Contents 1 Palaeo context 2 Modern Context 2.1 Effects of CO2 2.1.1 Effects of temperature 2.1.2 Effects of water 2.1.3 General effects 3 Direct impacts of climate change 3.1 Changes in distributions 3.1.1 Changes in life-cycles (phenology) 4 Indirect impacts of climate change 5 Higher level changes 6 Challenges of modeling future impacts 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Palaeo context[edit] Australian Rainforest: An ecosystem known to have significantly contracted in area over recent geological time as a result of climatic changes. Map of global vegetation distributions during the last glacial maximum The Earth has experienced a constantly changing climate in the time since plants first evolved. In comparison to the present day, this history has seen Earth as cooler, warmer, drier and wetter, and CO2 (carbon dioxide) concentrations have been both higher and lower.[5] These changes have been reflected by constantly shifting vegetation, for example forest communities dominating most areas in interglacial periods, and herbaceous communities dominating during glacial periods.[6] It has been shown that past climatic change has been a major driver of the processes of speciation and extinction.[1] The best known example of this is the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse which occurred 350 million years ago. This event decimated amphibian populations and spurred on the evolution of reptiles.[1]

Modern Context[edit] There is significant current interest and research focus on the phenomenon of recent anthropogenic climate changes, or global warming. Focus is on identifying the current impacts of climate change on biodiversity, and predicting these effects into the future. Changing climatic variables relevant to the function and distribution of plants include increasing CO2 concentrations, increasing global temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and changes in the pattern of ‘extreme’ weather events such as cyclones, fires or storms. Highly variable species distribution has resulted from different models with variable bioclimatic changes.[7][8] Because individual plants and therefore species can only function physiologically, and successfully complete their life cycles under specific environmental conditions (ideally within a subset of these), changes to climate are likely to have significant impacts on plants from the level of the individual right through to the level of the ecosystem or biome. Effects of CO2[edit] Recent increases in atmospheric CO2. CO2 concentrations have been steadily rising for more than two centuries.[9] Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration affect how plants photosynthesise, resulting in increases in plant water use efficiency, enhanced photosynthetic capacity and increased growth.[10] Increased CO2 has been implicated in ‘vegetation thickening’ which affects plant community structure and function.[11] Depending on environment, there are differential responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 between major ‘functional types’ of plant, such as C3 and C4 plants, or more or less woody species; which has the potential among other things to alter competition between these groups.[12] Increased CO2 can also lead to increased Carbon : Nitrogen ratios in the leaves of plants or in other aspects of leaf chemistry, possibly changing herbivore nutrition.[13] Effects of temperature[edit] Global annual surface temperature anomaly in 2005, relative to 1951-1980 mean Increases in temperature raise the rate of many physiological processes such as photosynthesis in plants, to an upper limit. These increases in photosynthesis and other physiological processes are driven by increased rates of chemical reactions and roughly a doubling of enzymatic product conversion rates for every 10 °C increase in temperature.[14] Extreme temperatures can be harmful when beyond the physiological limits of a plant. One common hypothesis among scientists is that the warmer an area is, the higher the plant diversity. This hypothesis can be observed in nature, where higher plant biodiversity is often located at certain latitudes (which often correlates with a specific climate/temperature).[15] Effects of water[edit] Precipitation trends in the United States, from the period 1901-2005. In some areas rainfall has increased in the last century, while some areas have dried. As water supply is critical for plant growth, it plays a key role in determining the distribution of plants. Changes in precipitation are predicted to be less consistent than for temperature and more variable between regions, with predictions for some areas to become much wetter, and some much drier.[16] This can cause a major change in some ecosystems which are dependent on water supply. General effects[edit] Environmental variables act not in isolation, but in combination with other pressures such as habitat degradation, habitat loss, and the introduction of exotic species that can potentially be invasive. It is suggested that these other drivers of biodiversity change will act in synergy with climate change to increase the pressure on species to survive.[17]

