Notable phonological characteristics[edit] Equatorial Spanish presents markedly attenuated Caribbean features: Syllable-final /s/ is aspirated or elided (although the middle class tends to avoid doing so in the prevocalic environment). As in the Caribbean dialects, the /x/ phoneme is realized as [h]. Word-final /n/ is realized as velar, and sometimes bilabialized, especially among speakers of African descent. In rural areas, there is virtually no difference between /l/ and /ɾ/, but elision is rare. In the area of Chocó, intervocalic /d/ is realized as [ɾ]. In this same region the aspirated /s/ and /k/[clarification needed] may result in a glottal stop. As in virtually all American dialects, seseo is the norm, meaning that the /θ/ phoneme of European Spanish is merged with /s/ and pronounced [s]. However, there are rural areas on the coast of Ecuador, for instance San Lorenzo in Esmeraldas, where ceceo (the same merger, with realization as [θ]) is present. This is one of the very few places in the Americas where the merger is treated in this way. (Ceceo is common to large areas of Andalusia, Spain.) Yeismo (merger of traditional /ʎ/ and /ʝ/, with realization as [ʝ]) is also the general rule here, as it is in most of the American Spanish dialects.


References[edit] ^ "Los apuntes anteriores demuestran claramente la continuidad fonética entre las costas de Colombia, el Ecuador y el Perú [...], frente a la de sus provincias andinas [...]" (p.233). ^ "Por ejemplo, las fronteras actuales del Ecuador con los países colindantes no corresponden ni a fronteras naturales (esto es geográficas), ni a fronteras lingüístico-culturales (se habla el mismo español de ambos lados), ni a fronteras políticas antiguas (incaicas o coloniales)" (p. 233). Boyd-Bowman, Peter (1953), "Sobre la pronunciación del español en el Ecuador", Nueva Revista de Filología Hispánica, 7 (1-2): 221–233 [permanent dead link] García Albújar, Martha Lucinda (n.d.), "Hacia la búsqueda de la realidad lingüística en el Departamento de Lambayeque" (PDF), Utopía Norteña: 189–210  Instituto Caro y Cuervo (1981–1983), Atlas lingüístico-etnográfico de Colombia (ALEC), Bogotá  Lipski, John M. (1994), Latin American Spanish, Longman  Rocca Torres, Luis (n.d.), "Acerca del habla de los negros del Norte del Perú: Expresiones afronorteñas" (PDF), Utopía Norteña: 211–241  Zamora Munné, Juan Clemente; Guitart, Jorge M. (1982), Dialectología hispanoamericana: Teoría, descripción, historia, Salamanca: Ediciones Almar  v t e Languages of Ecuador Official languages Spanish Kichwa Shuar Indigenous languages Awa Pit Cha'palaachi Cofán Media Lengua Secoya Shiwiar Siona Tetete Tsafiki Waorani Záparo Spanish varieties Amazonic Andean Equatorial Sign languages Ecuadorian Sign Language v t e Languages of Peru Spanish varieties Amazonic Andean Coastal Equatorial (Tumbes) Indigenous languages Arawakan Campa Asháninka Ashéninga Axininca Caquinte Machiguenga Nanti Nomatsiguenga Piro Iñapari Mashco Piro Yine Upper Amazon Resígaro Western Chamicuro Yanesha' Aymaran Aymara Jaqaru Bora–Witoto Bora Minica Huitoto Murui Huitoto Nüpode Huitoto Ocaina Cahuapanan Chayahuita Jebero Harákmbut Amarakaeri Huachipaeri Jivaroan Aguaruna Huambisa Shiwiar Pano–Tacanan Amawaka Ese Ejja Iskonawa Kashibo Kashinawa Matsés/Pisabo Shipibo Yaminawa Quechuan Cajamarca–Cañaris Cajamarca Lambayeque Central Ancash Huánuco (Huallaga) Pacaraos Wanka Yaru Yauyos–Chincha Lowland Chachapoyas Lamas Kichwa Southern Ayacucho Cusco Puno Tucanoan Orejón Secoya Tupian Cocama Omagua Zaparoan Arabela Iquito Other Candoshi-Shapra Kulina Taushiro Ticuna Urarina Yagua Sign languages Peruvian Sign Language v t e Varieties of Spanish by continent Africa Canarian Equatoguinean Americas (Pan-American) Caribbean Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican Central America Belizean Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Pachuco Panamanian Salvadoran North America American Caló (Chicano) New Mexican Puerto Rican Isleño Mexican South America Amazonic Andean Bolivian Chilean Chilote Chiloé Archipelago Colombian Cordobés Central Argentina Cuyano Central western Argentina Equatorial Coastal Ecuador Llanero Los Llanos Colombia/Venezuela Maracucho Zulia State Paisa Paisa Region Paraguayan Peruvian Ribereño Coastal Peru Rioplatense Coastal Argentina Uruguayan Venezuelan Asia Philippine Europe (Peninsular) Andalusian Canarian Castilian Castrapo (Galicia) Castúo (Extremadura) Murcian spoken by Catalan speakers Other Standard Caló (Para-Romani) Judaeo-Spanish Palenquero (creole) Chavacano (creole) Llanito Papiamento (Portuguese-based creole with Spanish influence) Spanglish Extinct Mediaeval Cocoliche and Lunfardo Coastal Argentina, Uruguay Malespín Central America Bozal Annex: Ecuadorian Spanish Annex: Colombian Spanish Annex: Peruvian Spanish Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Equatorial_Spanish&oldid=807490976" Categories: Spanish dialects of South AmericaSpanish ColombianSpanish EcuadorianSpanish PeruvianHidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from January 2011All articles lacking in-text citationsWikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2015All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2016Articles with permanently dead external links


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