Contents 1 Education, early career, and military service 2 City and District Attorney 3 Family and social life 4 Attorney General of California 4.1 Japanese-American internment 5 Governor of California 6 U.S. Supreme Court 6.1 Appointed to Supreme Court 6.2 The Warren Court 6.2.1 Decisions Brown (1954) Reapportionment Due process and rights of defendants (1963–66) First Amendment 6.3 Warren Commission 6.4 Retirement delayed 7 Legacy 7.1 Death 7.2 Honors 8 Electoral history 9 Cultural references 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Education, early career, and military service[edit] Earl Warren was born in Los Angeles, on March 19, 1891, to Mathias H. Warren, a Norwegian immigrant whose original family name was Varren,[1] and his wife, Crystal (Hernlund), a Swedish immigrant. Mathias Warren was a longtime employee of the Southern Pacific Railroad. After he was blacklisted for joining in a strike, the family moved to Bakersfield, California, in 1894. Matthias worked in a railroad repair yard, and Earl had summer jobs in railroading. Earl Warren grew up in Bakersfield, where he attended Washington Junior High and Kern County High School (now called Bakersfield High School). His father was murdered there by an unknown person during a robbery. In 1912 Warren graduated with a B.A. in political science from the University of California, Berkeley.[2] In 1914 he earned his J.D. at the UC Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall). He was a member of The Gun Club secret society,[3] and the Sigma Phi Society, a fraternity with which he maintained lifelong ties. As an undergraduate, Warren also played clarinet in the Cal Band that was not that well known.[4] Warren maintained a lifelong friendship with fellow Cal student Robert Gordon Sproul, who later became president of University of California. In 1948, at the Republican National Convention, Sproul would nominate Warren for vice president. Warren was admitted to the California bar in 1914. Warren worked a year for Associated Oil Company in San Francisco, then joined Robinson & Robinson, a law firm in Oakland. Warren as a U.S. Army officer in 1918 After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Warren volunteered for an officer training camp but was rejected due to his hemorrhoids. As a result of contracting ether pneumonia after an operation to remove the hemorrhoids, he spent several weeks in the hospital, by which time the training camp had closed. Warren enlisted in the U.S. Army as a private in August, and was assigned to Company I of the 91st Division's 363rd Infantry Regiment at Camp Lewis, Washington. He was made acting first sergeant of the company and graduated from a three-month officer training course that began in January 1918. After he returned to the company in May as a Second Lieutenant, the regiment was sent to Camp Lee, Virginia, to train draftees. Warren spent the rest of the war there and was discharged less than a month after Armistice Day, following a promotion to First Lieutenant.[5]

City and District Attorney[edit] The Alameda County Superior Courthouse, completed in 1934 After the war, he served as a clerk of the Judicial Committee for the 1919 Session of the California State Assembly (1919–1920), then as the Deputy City Attorney in Oakland, California (1920–25). Warren came to the attention of powerful Republican Joseph R. Knowland, publisher of The Oakland Tribune. He was strongly influenced by California Governor Hiram Johnson and other leaders of the Progressive Era to oppose corruption and promote democracy.[6] In 1925, Warren was appointed as the District Attorney of Alameda County. Warren was re-elected to three four-year terms. Warren vigorously investigated allegations that a deputy sheriff was taking bribes in connection with street-paving arrangements. He was a tough-on-crime District Attorney (1925–1939), who professionalized the DA's office. Warren cracked down on bootlegging and had a reputation for high-handedness, but none of his convictions were overturned on appeal. Warren took a hard stance against labor in the buildup to the San Francisco General Strike. In Whitney v. California (1927) Warren prosecuted a woman under the California Criminal Syndicalism Act for attending a communist meeting in Oakland.[7] When in 1936 the killer of a ship officer escaped, Warren successfully prosecuted union organizers on the ship of the murder. As governor, Warren later pardoned the seamen, Earl King, Ernest Ramsay, and Frank Conner, hours before leaving office.[8] Warren soon gained a statewide reputation as a tough, no-nonsense District Attorney who fought corruption in government; in a 1931 survey, voters listed him as the best District Attorney in the country. He ran his office in a nonpartisan manner, and he strongly supported the autonomy of law enforcement agencies. But he also believed that police and prosecutors had to act fairly. He developed many of his ideas about criminal justice based on his experiences as an active prosecuting attorney.[9] Many of the law enforcement techniques used at that time would be declared unconstitutional when he sat on the Supreme Court.

