Contents 1 Definition 2 Origin 3 Disputes 3.1 Potential disputes 3.2 Resolved disputes 4 Transboundary stocks 5 Exclusive economic zone by country 5.1 Argentina 5.2 Australia 5.3 Brazil 5.4 Canada 5.5 Chile 5.6 China 5.7 Cyprus 5.8 Denmark 5.9 France 5.10 Greece 5.11 India 5.12 Israel 5.13 Japan 5.14 Mexico 5.15 New Zealand 5.16 Norway 5.17 Philippines 5.18 Poland 5.19 Portugal 5.20 Russia 5.21 Somalia 5.22 South Africa 5.23 South Korea 5.24 United Kingdom 5.25 United States 6 Rankings by area 7 See also 8 Notes and references 9 External links


Definition[edit] The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4] A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.


Origin[edit] The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century. Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6] It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.


Disputes[edit] The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters. Norway and Russia dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute.[7] The agreement was signed in Murmansk on September 15, 2010.[8] The South China Sea (and the Spratly Islands) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations. Croatia's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy and Slovenia, and caused problems during Croatia's accession to the European Union. A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea is disputed between Canada and the United States, as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves. France claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ. Mauritius claims EEZ for Tromelin from France and EEZ for British Indian Ocean Territory from the UK. Turkey claims Cyprus is only entitled to a 12 nautical mile EEZ rather than the usual 200 that Turkey is entitled to, resulting in an area to the south of Cyprus, containing an offshore gas field, being claimed by both states. Cyprus recognizes neither the land nor sea claims of the Northern Cyprus, which was created by a Turkish invasion.[9][10] Lebanon claims that the agreement between Cyprus and Israel overlapped its own EEZ. Potential disputes[edit] Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[11] Resolved disputes[edit] The Cod Wars between the United Kingdom and Iceland occurred periodically over many centuries, until they were resolved with a final agreement in 1976. In 1999, following the Hanish Islands conflict, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the EEZs of Yemen and Eritrea should be demarcated equidistantly between the mainlands of the two nations, without taking account of sovereignty over the islands.[12][13] In 2009, in a dispute between Romania and Ukraine over Snake Island, the UN International Court of Justice decided that Snake Island has no EEZ beyond 12 nautical miles of its own land.[14]


Transboundary stocks[edit] See also: Highly migratory species Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[15] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[16]