Direct impacts of climate change[edit] Changes in distributions[edit] Pine tree representing an elevational tree-limit rise of 105 m over the period 1915–1974. Nipfjället, Sweden If climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation change in a region beyond the tolerance of a species phenotypic plasticity, then distribution changes of the species may be inevitable.[18] There is already evidence that plant species are shifting their ranges in altitude and latitude as a response to changing regional climates.[19][20] Yet it is difficult to predict how species ranges will change in response to climate and separate these changes from all the other man-made environmental changes such as eutrophication, acid rain and habitat destruction.[21][22][23] When compared to the reported past migration rates of plant species, the rapid pace of current change has the potential to not only alter species distributions, but also render many species as unable to follow the climate to which they are adapted.[24] The environmental conditions required by some species, such as those in alpine regions may disappear altogether. The result of these changes is likely to be a rapid increase in extinction risk.[25] Adaptation to new conditions may also be of great importance in the response of plants.[26] Predicting the extinction risk of plant species is not easy however. Estimations from particular periods of rapid climatic change in the past have shown relatively little species extinction in some regions, for example.[27] Knowledge of how species may adapt or persist in the face of rapid change is still relatively limited. Changes in the suitability of a habitat for a species drive distributional changes by not only changing the area that a species can physiologically tolerate, but how effectively it can compete with other plants within this area. Changes in community composition are therefore also an expected product of climate change. Changes in life-cycles (phenology)[edit] The timing of phenological events such as flowering are often related to environmental variables such as temperature. Changing environments are therefore expected to lead to changes in life cycle events, and these have been recorded for many species of plants.[19] These changes have the potential to lead to the asynchrony between species, or to change competition between plants. Flowering times in British plants for example have changed, leading to annual plants flowering earlier than perennials, and insect pollinated plants flowering earlier than wind pollinated plants; with potential ecological consequences.[28] A recently published study has used data recorded by the writer and naturalist Henry David Thoreau to confirm effects of climate change on the phenology of some species in the area of Concord, Massachusetts.[29]

Indirect impacts of climate change[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) All species are likely to be directly impacted by the changes in environmental conditions discussed above, and also indirectly through their interactions with other species. While direct impacts may be easier to predict and conceptualise, it is likely that indirect impacts are equally important in determining the response of plants to climate change.[30][31] A species whose distribution changes as a direct result of climate change may ‘invade’ the range of another species or 'be invaded' for example, introducing a new competitive relationship or altering other processes such as carbon sequestration.[32] In Europe, the temperature and precipitation effects due to climate change can indirectly affect certain populations of people. The rise of temperatures and lack of precipitation results in different river floodplains, which reduce the populations of people sensitive to flood risk.[33] The range of a symbiotic fungi associated with plant roots may directly change as a result of altered climate, resulting in a change in the plant's distribution. A new grass may spread into a region, altering the fire regime and greatly changing the species composition. A pathogen or parasite may change its interactions with a plant, such as a pathogenic fungus becoming more common in an area where rainfall increases. Increased temperatures may allow herbivores to expand further into alpine regions, significant impacting the composition of alpine herbfields.

Higher level changes[edit] Species respond in very different ways to climate change. Variation in the distribution, phenology and abundance of species will lead to inevitable changes in the relative abundance of species and their interactions. These changes will flow on to affect the structure and function of ecosystems.[20]

Challenges of modeling future impacts[edit] Accurate predictions of the future impacts of climate change on plant diversity are critical to the development of conservation strategies. These predictions have come largely from bioinformatic strategies, involving modeling individual species, groups of species such as ‘functional types’, communities, ecosystems or biomes. They can also involve modeling species observed environmental niches, or observed physiological processes. Although useful, modeling has many limitations. Firstly, there is uncertainty about the future levels of greenhouse gas emissions driving climate change [34] and considerable uncertainty in modeling how this will affect other aspects of climate such as local rainfall or temperatures. For most species the importance of specific climatic variables in defining distribution (e.g. minimum rainfall or maximum temperature) is unknown. It is also difficult to know which aspects of a particular climatic variable are most biologically relevant, such as average vs. maximum or minimum temperatures. Ecological processes such as interactions between species and dispersal rates and distances are also inherently complex, further complicating predictions. Improvement of models is an active area of research, with new models attempting to take factors such as life-history traits of species or processes such as migration into account when predicting distribution changes; though possible trade-offs between regional accuracy and generality are recognised.[35] Climate change is also predicted to interact with other drivers of biodiversity change such as habitat destruction and fragmentation, or the introduction of foreign species. These threats may possibly act in synergy to increase extinction risk from that seen in periods of rapid climate change in the past.[17]