Family and social life[edit] Warren married Swedish-born widow Nina Elisabeth Palmquist Meyers on October 4, 1925. They had six children. Mrs. Warren died in Washington, at age 100 on April 24, 1993. Warren is the father of Virginia Warren; she married veteran radio and television personality John Charles Daly, on December 22, 1960. Other children include James (adopted son from Ms. Meyers' first marriage), Earl Jr., Dorothy, Nina and Robert. Warren was very active after 1919 in such groups as the Freemasonry, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows,[10] the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, the Loyal Order of Moose (obtained the Pilgrim Degree of Merit, the highest award given in the fraternity) and the American Legion. Each one introduced Warren to new friends and political connections. He rose through the ranks in the Masons, culminating in his election in 1935 as the Grand Master of the Freemasons for the state of California. Biographer Jim Newton says that Warren, "thrived in the Masons because he shared their ideals, but those ideals also helped shape him, nurturing his commitment to service, deepening his conviction that society's problems were best addressed by small groups of enlightened, well-meaning citizens. Those ideals knitted together Warren's Progressivism, his Republicanism, and his Masonry."[11]

Attorney General of California[edit] In 1938, Warren won the primaries in all major parties as state attorney general, thanks to a system called "cross-filing" and was elected without serious opposition. Once elected, he organized state law enforcement officials into regions and led a statewide anti-crime effort. One of his major initiatives was to crack down on gambling ships operating off the coast of Southern California.[12] Attorney General Warren continued many of the Progressive Era policies from his predecessor Ulysses S. Webb’s four decades in office. These included eugenic forced sterilizations and the confiscation of land from Japanese owners.[13] Warren, who was a member of the outspoken anti-Asian society Native Sons of the Golden West,[14] successfully sought legislation expanding the land confiscations.[15] Warren continued the confiscations until they were declared unconstitutional in Oyama v. California (1948). Japanese-American internment[edit] As attorney general, Warren is most remembered for being the moving force behind Japanese internment during World War II. This was the compulsory removal of 120,000 Americans of Japanese descent from the West Coast to inland concentration camps, without any charges or due process - when anti-Japanese racism was extremely prevalent in California. Following the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Warren organized the state's civilian defense program, warning in January 1942 that, "The Japanese situation as it exists in this state today may well be the Achilles heel of the entire civilian defense effort."[16][17] The concentration camps were upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Warren later said he: since deeply regretted the removal order and my own testimony advocating it, because it was not in keeping with our American concept of freedom and the rights of citizens...Whenever I thought of the innocent little children who were torn from home, school friends, and congenial surroundings, I was conscience-stricken...[i]t was wrong to react so impulsively, without positive evidence of disloyalty — The Memoirs of Earl Warren (1977)[18]

Governor of California[edit] Warren as Governor of California Running as a Republican, Warren was elected Governor of California on November 3, 1942, defeating the incumbent governor, Culbert Olson, a liberal Democrat. Thanks to cross-filing, he won all the 1946 primaries and was nominated as a candidate by both the Republican and Democratic parties, the only California governor to have done so.[19] He was re-elected with over 90% of the vote against minor candidates. He was elected to a third term (as a Republican) in 1950, becoming the first person elected governor of California three times. Warren is the only person who has been sent to office in three consecutive California gubernatorial elections. An amendment passed in 1990 sets a limit of two terms for governor. (In 2010, Jerry Brown became the second person to be elected three times, in 1974, 1978, and 2010; Brown was elected to a record fourth term in 2014. As he served before the amendment was passed, he was not prohibited from serving another term.) Governor Warren meets a young "gold miner" as part of the California centennials, 1948–50 As governor, Warren modernized the office of governor, and state government generally. Like most progressives, Warren believed in efficiency and planning. During World War II, he aggressively pursued postwar economic planning. Fearing another postwar decline that would rival the depression years, Governor Earl Warren initiated public works projects similar to those of the New Deal to capitalize on wartime tax surpluses and provide jobs for returning veterans. For example, his support of the Collier-Burns Act in 1947 raised gasoline taxes that funded a massive program of freeway construction. Unlike states where tolls or bonds funded highway construction, California's gasoline taxes were earmarked for building the system. Warren's support for the bill was crucial because his status as a popular governor strengthened his views, in contrast with opposition from trucking, oil, and gas lobbyists. The Collier-Burns Act helped influence passage of the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, setting a pattern for national highway construction.[20] Warren also pursued social legislation. He built up the state's higher education system based on the University of California and its vast network of small universities and community colleges.[21] After federal courts declared the segregation of Mexican schoolchildren illegal in Mendez v. Westminster (1947) Governor Warren signed legislation ending the segregation of American Indians and Asians.[22] Governor Warren stopped enforcing California’s anti-miscegenation law after it was declared unconstitutional in Perez v. Sharp (1948). He also improved the hospital and prison systems.[23] Warren ran for Vice President of the United States in 1948 on the Republican ticket with Thomas E. Dewey, his gubernatorial counterpart from the state of New York. Heavily favored to win, they lost in a stunning upset to the incumbent Democratic President Harry S. Truman and his VP running mate Alben W. Barkley.