Exclusive economic zone by country[edit] Argentina[edit] Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 6 581 500 km² Australia[edit] Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim See also: Australia–Indonesia border, Timor Sea Treaty, and Australian Whale Sanctuary Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[17][18] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia’s territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory. The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[19][20] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[21] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[20] EEZ Area (km2)[20] Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722  Christmas Island 463,371  Cocos Islands 325,021  Norfolk Island 428,618 Macquarie Island 471,837 Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681 Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1] Total 10,148,250 Brazil[edit] Brazil's exclusive economic zones Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands. EEZ Area (km2)[22]  Brazil 2 400 917 Fernando de Noronha 363 362 St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636 Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599 Total 3 646 514 In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[23] Canada[edit] Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[24] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago. Chile[edit] Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands. Region EEZ Area (km2)[25] Land area Total Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517 Desventuradas 449 836 Easter 720 412 164 720 576 Juan Fernandez 502 524 Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453 There is a dispute with Peru over the extent of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute China[edit] People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:   China's EEZ 877,019 km2   EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan   EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others 3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019 The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims. Cyprus[edit] Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.) The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[26] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[27][28] Denmark[edit] The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands. Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[29] Land area Total  Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083  Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394  Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340 Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817 France[edit] Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,514,000 mi2), the EEZ of the United States is the second largest (11,351,000 km2 / 4,382,000 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth. Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[20] Land area Total  Metropolitan France 334,604 551,695 886,299  French Guiana 133,949 83,846 217,795  Guadeloupe 95,978 1,628 97,606  Martinique 47,640 1,128 48,768  Réunion 315,058 2,512 317,570  French Polynesia 4,767,242 4,167 4,771,409  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12,334 242 12,576  Mayotte 63,078 376 63,454  Wallis and Futuna 258,269 264 258,533  Saint-Martin 1,000 53 1,053  Saint-Barthélemy 4,000 21 4,021  New Caledonia 1,422,543 18,575 1,441,118  Clipperton Island 431,263 6 431,269 Crozet Islands 574,558 352 574,910 Kerguelen Islands 567,732 7,215 574,947 Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509,015 66 509,081 Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352,117 44 352,161 Tromelin Island 270,455 1 270,456 Total 11,691,000 675,417 12,366,417 Greece[edit] Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[30] According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[31] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[32] India[edit] India's exclusive economic zones Mainland India and Lakshadweep, 1,641,514 km2 Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 663,629 km2 Total: 2,305,143 km2 India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[33] Israel[edit] In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources. Japan[edit] Japan's exclusive economic zones:   Japan's EEZ   Joint regime with Republic of Korea   EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others Minami-Tori-shima: 428,875 km2 Ogasawara Islands: 862,782 km2 Pacific Ocean (Japan): 1,162,334 km2 Ryukyu Islands: 1,394,676 km2 Sea of Japan: 630,721 km2 Sea of Okhotsk: little Total: 4,479,358 Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[34][35] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims. Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications. Mexico[edit] Exclusive economic zone of Mexico Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[36] New Zealand[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone of New Zealand Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded) New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2,[37][38] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[39] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency). Norway[edit] Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[40] In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[41] Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284 Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576 Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491 Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053 Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404 Philippines[edit] The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2[42] Poland[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Poland The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 within the Baltic Sea.[43] Portugal[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Portugal Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[44] Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones: Continental Portugal 327,667 km2 Azores 953,633 km2 Madeira 446,108 km2 Total : 1,727,408 km2 Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[45] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website. Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[46] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[47] Russia[edit] Russia's exclusive economic zone Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 Barents Sea – 1,308,140 Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 Pacific – 3,419,202 Siberia – 3,277,292 Total – 8,095,881 km2[48] Somalia[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Somalia Somalia's exclusive economic zone 825,052 km2 South Africa[edit] South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[49] Mainland – 1,068,659 km2 Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2 South Korea[edit] South Korean exclusive economic zone:   Korean EEZ   EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea, disputed by Japan   Joint regime with Japan Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2 United Kingdom[edit] The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[50] The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[51] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory. Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus. Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[49] Territory km2 sq mi Notes United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man Anguilla 92,178 35,590 Ascension Island† 441,658 170,525 Bermuda 450,370 173,890 British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933 Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999 Channel Islands 11,658 4,501 Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain Montserrat 7,582 2,927 Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823 Saint Helena† 444,916 171,783 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400 Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486 Total 6,805,586 2,627,651 †Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km. United States[edit] Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[52] Alaska – 3,770,021 km2 (1,455,613 sq mi) Hawaii – Northwest Islands – 1,579,538 km2 (609,863 sq mi) U.S. East Coast – 915,763 km2 (353,578 sq mi) Hawaii – Main Islands – 895,346 km2 (345,695 sq mi) U.S. West Coast – 825,549 km2 (318,746 sq mi) Northern Marianas – 749,268 km2 (289,294 sq mi) Mainland Gulf Coast – 707,832 km2 (273,295 sq mi) Johnston Atoll – 442,635 km2 (170,902 sq mi) Howland and Baker Islands – 434,921 km2 (167,924 sq mi) Wake Island – 407,241 km2 (157,237 sq mi) American Samoa – 404,391 km2 (156,136 sq mi) Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef – 352,300 km2 (136,000 sq mi) Jarvis Island – 316,665 km2 (122,265 sq mi) Guam – 221,504 km2 (85,523 sq mi) Puerto Rico – 177,685 km2 (68,605 sq mi) U.S. Virgin Islands – 33,744 km2 (13,029 sq mi) Total: 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 sq mi)


