusan BrownmillerDial PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780385314862BBC FourSusan BrownmillerSusan BrownmillerDial PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780385314862Catharine MacKinnonAndrea DworkinCatharine MacKinnonAndrea DworkinInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780962184901Catharine MacKinnonInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781461613039Legal MomentumGeorge Mason UniversityVillage VoiceCatharine MacKinnonAndrea DworkinNadine StrossenNadine StrossenInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780814781494International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781282045750Susie BrightEast Bay ExpressSusie BrightInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781573440035International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781573440424OvidieInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9782842712372Susan FaludiInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780380720453Gloria SteinemGloria SteinemInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780030632365International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780805042023International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780195105568Andrea DworkinAndrea DworkinInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780704338760International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780394511375International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780819562555Stevi JacksonSue Scott (sociologist)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780231107082Jessica ValentiJessica ValentiInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781580052535North American Journal Of PsychologyHerizonsUniversity Of VirginiaEdward N. ZaltaStanford Encyclopedia Of PhilosophyLaurie ShrageEdward N. ZaltaStanford Encyclopedia Of PhilosophyHelp:CS1 ErrorsCarnegie Mellon UniversityTemplate:PornographyTemplate Talk:PornographyPornographyPortal:PornographyCategory:PornographyAmateur PornographyCartoon PornographyHentaiTijuana BibleChild PornographyChild EroticaSimulated Child PornographyFeminist PornographyHardcore PornographyInternet PornographyMobile PornRevenge PornSextingSoftcore PornographyList Of Pornographic SubgenresAlt PornBisexual PornographyBondage PornographyImagery Of Nude CelebritiesCelebrity Sex TapeClothed Female, Naked MaleClothed Male, Naked FemaleConvent PornographyEthnic PornographyGang Bang PornographyGay PornographyGonzo PornographyIncest PornographyLesbianism In EroticaMormon PornographyQueer PornographyRape PornographyReality PornographyTentacle EroticaTranssexual PornographyWomen's PornographyHistory Of Erotic DepictionsPornographic Film ActorAdult Film Association Of AmericaCritics Adult Film AssociationFans Of X-Rated EntertainmentFree Speech CoalitionX-Rated Critics OrganizationOpposition To PornographyAnti-pornography Movement In The United KingdomAnti-pornography Movement In The United StatesAntipornography Civil Rights OrdinanceChurchmen's Committee For Decent PublicationsFeminists Fighting PornographyFight The New DrugThe Marriage VowNo More Page 3Stop Bild SexismStop Child Trafficking NowStop Porn CultureWomen Against PornographyWomen Against Violence In Pornography And MediaXXXchurch.comNoFapTemplate:The Three Biggest S-fellowshipsContent-control SoftwareAccountability SoftwareParental ControlsEmployee Monitoring SoftwareReligious Views On PornographyPornographic FilmPornographic Parody FilmCartoon PornographyPornographic MagazineList Of Pornographic MagazinesSex And Nudity In Video GamesErogePage 3The Sun (United Kingdom)Pornography By RegionPornography In AsiaPornography In BangladeshPornography In IndiaPornography In JapanChronology Of Adult Videos In JapanPornography In The Middle EastPornography In North KoreaPornography In PakistanPornography And Erotica In The PhilippinesPornography In TurkeyPornography In EuropePornography In DenmarkPornography In HungaryPornography In ItalyPornography In The United KingdomPornography In The AmericasPornography In CanadaPornography In The United StatesInternet Sex AddictionPornography AddictionPornophobiaSTDs In The Porn IndustryEffects Of PornographyCategory:Pornography LawPornographyAdult Film Industry RegulationsLegal Objections To Pornography In The United StatesLegal Status Of Internet PornographyAudiovisual Media Services Regulations 2014British Board Of Film ClassificationCommittee On Obscenity And Film CensorshipObscene Publications Act 1959Section 63 Of The Criminal Justice And Immigration Act 2008Video Recordings Act 2010Antipornography Civil Rights OrdinanceChild Online Protection ActChild Protection And Obscenity Enforcement ActCustodian Of RecordsChild Protection Restoration And Penalties Enhancement Act Of 1990Communications Decency ActPornography Victims Compensation ActMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemPornography By RegionPornography By RegionMotion Picture Content Rating SystemPornography By RegionPornography By RegionIrish Film Classification OfficePornography By RegionMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemNetherlands Institute For The Classification Of Audiovisual MediaNorwegian Media AuthorityMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemPornography By RegionMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemPornography By RegionState Administration Of Press, Publication, Radio, Film And TelevisionCentral Board Of Film CertificationBill Against Pornography And PornoactionHong Kong Motion Picture Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemEirinFilm Censorship Board Of MalaysiaMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMovie And Television Review And Classification BoardMinistry Of Communications And InformationKorea Media Rating BoardGovernment Information Office2007 Constitution Of ThailandPornography In TurkeyMotion Picture Content Rating SystemBrazilian Advisory Rating SystemObscenityMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemMotion Picture Content Rating SystemFilms And Publications Act, 1996Australian Classification BoardOffice Of Film And Literature Classification (New Zealand)American Booksellers Ass'n, Inc. 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