Contents 1 History 2 K-12 3 Public schools in disrepair 4 Universities and colleges 4.1 Public universities 4.2 Private universities 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


History[edit] (in california) In the Spanish colonial California, a prerequisite for promotion above the rank of corporal and the core criteria for promotion beyond, coupled with honesty, was literacy.[1] This formed an incentive to both learn to read and write for oneself and provide this for one's children through whatever means possible. The Spanish policy at the time, as a means of controlling their citizens, was in opposition to popular education.[2] The first recorded school in California was opened in 1795 by Manuel de Vargas, a retired sergeant, in San Diego. Small schools taught by retired soldiers continued to operate through the revolution years and independence from Spain in 1821. A few school teachers are known by name during this time, one is José Antonio Carrillo. Attempts were made to import educators to California from elsewhere in New Spain. Though at that time, fairly serious prison sentences were commuted in exchange for immigrating to California. Governor Pablo Vicente de Solá made education a core priority. After requests for government funds for school teachers went unanswered, he used his own wealth to fund a fellowship for two Spanish professors to establish a high school in Monterey. After several weeks they concluded life in California as unbearable and left. Subsequent governors continued to address the education issue but failed to gain traction for higher education. The first truancy law was issued in 1828 by Governor José María de Echeandía, ordered the commanding officers to compel parents to send their children to the schools which he had established. In 1829, throughout Alta California, there were 339 students in 11 primary schools. During this time a noted educator in San Diego was Friar Antonio Menendez and his 18 pupils. Private schools operated throughout this time. An example was opened by Don Guillermo Arnel near present-day Salinas on December 10, 1833 on his plantation Rancho El Alisal. He named his university preparatory school "El Seminario del Patrocinio de San Jose" or "Colegio de San Jose". For the following 20 years of Mexican administration the public school system ebbed and flowed. At times there were few schools operating due to a revolving lack of funds, lack of interest, politics, and lack of educators. In 1847 the governance of California changed to the United States of America. At the time of the transfer there were a few hundred literate residents in the state [3] out of a population of 26,000[4] for a 2% literacy rate.There were now funds available if the school existed. The details of this took time to work out, but from 1854 onwards there was a steady public education system present throughout the state of California. Attendance was not compulsory or universal, for example, in San Diego attendance hovered at 25%. The classes taught at the primary level were orthography, reading, writing, grammar, geography, arithmetic, algebra, history, French, and Spanish. From this foundation the California education system expanded to form secondary schools, and institutions of higher learning.[5] The first of these colleges was Minns' Evening Normal School founded in 1857. A teaching college established by the San Francisco city's high school system to educate their teachers. Later this college became San Jose State University.


K-12[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2014) California is the most populous state of the U.S. and has the most school students, with over 6.2 million in the 2005–06 school year, giving California more students in school than 36 states have in total population and one of the highest projected enrollments in the country.[6] About 25% of school students are English learners, compared to 9% nationally. Funding and staffing levels in California schools lag behind other states. In expenditure per pupil, California ranked 15th of the 50 states and District of Columbia in 2005–06. In teaching staff expenditure per pupil, California ranked 49th of 51. In overall teacher-pupil ratio, California was also 49th, with 21 students per teacher. Only Arizona and Utah were lower.[7] One of the biggest problems in the California school system[who?] is the high level of high school dropouts, especially among minority students. Approximately 22% of African Americans and Hispanic Californians are living in poverty and only 68% of students living below the poverty line will graduate from high school.[8] The state of California has in place the Dropout Recovery and Prevention Act (SB 65) as a governmental way of dealing with the high dropout rate in California. It was implemented in 1985 and was expanded in 2004 due to its success in lowering the state’s dropout rate. Senate Bill 65 initiated three new dropout prevention efforts: the Pupil Motivation and Maintenance Program, the Alternative Education Outreach Consultant (AEOC) Program, and the Educational Clinic Program.[9] According to Governor Jerry Brown in 2014, "almost 30% are either undocumented or don't speak English."[10]


Public schools in disrepair[edit] All over the state of California there are public schools in various stages of disrepair. In a report to the public, the federal government noted that 75% of California Schools, 13,096 in total, where in need of renovation and modernization. Furthermore, the renovations and modernization(s) needed were required to elevate the schools standing/rating to "good." [11] In a 2007 financial analysis report, published by the U.S. General Accounting Office, it was estimated that in order to bring all K-12 public school buildings in line with building codes it would cost $112 billion.[11] In 2014 at a meeting of the Fremont School Board, Fremont, CA, it was made public that students could not study effectively due to the Heating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) not working.[12] 2003 - students at Fremont High School in Los Angeles voiced their feelings of humiliation with regards to the needed repairs at their school[13]