Rankings by area[edit] This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters. Rank Country EEZ km2[49] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2 1  France 11,691,000 389,422 12,366,417 2  United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306 3  Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464 4  Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915 5  United Kingdom 6,805,586 722,891 7,048,486 6  Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601 7  Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077 8  Japan 4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318 9  New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424 10  Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381 11  Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832 12  Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536 13  Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968 14  Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121 15  Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811 16  Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128 17  Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404 18  India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406 19  Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711 20  Portugal 1,727,408 ~28,000 1,819,498 21  Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780 22  Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373 23  South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575 24  Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014 25  Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037 26  Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250 27  Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300 28  Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[53] 29  Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600 30  Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225 31  Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622 32  Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670 33  China 877,019 231,340 10,473,980 34  Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709 35  Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906 36  Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594 37  Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345 38  Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816 39  Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440 40  Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305 41  Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658 42  Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437 43  Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576 44  Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780 45  Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825 46  Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864 47  Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637 48  Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251 49  Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680 50  Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353 51  Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229 52  Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133 53  Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529 54  South Korea 475,469 292,522 575,469 55  Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950 56  Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875 57  Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583 58  Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129 59  Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637 60  Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163 61  Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474 62  Nauru 308,480 41 308,501 63  Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560 64  Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517 65  Pakistan 290,000 51,383 1,117,911 66  Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451 67  Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216 68  Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128 69  Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569 70  Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103 71  Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034 72  Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975 73  Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888 74  Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323 75  Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081 76  Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351 77  Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458 78  Barbados 186,898 426 187,328 79  Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717 80  Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468 81  Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858 82  Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987 83  Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255 84  Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583 85  Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345 85  Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818 86  Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381 87  Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734 88  North Korea 132,826 54,566 253,364 89  São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361 90  Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781 91  Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592 92  Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510 93  Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094 94  Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254 95  Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850 96  Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309 97  Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059 98  Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531 99  Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467 100  Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958 101  El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003 102  Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590 103  Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390 104  Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419 105  Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328 106  Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329 107  East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200 108  Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216 109  Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550 110  Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283 111  Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626 112  United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818 113  Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599 114  Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139 115  Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219 116  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691 117  Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317 118  Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186 119  Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843 120  Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176 121  Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017 122  Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482 123  Dominica 28,985 659 29,736 124  Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011 125  Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770 126  Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424 127  Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018 128  Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407 129  Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646 130  Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968 131  Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989 132  Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156 133  Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439 134  Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830 135  Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844 136  Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683 137  Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975 138  Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855 139  Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235 140  Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557 141  Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659 142  Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331 143  Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975 144  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464 145  Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772 146  Iraq 771 771 439,088 147  Monaco 288 2 290 148  Palestine 256 256 6,276 149  Slovenia 220 220 20,493 150  Jordan 166 59 89,508 151  Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259 152  Kazakhstan 2,724,900 153  Mongolia 1,564,100 154  Chad 1,284,000 155  Niger 1,267,000 156  Mali 1,240,192 157  Ethiopia 1,104,300 158  Bolivia 1,098,581 159  Zambia 752,612 160  Afghanistan 652,090 161  Central African Republic 622,984 162  South Sudan 619,745 163  Botswana 582,000 164  Turkmenistan 488,100 165  Uzbekistan 447,400 166  Paraguay 406,752 167  Zimbabwe 390,757 168  Burkina Faso 274,222 169  Uganda 241,038 170  Laos 236,800 171  Belarus 207,600 172  Kyrgyzstan 199,951 173    Nepal 147,181 174  Tajikistan 143,100 175  Malawi 118,484 176  Hungary 93,028 177  Azerbaijan 86,600 178  Austria 83,871 179  Czech Republic 78,867 180  Serbia 77,474 181  Slovakia 49,035 182   Switzerland 41,284 183  Bhutan 38,394 184  Moldova 33,846 185  Lesotho 30,355 186  Armenia 29,743 187  Burundi 27,834 188  Rwanda 26,338 189  Macedonia 25,713 190  Swaziland 17,364 191  Kosovo[a] 10,887 192  Luxembourg 2,586 193  Andorra 468 194  Liechtenstein 160 195  San Marino 61 196   Vatican City 0.44


See also[edit] Business and economics portal Air Defense Identification Zone Baseline Continental shelf Exclusive economic zone of islands International waters R v Marshall Special economic zone Territorial waters