See also[edit] Plants portal Global warming portal Global warming Biodiversity Biogeochemistry Desertification Extinction risk from climate change Effects of global warming Effects of climate change on wine production Effects of climate change on marine mammals Physical impacts of climate change Systems ecology

References[edit] ^ a b c Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. & Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica" (PDF). Geology. 38 (12): 1079–1082. doi:10.1130/G31182.1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Dadamouny, M.A.; Schnittler, M. (2015). "Trends of climate with rapid change in Sinai, Egypt". Journal of water and climate change. 7 (2). doi:10.2166/wcc.2015.215.  ^ Sala OE, Chapin FS, Armesto JJ, et al. (March 2000). "Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100". Science. 287 (5459): 1770–4. doi:10.1126/science.287.5459.1770. PMID 10710299.  ^ Duraiappah, Anantha K.; World Resources Institute (2006). Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems And Human-well Being—biodiversity Synthesis. Washington, D.C: World Resources Institute. ISBN 1-56973-588-3. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Dunlop, M., & Brown, P.R. (2008) Implications of climate change for Australia’s National Reserve System: A preliminary assessment. Report to the Department of Climate Change, February 2008. Department of Climate Change, Canberra, Australia ^ Huntley, B. (2005). "North temperate responses". In Hannah, Lee Jay; Lovejoy, Thomas E. Climate Change and Biodiversity. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. pp. 109–24. ISBN 0-300-11980-1.  ^ W. Thuiller et al., Nature 430, 10.1038/nature02716(2004). ^ Weiskrantz, Lawrence (1999). Consciousness Lost and Found. Oxford University Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780198524588.  ^ Neftel, A.; et al. (1985). Evidence from polar ice cores for the increase in atmospheric CO2 in the past two centuries. pp. 45–47. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Steffen, W. & Canadell, P. (2005). ‘Carbon Dioxide Fertilisation and Climate Change Policy.’ 33 pp. Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of Environment and Heritage: Canberra ^ Gifford RM, Howden M (2001). "Vegetation thickening in an ecological perspective: significance to national greenhouse gas inventories". Environmental Science & Policy. 4: 59–72. doi:10.1016/S1462-9011(00)00109-X.  ^ Jeffrey S. Dukes; Harold A. Mooney (April 1999). "Does global change increase the success of biological invaders?". Trends Ecol. Evol. 14 (4): 135–9. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(98)01554-7. PMID 10322518.  ^ Gleadow RM; et al. (1998). "Enhanced CO2 alters the relationship between photosynthesis and defence in cyanogenic Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell.". Plant Cell Environ. 21: 12–22. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.1998.00258.x.  ^ Wolfenden, Richard; Snider, Mark; Ridgway, Caroline; Miller, Brian (1999). "The Temperature Dependence of Enzyme Rate Enhancements". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 121 (32): 7419–7420. doi:10.1021/ja991280p.  ^ Clarke, Andrew; Gaston, Kevin (2006). "Climate, energy and diversity". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273 (1599): 2257–2266. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3545. PMC 1636092 . PMID 16928626.  ^ "National Climate Assessment". National Climate Assessment. Retrieved 2015-11-09.  ^ a b Mackey, B. (2007). "Climate change, connectivity and biodiversity conservation". In Taylor M.; Figgis P. Protected Areas: buffering nature against climate change. Proceedings of a WWF and IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas symposium, Canberra, 18–19 June 2007. Sydney: WWF-Australia. pp. 90–6.  ^ Lynch M.; Lande R. (1993). "Evolution and extinction in response to environmental change". In Huey, Raymond B.; Kareiva, Peter M.; Kingsolver, Joel G. Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. pp. 234–50. ISBN 0-87893-430-8.  ^ a b Parmesan C, Yohe G (January 2003). "A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems". Nature. 421 (6918): 37–42. doi:10.1038/nature01286. PMID 12511946.  ^ a b Walther GR, Post E, Convey P, et al. (March 2002). "Ecological responses to recent climate change". Nature. 416 (6879): 389–95. doi:10.1038/416389a. PMID 11919621.  ^ Lenoir J, Gégout JC, Guisan A, Vittoz P, Wohlgemuth T, Zimmermann NE, Dullinger S, Pauli H, Willner W, Svenning JC (2010). "Going against the flow: potential mechanisms for unexpected downslope range shifts in a warming climate". Ecography. 33: 295–303. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06279.x.  ^ Groom, Q. (2012). "Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident". PeerJ. 1 (e77). doi:10.7717/peerj.77. PMC 3669268 . PMID 23734340.  ^ Hilbish TJ, Brannock PM, Jones KR, Smith AB, Bullock BN, Wethey DS (2010). "Historical changes in the distributions of invasive and endemic marine invertebrates are contrary to global warming predictions: the effects of decadal climate oscillations". Journal of Biogeography. 37: 423–431. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02218.x.  ^ Davis MB, Shaw RG (April 2001). "Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change". Science. 292 (5517): 673–9. doi:10.1126/science.292.5517.673. PMID 11326089.  ^ Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE, et al. (January 2004). "Extinction risk from climate change". Nature. 427 (6970): 145–8. doi:10.1038/nature02121. PMID 14712274.  ^ Jump A, Penuelas J (2005). "Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change". Ecol. Lett. 8: 1010–20. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00796.x.  ^ Botkin DB; et al. (2007). "Forecasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity". BioScience. 57 (3): 227–36. doi:10.1641/B570306.  ^ Fitter AH, Fitter RS (May 2002). "Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants". Science. 296 (5573): 1689–91. doi:10.1126/science.1071617. PMID 12040195.  ^ Willis CG, Ruhfel B, Primack RB, Miller-Rushing AJ, Davis CC (November 2008). "Phylogenetic patterns of species loss in Thoreau's woods are driven by climate change". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (44): 17029–33. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806446105. PMC 2573948 . PMID 18955707.  ^ Dadamouny, M.A. (2009). "Population Ecology of Moringa peregrina growing in Southern Sinai, Egypt". M.Sc. Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department. p. 205.  ^ Dadamouny, M.A., Zaghloul, M.S., & Moustafa, A.A. (2012). "Impact of Improved Soil Properties on Establishment of Moringa peregrina seedlings and trial to decrease its Mortality Rate". Case Study. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 52(1), 83-98. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Krotz, Dan. "New Study: As Climate Changes, Boreal Forests to Shift North and Relinquish More Carbon Than Expected | Berkeley Lab". News Center. Retrieved 2015-11-09.  ^ Kebede, A. S.; Dunford, R.; Mokrech, M.; Audsley, E.; Harrison, P. A.; Holman, I. P.; Nicholls, R. J.; Rickebusch, S.; Rounsevell, M. D. 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Further reading[edit] Thomas Lovejoy; Lee Hannah (2006). Climate Change and Biodiversity. TERI Press. ISBN 81-7993-084-X.  Tim Flannery (2006). The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth. Grove/Atlantic Press. ISBN 0-8021-4292-3. 

External links[edit] (2008) Government report on the effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States. (2003) Summary report from an international conference on Global Climate Change and Biodiversity, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2008) Discussion on the future of modeling climate change impacts on plant species distributions. on wilfried thuiller's website (2005) The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, including discussion of the effects of climate change on biodiversity Global Change Biology - a scientific journal with articles relating to the interaction between global changes such as climate, and biological systems (2011) After the birds vanish, the plants are next to go - New Scientist Loarie, S. R.; Duffy, P. B.; Hamilton, H.; Asner, G. P.; Field, C. B.; Ackerly, D. D. (2009). "The velocity of climate change". Nature. 462 (7276): 1052–1055. doi:10.1038/nature08649. 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