U.S. Supreme Court[edit] Chief Justice Earl Warren Appointed to Supreme Court[edit] At the 1952 Republican National Convention, Warren stood as a California "favorite son" candidate for the Presidential nomination, hoping to be a power broker in a convention that might be deadlocked. Warren was stymied, however, when former Pomona congressman and then Senator Richard Nixon, who had previously publicly promised Warren his support, furtively undermined Warren and switched his support to General Dwight D. Eisenhower when offered the vice-presidency.[24] Eisenhower and Nixon were elected in the United States presidential election, 1952, and the bad blood between Warren and Nixon was apparent. Warren referred to Nixon as “a crook and a thief” and carried his hatred of the man to his deathbed,[24] dying one month before Nixon's resignation. President Eisenhower offered, and Warren accepted, the office of Solicitor General of the United States, with the promise of a seat on the Supreme Court. But before it was announced, Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson died suddenly in September 1953 and Eisenhower picked Warren to replace him as Chief Justice of the United States.[25][26] The choice was strongly supported by Nixon, who allegedly wanted to remove Warren from California politics by shelving him into the Supreme Court.[27] The president wanted what he felt was an experienced jurist who could appeal to liberals in the party as well as law-and-order conservatives, noting privately that Warren "represents the kind of political, economic, and social thinking that I believe we need on the Supreme Court.... He has a national name for integrity, uprightness, and courage that, again, I believe we need on the Court".[28] In the next few years, Warren led the Court in a series of liberal decisions that revolutionized the role of the Court. Some writers believe that Eisenhower once remarked that his appointment was "the biggest damn fool mistake I ever made".[29][30] However, Eisenhower biographer Jean Edward Smith concluded in 2012 that "Eisenhower never said that. I have no evidence that he ever made such a statement."[31] Eisenhower gave Warren a recess appointment that began on October 1, 1953. It was made permanent when the Senate acted on March 1, 1954. No serious opposition had appeared and he was confirmed by unanimous voice vote.[32] Warren is the last Supreme Court justice to have served as governor of a U.S. state, the last justice to have been elected to statewide elected office, and the last serving politician to be elevated to the Supreme Court. As Chief Justice, Warren swore in the president in the second inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957 and his successor John F. Kennedy in 1961. Warren did not swear in Kennedy's successor Lyndon B. Johnson when he first became president on the death of Kennedy in 1963, but did swear in Johnson in 1965. Four years later he swore in Richard Nixon in 1969, five months before Warren's previously announced retirement took effect. The Warren Court[edit] President Kennedy and Chief Justice Earl Warren with their wives, November 1963 Main article: Warren Court Despite his lack of judicial experience, his years in the Alameda County district attorney's office and as state attorney general gave him far more knowledge of the law in practice than most other members of the Court. He was an effective and persuasive leader, more politically astute than most judicial leaders. Over the years he was effective in forging majorities in support of major decisions, and inspiring liberal forces around the nation. Initially Warren realized his lack of judicial experience and asked the senior associate justice, Hugo L. Black, to preside over conferences until he became accustomed to the processes. However, Warren learned quickly and soon was in fact, as well as in name, the Court's chief justice.[33] When he was appointed, all other justices had been appointed by Democrats, Franklin D. Roosevelt or Truman, and all were committed New Deal liberals. But they disagreed about the role that the courts should play in achieving liberal goals. The Court was split between two warring factions. Felix Frankfurter and Robert H. Jackson led one faction, which insisted upon judicial self-restraint and insisted courts should defer to the policymaking prerogatives of the White House and Congress. Hugo Black and William O. Douglas led the opposing faction; they agreed the court should defer to Congress in matters of economic policy, but felt the judicial agenda had been transformed from questions of property rights to those of individual liberties, and in this area, courts should play a more activist role. Warren's belief that the judiciary must seek to do justice placed him with the activists, although he did not have a solid majority until after Frankfurter's retirement in 1962.[34] Constitutional historian Melvin I. Urofsky concludes that "Scholars agree that as a judge, Warren does not rank with Louis Brandeis, Black, or Brennan in terms of jurisprudence. His opinions were not always clearly written, and his legal logic was often muddled."[35][36][37] His strength lay in his public gravitas, his leadership skills and in his firm belief that the Constitution guaranteed natural rights and that the Court had a unique role in protecting those rights.