Notes and references[edit] Notes: a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference. References: ^ "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. Retrieved 2011-08-28.  ^ "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations.  ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294. ^ UN Convention on the Law of The Sea. ^ [1] 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea. ^ The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010 ^ Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010 ^ "Gas Partnership: Netanyahu Visits Cyprus". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Makris, A. "Cyprus Calls on Turkey to Steer Away From Threats – GreekReporter.com". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region Archived 2006-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "AWARD OF THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN THE SECOND STAGE OF THE PROCEEDINGS (MARITIME DELIMITATION)". Permanent Court of Arbitration. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ Kwiatkowska, Barbara (January 2001). "The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration: Landmark Progress in the Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty and Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitation". Ocean Development and International Law. 32 (1). doi:10.1080/00908320150502177.  ^ United Nations International Court of Justice Decision year: 2009 ^ FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7 ^ FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829. ^ The Australian Fishing Zone ^ Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions Archived 2005-04-05 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Archived 2009-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-11-13.  ^ a b c d Geoscience Australia, 2012. Education: Oceans and Seas ^ Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Brazil 2,400,917 km², Fernando de Noronha 363,362 km², St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413,636 km², Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468,599 km²  ^ UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission ^ Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature Archived 2005-12-21 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Chile 1,975,760 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,836 km², Easter Isl. 720,412 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,524 km²  ^ Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών - About us. Cyprus.gov.cy. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ (PDF) http://www.cyprusgasconference.com/pdf/George%20Pamboridis.pdf. Retrieved December 29, 2012.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link] ^ EEZ Waters Of Cyprus. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Danish foreign ministry Archived 2008-11-23 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Indirect Proclamation of EEZ – Greece Gives Coordinates Of Continental Shelf To UN ~ HellasFrappe. Hellasfrappe.blogspot.com.es (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Israel Recognizes Greek Exclusive Economic Zone | News from Greeks in Africa, Asia, and South America. World.greekreporter.com (2011-02-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Israel defends energy exploration deal with Cyprus | ICEJ UK. Uk.icej.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Sunderarajan, P. "India hopes to double its EEZ". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project ^ Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project ^ Geographic location[permanent dead link] ^ New Zealand Sea Around Us Project ^ Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project ^ New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper – Introduction Archived 2012-02-07 at the Wayback Machine.. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0-978-478-30160-1 Accessed 2006-01-07. ^ Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008 ^ UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension Archived 2009-12-11 at the Wayback Machine., Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009. ^ Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization. ^ Inc., Advanced Solutions International,. "404" (PDF). Retrieved 1 April 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf Archived 2009-12-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Accessed 3 July 2011 ^ Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano ^ "PREAMBLE TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ "Sea Around Us Project – Data and Visualization". Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ a b c "Sea Around Us – Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". Archived from the original on 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2010-01-16.  ^ "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013" http://www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2014. ^ Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Archived January 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 6 581 500 km²