Universities and colleges[edit] See also: List of colleges and universities in California Public universities[edit] The main state research university is the University of California (UC). The University of California has ten major campuses.[14] Each major UC campus is headed by a chancellor that is appointed by the Regents of the University of California.[15] The ten major campuses of the University of California are located in Berkeley, Los Angeles, San Diego, Davis, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Irvine, Riverside, Merced and San Francisco. The University of California, San Francisco, teaches only graduate health-sciences students. The UC Hastings College of the Law, also in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but is not administered by the UC Regents. The UC system was originally intended to accept students from the top one-eighth (1/8th) of California high school graduates, however several of the schools in the UC system have become even more selective. The awarding of doctoral degrees from California public universities was originally intended to be the sole domain of the UC system, however several doctoral degrees are now also awarded by the Cal State system. The University of California also administers one national laboratory directly for the United States Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The university indirectly manages Los Alamos National Laboratory through Los Alamos National Security, LLC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. The California State University (CSU) system describes itself as the largest four-year public university system in the United States.[16] The CSU was originally intended to accept students from the top one-third (1/3rd) of California high school graduates, however several of the schools in the CSU system have become much more selective. Many of the larger campuses, such as Cal Poly, Cal Poly Pomona, Long Beach State, Cal State Fullerton, Cal State San Bernardino, Fresno State, Sacramento State, San Francisco State, San Diego State, and San José State (the oldest public university in California) have become more research oriented than they were in the past. A marked change and a shift from the California Master Plan for Higher Education began in 2007 with the CSU gaining the ability to grant doctoral level degrees in education (Ed.D.). The CSU has since gained the authority to grant many other Doctoral degrees, such as the Doctor of Nursing Practice, the Doctor of Physical Therapy, and the Au.D.. The CSU also has the ability to grant joint Ph.Ds with other universities. Kevin Starr (State Librarian emeritus) and others have argued that this small change is the beginning of a larger reorganization of higher education in California. The California Community Colleges system provides lower division "General Education" courses, whose credit units are transferable to the CSU and UC systems, as well as vocational education, remedial education, and continuing education programs. It awards certificates and associate degrees. It is composed of 112 colleges organized into 72 districts, serving a student population of over 2.9 million. The system also provides the education certification, basic training, and some advanced training to all police officers, fire fighters and Emergency Medical Tech's in the state either directly (via on campus academies) or indirectly (via affiliations with police / sheriff department's and fire department's "in house" academies). Private universities[edit] Notable private universities and colleges include Stanford University, Loyola Marymount University, the University of Southern California (USC), the University of San Francisco (USF), Santa Clara University, Pepperdine University, St. Mary's College, the University of the Pacific, Thomas Aquinas College, Touro University California, the Claremont Colleges, Occidental College, Westmont College, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the Southern California Institute of Technology (SCIT). California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. This leads to many unique entertainment and educational opportunities for residents. For example, Southern California, with one of the highest densities of post-secondary institutions in the world, has a very large base of classically trained vocalists that compete in large choir festivals. In the Bay Area and near Los Angeles, there are numerous art and film schools, including the California College of the Arts and the CalArts Institute.


See also[edit] California Open Source Textbook Project Spanish bilingual education in California


References[edit] ^ "California During the Revolution". Americanrevolution.org. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ Harrow, Neal; "California Conquered: The Annexation of a Mexican Province, 1846-1850"; p. 14-30; University of California Press; 1989; ISBN 978-0-520-06605-2 ^ "San Francisco News and Tall Tales, Ship Passengers and Sea Captains. 1846-1899". Maritimeheritage.org. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ [2][dead link] ^ 2000 Congressional Record, Vol. 146, Page S2337 (April 6, 2000) ^ "Ed-Data Website, California". Ed-data.k12.ca.us. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ Deborah Reed. "Educational Resources and Outcomes in California, by Race and Ethnicity" (PDF). Ppic.org. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ [3][dead link] ^ Jerry Brown & Neel Kashkari (2014). California Gubernatorial Debate (video). C-SPAN. Event occurs at 41:50. Retrieved 7 September 2014. I think that will building for the future because so many of our kids almost about 30% are either undocumented or don't speak English.  ^ a b [4][dead link] ^ [5][dead link] ^ Kozol, Jonathan (2006). The Shame of The Nation; The Restoration Of Apartheid Schooling In America. New York: Broadway Paperbacks. pp. 176–179. ISBN 978-1-4000-5245-5.  ^ "University of California - Campuses - The University of California campuses provide environments that foster world-class educational and research opportunities, generating a wide range of public benefits and services". Universityofcalifornia.edu. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ "University of California News Room". Universityofcalifornia.edu. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ "CSU Facts 2017" (PDF). The California State University. Retrieved 17 October 2017. 


External links[edit] Google - public data: Education Statistics of California v t e  State of California Sacramento (capital) Topics Culture Food Music Myth Sports Demographics Earthquakes Economy Education Environment Geography Climate Ecology Flora Fauna Government Capitol Districts Governor Legislature Supreme Court Healthcare History Law National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks NRHP listings Politics Congressional delegations Elections People Protected areas State Parks State Historic Landmarks Symbols Transportation Water Index of articles Regions Antelope Valley Big Sur California Coast Ranges Cascade Range Central California Central Coast Central Valley Channel Islands Coachella Valley Coastal California Conejo Valley Cucamonga Valley Death Valley East Bay (SF Bay Area) East County (SD) Eastern California Emerald Triangle Gold Country Great Basin Greater San Bernardino Inland Empire Klamath Basin Lake Tahoe Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles Basin Lost Coast Mojave Desert Mountain Empire North Bay (SF) North Coast North Coast (SD) Northern California Owens Valley Oxnard Plain Peninsular Ranges Pomona Valley Sacramento Valley Salinas Valley San Fernando Valley San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Peninsula San Gabriel Valley San Joaquin Valley Santa Clara Valley Santa Clara River Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Ynez Valley Shasta Cascade Sierra Nevada Silicon Valley South Bay (LA) South Bay (SD) South Bay (SF) South Coast Southern Border Region Southern California Transverse Ranges Tri-Valley Victor Valley Wine Country Metro regions Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana Counties Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba Most populous cities Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim v t e Education in the United States by political division States Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Federal district Washington, D.C. Insular areas American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Education_in_California&oldid=820831165" Categories: Education in CaliforniaHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from October 2017Articles needing additional references from May 2010All articles needing additional referencesArticles to be expanded from June 2014All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesAll articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2014


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