[38][39] Political conservatives attacked his rulings as inappropriate and have called for courts to be deferential to the elected political branches. Some political liberals agreed that the court went too far in some areas[40][41] but insist that most of its controversial decisions struck a responsive chord in the nation and have become firmly established law.[42] Decisions[edit] Warren was a more liberal justice than anyone had anticipated.[43] Warren was able to craft a long series of landmark decisions because he built a winning coalition. When Frankfurter retired in 1962 and President John F. Kennedy named labor lawyer Arthur Goldberg to replace him, Warren finally had the fifth liberal vote for his majority. William J. Brennan Jr., a liberal Democrat appointed by Eisenhower in 1956, was the intellectual leader of the activist faction that included Black and Douglas. Brennan complemented Warren's political skills with the strong legal skills Warren lacked and Warren would often have Brennan edit his opinions before they were circulated.[24] Warren and Brennan met before the regular conferences to plan out their strategy.[44] Warren actively sought out lower court cases to overrule precedent, directing his clerks to “keep your eyes peeled for a right to counsel case” as early as 1961.[24] Brown (1954)[edit] Brown v. Board of Education 347 U.S. 483 (1954) banned the segregation of public schools. The very first case put Warren's leadership skills to an extraordinary test. The NAACP had been waging a systematic legal fight against the "separate but equal" doctrine enunciated in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and finally had challenged Plessy in a series of five related cases, which had been argued before the Court in the spring of 1953. However the justices had been unable to decide the issue and ordered a reargument of the case in fall 1953, with special attention to whether the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause prohibited the operation of separate public schools by the states for whites and blacks.[45] While all but one justice personally rejected segregation, the self-restraint faction questioned whether the Constitution gave the Court the power to order its end, especially since the Court, in several cases decided after Plessy, had upheld the doctrine of "separate but equal" as constitutional.[46] The activist faction believed the Fourteenth Amendment did give the necessary authority and were pushing to go ahead. Warren, who held only a recess appointment, held his tongue until the Senate, dominated by southerners, confirmed his appointment. Warren told his colleagues after oral argument that he believed racial segregation violated the Constitution and that only if one considered African Americans inferior to whites could the practice be upheld. But he did not push for a vote. Instead, he talked with the justices and encouraged them to talk with each other as he sought a common ground on which all could stand. Finally he had eight votes, and the last holdout, Stanley Reed of Kentucky, agreed to join the rest. Warren drafted the basic opinion in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) and kept circulating and revising it until he had an opinion endorsed by all the members of the Court.[47] The unanimity Warren achieved helped speed the drive to desegregate public schools, which mostly came about under President Richard Nixon. Throughout his years as Chief, Warren succeeded in keeping all decisions concerning segregation unanimous. Brown applied to schools, but soon the Court enlarged the concept to other state actions, striking down racial classification in many areas. Congress ratified the process in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Warren did compromise by agreeing to Frankfurter's demand that the Court go slowly in implementing desegregation; Warren used Frankfurter's suggestion that a 1955 decision (Brown II) include the phrase "all deliberate speed".[48] The Brown decision of 1954 marked, in dramatic fashion, the radical shift in the Court's—and the nation's—priorities from issues of property rights to civil liberties. Under Warren the courts became an active partner in governing the nation. Warren never saw the courts as a backward-looking branch of government. The Brown decision was a powerful moral statement clad in a weak constitutional analysis; Warren was never a legal scholar on a par with Frankfurter or a great advocate of particular doctrines, as was Black. Instead, he believed that in all branches of government common sense, decency, and elemental justice were decisive, not precedent (stare decisis), tradition or the text of the Constitution. He wanted results. He never felt that doctrine alone should be allowed to deprive people of justice. He felt racial segregation was simply wrong, and Brown, whatever its doctrinal defects, remains a landmark decision primarily because of Warren's interpretation of the equal protection clause to mean that children should not be shunted to a separate world reserved for minorities.