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Exclusive economic zones. marineregions.org interactive map, showing boundaries and disputes United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea – Part V Sea Around Us Project – View the EEZ of all nations (Note that this site does not distinguish between territorial waters and the EEZ, and so tends to overstate EEZ areas.) The USA zone since 1977 GIS data: VLIZ.be Foreign Military Activities in Asian EEZs: Conflict Ahead? by Mark J. Valencia (May 2011) EEZ Management v t e Lists of countries by geographical rankings Area Total Exclusive Economic Zone Forest Irrigated Extreme points Elevation highest average lowest Latitude Northernmost Southernmost Longitude Easternmost Westernmost Perimeter Coastline length Land border length Number of bordering countries land-only land and maritime maritime-only List of countries and territories by border/area ratio Other Freshwater resources withdrawal Time zones List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country Fisheries science and wild fisheries Fisheries science Population dynamics of fisheries Shifting baseline Fish stock Fish mortality Condition index Stock assessment Fish measurement Standard weight in fish Fish counter Data storage tag Catch per unit effort Otolith microchemical analysis Biomass Fisheries acoustics Acoustic tag Coded wire tag GIS and aquatic science Pop-up satellite archival tag EcoSCOPE Age class structure Trophic level Trophic cascades Match/mismatch hypothesis Fisheries and climate change Marine biology Aquatic ecosystems Bioeconomics EconMult Ecopath FishBase Census of Marine Life OSTM Fisheries databases Institutes Fisheries scientists Wild fisheries Ocean fisheries Diversity of fish Coastal fish Coral reef fish Demersal fish Forage fish Pelagic fish Cod fisheries Crab fisheries Eel fisheries Krill fisheries Kelp fisheries Lobster fisheries Shrimp fishery Eel ladder Fish ladder Fish screen Migration Salmon run Sardine run Shoaling and schooling Marine habitats Marine snow Water column Upwelling Humboldt current Algal blooms Dead zones Fish kill Fisheries management, sustainability and conservation Management Fisheries management Fisheries law Monitoring control and surveillance Vessel monitoring system Fishery Resources Monitoring System Catch reporting Fisheries observer Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing Magnuson–Stevens Act Pulse fishing Fisheries organizations Quotas Catch share Individual fishing quota Minimum landing size Slot limit Bycatch Discards Incidental catch Cetacean bycatch Turtle excluder device Shrimp-Turtle case EU quotas EU MLS Exclusive economic zone Sustainability Sustainable fisheries Maximum sustainable yield List of harvested aquatic animals by weight Sustainable seafood Overfishing Environmental effects of fishing Fishing down the food web Destructive fishing practices Future of Marine Animal Populations The Sunken Billions The End of the Line Conservation Marine Protected Area Marine reserve Marine conservation Marine conservation activism Salmon conservation Grey nurse shark conservation Shark sanctuary Organisations The Black Fish Marine Stewardship Council Aquaculture Stewardship Council Friend of the Sea SeaChoice Seafood Watch Ocean Conservancy Ocean Outcomes Oceana Sea Around Us Project WorldFish Center Defying Ocean's End HERMIONE PROFISH International Seafood Sustainability Foundation Sea Shepherd Conservation Society Greenpeace Related issues CalCOFI Fish slaughter Marine pollution Mercury in fish Shark finning Threatened sharks Threatened rays List of fishing topics by subject Index of fishing articles Fisheries glossary v t e Property By owner Communal land Marital property (USA) Cooperative Estate in land Private Public State Crown land By nature Croft Intangible Intellectual indigenous Personal Tangible immovable real Common resources Common land Common-pool resource Digital Global Information Knowledge Theory Bundle of rights Commodity fictitious commodities Common good (economics) Excludability First possession appropriation homestead principle Free rider problem Game theory Georgism Gift economy Labor theory of property Law of rent rent-seeking Legal plunder Natural rights Ownership common customary self state Property rights primogeniture usufruct women's Right to property Rivalry Tragedy of the commons anticommons Applications Acequia (watercourse) Ejido (agrarian land) Forest types Inheritance Land tenure Property law alienation easement restraint on alienation real estate title Rights Air Fishing Forest-dwelling (India) Freedom to roam Grazing pannage Hunting Land aboriginal indigenous squatting Littoral Mineral Bergregal Right of way Water prior-appropriation riparian Disposession/ redistribution Bioprospecting Collectivization Eminent domain Enclosure Eviction Expropriation Farhud Forced migration population transfer Illegal fishing Illegal logging Land reform Legal plunder Piracy Poaching Primitive accumulation Privatization Regulatory taking Slavery bride-buying human trafficking wage wife selling Tax inheritance poll progressive property Theft Scholars (key work) Frédéric Bastiat Ronald Coase Henry George Garrett Hardin David Harvey John Locke Two Treatises of Government Karl Marx Marcel Mauss The Gift John Stuart Mill Elinor Ostrom Karl Polanyi The Great Transformation Pierre-Joseph Proudhon What Is Property? David Ricardo Murray N. Rothbard The Ethics of Liberty Jean-Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations Categories: Property Property law by country Authority control GND: 4132791-3 NDL: 00565460 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Exclusive_economic_zone&oldid=825719647" Categories: Law of the seaHydrographyFishing industryExclusive economic zonesFishing and the environmentFisheries lawHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksPages with citations lacking titlesPages with citations having bare URLsAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from June 2016Articles with dead external links from January 2018Articles with permanently dead external linksPages with listed invalid ISBNsArticles needing additional references from July 2015All articles needing additional referencesWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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