[49] Reapportionment[edit] The "one man, one vote" cases (Baker v. Carr and Reynolds v. Sims) of 1962–1964 had the effect of ending the sometimes gross malapportionment of state legislative chambers, to the political detriment of those who lived in more densely populated areas. Warren's priority on fairness shaped other major decisions. In 1962, over the strong objections of Frankfurter, the Court agreed that questions regarding malapportionment in state legislatures were not political issues, and thus were not outside the Court's purview. For years, underpopulated rural areas had an equal voice in the state legislatures in the Senate where Los Angeles County had only one state senator just like Siskiyou County. Cities had long since passed their peak, and now it was the middle class suburbs that were underrepresented. Frankfurter insisted that the Court should avoid this "political thicket" and warned that the Court would never be able to find a clear formula to guide lower courts in the rash of lawsuits sure to follow. But Douglas found such a formula: "one man, one vote."[50] In the key apportionment case, Reynolds v. Sims (1964),[51] Warren delivered a civics lesson: "To the extent that a citizen's right to vote is debased, he is that much less a citizen," Warren declared. "The weight of a citizen's vote cannot be made to depend on where he lives. This is the clear and strong command of our Constitution's Equal Protection Clause." Unlike the desegregation cases, in this instance, the Court ordered immediate action, and despite loud outcries from rural legislators, Congress failed to reach the two-thirds needed to pass a constitutional amendment. The states complied, reapportioned their legislatures quickly and with minimal troubles. Numerous commentators have concluded reapportionment was the Warren Court's great "success" story.[52] Due process and rights of defendants (1963–66)[edit] In Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963) the Court held that the Sixth Amendment required that all indigent criminal defendants receive publicly funded counsel (Florida law, consistent with then-existing Supreme Court precedent reflected in the case of Powell v. Alabama, required the assignment of free counsel to indigent defendants only in capital cases); Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966) required that certain rights of a person interrogated while in police custody be clearly explained, including the right to an attorney (often called the "Miranda warning"). While most Americans eventually agreed that the Court's desegregation and apportionment decisions were fair and right, disagreement about the "due process revolution" continues into the 21st century. Warren took the lead in criminal justice; despite his years as a tough prosecutor, he always insisted that the police must play fair or the accused should go free. Warren was privately outraged at what he considered police abuses that ranged from warrantless searches to forced confessions. Warren's Court ordered lawyers for indigent defendants in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), and prevented prosecutors from using evidence seized in illegal searches, in Mapp v. Ohio (1961). The famous case of Miranda v. Arizona (1966) summed up Warren's philosophy.[53] Everyone, even one accused of crimes, still enjoyed constitutionally protected rights, and the police had to respect those rights and issue a specific warning when making an arrest. Warren did not believe in coddling criminals; thus in Terry v. Ohio (1968) he gave police officers leeway to stop and frisk those they had reason to believe held weapons. Conservatives angrily denounced the "handcuffing of the police."[54] They attacked Warren using official FBI statistics that showed violent crime and homicide rates shooting up nationwide; in New York City, for example, after steady to declining trends until the early 1960s, the homicide rate doubled in the period from 1964 to 1974 from just under 5 per 100,000 at the beginning of that period to just under 10 per 100,000 in 1974. After 1992 the homicide rates fell sharply.[55] First Amendment[edit] The Warren Court's activism stretched into a new turf, especially First Amendment rights. The Court's decision outlawing mandatory school prayer in Engel v. Vitale (1962) brought vehement complaints that continue to the present.[56] Warren worked to nationalize the Bill of Rights by applying it to the states. Moreover, in one of the landmark cases decided by the Court, Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Warren Court announced a constitutionally protected right of privacy.[57] With the exception of the desegregation decisions, few decisions were unanimous. The eminent scholar Justice John Marshall Harlan II took Frankfurter's place as the Court's self-constraint spokesman, often joined by Potter Stewart and Byron R. White. But with the appointment of Thurgood Marshall, the first black justice, and Abe Fortas (replacing Goldberg), Warren could count on six votes in most cases.[58] Warren Commission[edit] Commissioner Warren presents his report to President Johnson on September 24, 1964. Main article: Warren Commission Less than a week after the assassination, President Johnson demanded in the name of patriotic duty that Warren head the governmental commission to investigate the death of John F. Kennedy. It was an unhappy experience for Warren, who did not want the assignment. As a judge, he valued candor and justice, but as a politician he recognized the need for secrecy in some matters. He insisted that the commission report should be unanimous, and so he compromised on a number of issues in order to get all the members to sign the final version. Many conspiracy theorists have attacked the commission's findings ever since, claiming that key evidence is missing or distorted and that there are many inconsistencies in the report. The Commission concluded that the assassination was the result of a single individual, Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone.[59][60] Fears of possible Soviet or Cuban foreign involvement in the assassination necessitated the establishment of a bipartisan commission that, in turn, sought to depoliticize Oswald's role by downplaying his Communist affiliations. The commission weakened its findings by not sharing the government's deepest secrets. The report's lack of candor furthered antigovernment cynicism, which in turn stimulated conspiracy theorists who propounded any number of alternative scenarios, many of which appear mutually contradictory.[61][62] Retirement delayed[edit] Chief Justice Warren swears in President Nixon on January 20, 1969. In June 1968, Warren, fearing that Nixon would be elected president that year, worked out a retirement deal with President Johnson. Associate Justice Abe Fortas, who was secretly Johnson's top adviser, brokered the deal in which Warren would retire upon confirmation of his successor, Fortas was nominated to be Chief Justice, and Homer Thornberry was nominated as an Associate Justice to take Fortas's seat. The plan was foiled by Senate Republicans, who ripped into Fortas's record and blocked his nomination with a filibuster, prompting Fortas to withdraw from consideration and rendering Thornberry's nomination moot. Warren remained on the Court, and Nixon was elected. In early 1969, Warren learned that Fortas had made a secret lifetime contract for $20,000 a year to provide private legal advice to Louis Wolfson, a friend and financier in deep legal trouble; Warren immediately asked Fortas to resign, which he did after some consideration.[63] Warren presided over the Court's October 1968 term and retired in June 1969; Nixon named Warren E. Burger to succeed him. Warren regretted his decision, reflecting "If I had ever known what was going to happen to this country and this Court, I never would have resigned. They would have had to carry me out of there on a plank".[24] Burger, despite his distinguished profile and conservative reputation, proved to be quite ineffective in stopping Brennan's influence within the court, so the "Warren Court" legacy continued in many respects until about 1986, when William Rehnquist became Chief Justice and took firmer control of the agenda.[64]

Legacy[edit] Earl Warren had a profound impact on American values. As Chief Justice, his term of office was marked by numerous rulings on civil rights, separation of church and state, and police arrest procedure in the United States. Anthony Lewis described Warren as “the closest thing the United States has had to a Platonic Guardian”.[24] Warren's critics found him a boring person. "Although Warren was an important and courageous figure and although he inspired passionate devotion among his followers...he was a dull man and a dull judge," observed Dennis J. Hutchinson.[24] According to Justice Potter Stewart, Warren’s philosophical foundation were the "eternal, rather bromidic, platitudes in which he sincerely believed" and "Warren's great strength was his simple belief in the things we now laugh at: motherhood, marriage, family, flag, and the like."[24] He was highly moralistic but not particularly cerebral, with his biographer Bernard Schwartz concluding that with "Warren's bluff masculine bonhomie, his love of sports and the outdoors, and his lack of intellectual interests or pretensions, we end up with a typical representative of the middle America of his day."[24] An "Impeach Earl Warren sign", posted in San Francisco in October 1958 Warren retired from the Supreme Court in 1969. He was affectionately known by many as the "Superchief", although he became a lightning rod for controversy among conservatives: signs declaring "Impeach Earl Warren" could be seen around the country throughout the 1960s. The unsuccessful impeachment drive was a major focus of the John Birch Society[65] and sparked the political activism of Southern Baptist evangelist Jerry Falwell[66] who would later found the Moral Majority political action committee, partially in response to U.S. President Jimmy Carter questioning the tax exempt status of private schools. As Chief Justice, he swore in four consecutive Presidents: Eisenhower (in 1957), Kennedy (in 1961), Johnson (in 1965) and Nixon (in 1969). Death[edit] Only five years after his retirement, Warren died at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C., at 8:10 PM on July 9, 1974.[67] On that date, he was visited by Justices Brennan and Douglas. Warren could not resist asking his friends whether the Court would order President Nixon to release the sixty-four tapes demanded by the Watergate investigation. Both justices assured him that the court had voted unanimously in United States v. Nixon for the release of the tapes. Relieved, Warren died just a few hours later, safe in the knowledge that the Court he had so loved would force justice on the man that had been his most bitter foe.[68] His funeral was held at Washington National Cathedral, and he was interred at Arlington National Cemetery.[69][70] Warren is one of two former California governors whose final funeral services took place in Washington, D.C., the other being Ronald Reagan, whose final funeral service was his state funeral, held thirty years later, also at Washington National Cathedral. Honors[edit] On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady of California Maria Shriver inducted Warren into the California Hall of Fame, located at the California Museum.[71] The Earl Warren Bill of Rights Project is named in his honor. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1981. An extensive collection of Warren's papers, including case files from his Supreme Court service, is located at the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Most of the collection is open for research. Earl Warren Hall at University of California, Berkeley was designed to architecturally accommodate this Mongolian Oak.[72] A number of educational and governmental institutions have been named for Warren. In 1977, Fourth College, one of the six undergraduate colleges at the University of California, San Diego, was renamed Earl Warren College in his honor. The California State Building in San Francisco; Earl Warren Middle School in Solana Beach, California; elementary schools in Garden Grove, and Lake Elsinore, California; a junior high school in his home town of Bakersfield, California; high schools in San Antonio, Texas (Earl Warren High School), and Downey, California (Warren High School); and a building at the high school he attended (Bakersfield High School) are named for him, as are the showgrounds in Santa Barbara, California. The freeway portion of State Route 13 in Alameda County is the Warren Freeway. The Warren Reading Room at Boalt Hall was also named in his honor. He was honored by the United States Postal Service with a 29¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.[73]

Electoral history[edit] Earl Warren electoral history California Republican presidential primary, 1936:[74] Earl Warren – 350,917 (57.43%) Alf Landon – 260,170 (42.58%) 1936 Republican presidential primaries:[75] William Edgar Borah – 1,478,676 (44.48%) Alf Landon – 729,908 (21.96%) Frank Knox – 527,054 (15.85%) Earl Warren – 350,917 (10.56%) Stephen A. Day – 155,732 (4.69%) Warren Green – 44,518 (1.34%) Republican primary for Governor of California, 1942:[76] Earl Warren – 635,230 (94.23%) Nathan T. Porter – 15,604 (2.32%) William E. Riker – 10,004 (1.48%) Fred Dyster – 9,824 (1.46%) Culbert Olson (inc.) (write-in) – 3,504 (0.52%) Democratic primary for Governor of California, 1942:[77] Culbert Olson (inc.) – 513,244 (51.98%) Earl Warren – 404,778 (41.00%) Roy G. Owens – 50,780 (5.14%) Nathan T. Porter – 11,302 (1.15%) Alonzo J. Riggs – 7,231 (0.73%) California gubernatorial election, 1942:[78] Earl Warren (R) – 1,275,237 (57.07%) Culbert Olson (D) (inc.) – 932,995 (41.75%) California Republican presidential primary, 1944[79] Earl Warren – 594,439 (100.00%) 1944 Republican presidential primaries:[80] Douglas MacArthur – 662,127 (28.94%) Earl Warren – 594,439 (25.99%) John W. Bricker – 366,444 (16.02%) Thomas E. Dewey – 278,727 (12.18%) W. Chapman Revercomb – 91,602 (4.00%) Unpledged – 87,834 (3.84%) Harold Stassen – 67,508 (2.95%) Riley A. Bender – 37,575 (1.64%) Charles A. Christopherson – 33,497 (1.46%) Wendell Willkie – 27,097 (1.19%) Republican primary for Governor of California, 1946:[81] Earl Warren (inc.) – 774,302 (91.10%) Robert W. Kenny – 70,331 (8.27%) Democratic primary for Governor of California, 1946:[82] Earl Warren (inc.) – 593,180 (51.93%) Robert W. Kenny – 530,968 (46.49%) California gubernatorial election, 1946:[83] Earl Warren (R, D) (inc.) – 2,344,542 (91.64%) Henry R. Schmidt (Prohibition) – 180,579 (7.06%) Archie Brown (Communist) – 22,606 (0.88%) James Roosevelt (D) (write-in) – 3,210 (0.13%) 1948 Republican presidential primaries:[84] Earl Warren – 771,295 (26.99%) Harold Stassen – 627,321 (21.96%) Robert A. Taft – 464,741 (16.27%) Thomas E. Dewey – 330,799 (11.58%) Riley A. Bender – 324,029 (11.34%) Douglas MacArthur – 87,839 (3.07%) Leverett Saltonstall – 72,191 (2.53%) Herbert E. Hitchcock – 45,463 (1.59%) Edward Martin – 45,072 (1.58%) Unpledged – 28,854 (1.01%) Arthur H. Vandenberg – 18,924 (0.66%) Dwight D. Eisenhower – 5,014 (0.18%) Harry S. Truman – 4,907 (0.17%) Henry A. Wallace – 1,452 (0.05%) Joseph William Martin Jr. – 974 (0.03%) Alfred E. Driscoll – 44 (0.00%) Others – 5,939 (0.21%) 1948 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally)[85] Thomas E. Dewey – 1,094 (60.74%) Robert A. Taft – 274 (15.21%) Harold Stassen – 157 (8.72%) Arthur H. Vandenberg – 62 (3.44%) Earl Warren – 59 (3.28%) Dwight H. Green – 56 (3.11%) Alfred E. Driscoll – 35 (1.94%) Raymond E. Baldwin – 19 (1.06%) Joseph William Martin Jr. – 18 (1.00%) B. Carroll Reece – 15 (0.83%) Douglas MacArthur – 11 (0.61%) Everett Dirksen – 1 (0.06%) 1948 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):[86] Earl Warren – 1,094 (100.00%) United States presidential election, 1948 Harry S. Truman/Alben W. Barkley (D) – 24,179,347 (49.6%) and 303 electoral votes (28 states carried) Thomas E. Dewey/Earl Warren (R) – 21,991,292 (45.1%) and 189 electoral votes (16 states carried) Strom Thurmond/Fielding L. Wright (Dixiecrat) – 1,175,930 (2.4%) and 39 electoral votes (4 states carried) Henry A. Wallace/Glen H. Taylor (Progressive) – 1,157,328 (2.4%) California gubernatorial election, 1950:[87] Earl Warren (R) (inc.) – 2,461,754 (64.85%) James Roosevelt (D) – 1,333,856 (35.14%) 1952 Republican presidential primaries:[88] Robert A. Taft – 2,794,736 (35.84%) Dwight D. Eisenhower – 2,050,708 (26.30%) Earl Warren – 1,349,036 (17.30%) Harold Stassen – 881,702 (11.31%) Thomas H. Werdel – 521,110 (6.68%) George T. Mickelson – 63,879 (0.82%) Douglas MacArthur – 44,209 (0.57%) Grant A. Ritter – 26,208 (0.34%) Edward C. Slettedahl – 22,712 (0.29%) Riley A. Bender – 22,321 (0.29%) Mary E. Kenny – 10,411 (0.13%) Wayne Morse – 7,105 (0.09%) Perry J. Stearns – 2,925 (0.04%) William R. Schneider – 580 (0.01%) 1952 Republican National Convention (1st ballot) Dwight D. Eisenhower – 595 Robert A. Taft – 500 Earl Warren – 81 Harold Stassen – 20 Douglas MacArthur – 10 1952 Republican National Convention (2nd ballot) Dwight D. Eisenhower – 845 Robert A. Taft – 280 Earl Warren – 77 Douglas MacArthur – 4

Cultural references[edit] This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2017) Super Chief: The Life and Legacy of Earl Warren, a documentary about Warren, was produced in 1989. Warren is portrayed by former New Orleans' District Attorney and Warren Commission critic Jim Garrison in Oliver Stone's JFK. Warren is mentioned in Stephen King's novel 11/22/63. Was played by Richard Kiley in the 1991 miniseries Separate but Equal. Warren is referenced in Kurt Vonnegut's book Slaughter House Five as an "Impeach Earl Warren" sticker behind Billy Pilgrim's car. Warren was referenced in the King of the Hill episode "Bobby Slam" by Hank Hill. In the alternate history Colonization trilogy by Harry Turtledove (part of the Worldwar overall franchise), Warren is depicted as being the President of the United States in the early 1960s, 20 years after the first arrival of the alien Lizards. The satirical song "The John Birch Society" by The Chad Mitchell Trio asks "Do you want Justice Warren to be your commissar?" In an episode of The Simpsons from the fourth season entitled "Itchy & Scratchy: The Movie", Marge asks "Homer, do you want your son to become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court or a sleazy male stripper?" Homer responds: "Can't he be both, like the late Earl Warren?" In 2005, President George W. Bush nominated Harriet Miers to succeed the retiring Sandra Day O'Connor on the Supreme Court. Miers met with several Senators, including Democrat Patrick Leahy, who asked Miers to name her favorite Supreme Court justices. Miers reportedly responded, "Warren", prompting Leahy to ask whether she meant liberal icon Earl Warren. Miers replied that she meant Warren Burger, a conservative who nevertheless was reviled by many Republicans, particularly for voting with the majority in the landmark abortion case of Roe v. Wade.[89] Miers ultimately withdrew from consideration, and the Senate later confirmed Samuel Alito to succeed O'Connor.

See also[edit] Articles about his time as Chief Justice Biography portal California portal Government of the United States portal List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States List of United States Chief Justices by time in office List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office Super Chief: The Life and Legacy of Earl Warren, a 1989 documentary film United States Supreme Court cases during the Warren Court Articles about his time before becoming Chief Justice Earl King, Ernest Ramsay, and Frank Conner, murder case he prosecuted in Alameda County, California

References[edit] ^ Gavin, Camille; Leverett, Kathy (1987). Kern's Movers & Shakers. Kern View Foundation. p. 199. ISBN 0961877006. LCCN 87090869.  ^ ^ "National Affairs: EARL WARREN, THE 14th CHIEF JUSTICE". Time. October 12, 1953. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ ^ Cray 1997, pp. 32–33. ^ White 1982, Ch. 1. ^ David Skover and Ronald Collins, A Curious Concurrence: Justice Brandeis' Vote in Whitney v. California, 2005 Supreme Court Review 333 (2005). ^ The Shipboard Murder Case: Labor, Radicals, and Earl Warren, 1936-1941. The Bancroft Library Regional Oral History Office. 1976. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ White 1982, Ch. 2. ^ ^ Newton 2006, pp. 72–73 ^ White 1982, pp. 44–67. ^ Sumi K. Cho, Redeeming Whiteness in the Shadow of Internment: Earl Warren, Brown, and a Theory of Racial Redemption, 40 Boston College Law Review 73 (1998). ^ Sandhya Ramadas, How Earl Warren Previewed Today's Civil Liberties Debate - And Got It Right in the End, 16 Asian Am. L.J. 73 (2009). ^ Edwin E. Ferguson, The California Alien Land Law and the Fourteenth Amendment, 35 Cal. L. Rev. 61 (1947). ^ White 1982, p. 69. ^ White 1982, p. 71. His biographer says Warren was "The most visible and effective California public official advocating internment." ^ G. Edward White (Autumn 1979). "The Unacknowledged Lesson: Earl Warren and the Japanese Relocation Controversy". Virginia Quarterly Review: 613–629. Retrieved May 12, 2012.  ^ Rodda, Richard (November 1977). "The Not-Always-Accurate Memoirs of Earl Warren". California Journal: 378–379. Retrieved March 13, 2013.  ^ Mitchell, Daniel J. B. (2006). "Earl Warren's Fight for California's Freeways: Setting a Path for the Nation". Southern California Quarterly. 88 (2): 205–238. doi:10.2307/41172311.  ^ Douglass, John Aubrey (2000). "Earl Warren's New Deal: Economic Transition, Postwar Planning, and Higher Education in California". Journal of Policy History. 12 (4): 473–512. doi:10.1353/jph.2000.0029.  ^ Wollenberg, Charles. "Mendez v. Westminster: Race, nationality and segregation in California schools." California Historical Quarterly 53.4 (1974): 317-332. ^ Schwartz, Bernard (1983). "Super Chief." p.18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dennis J. Hutchinson (1983). "Hail to the Chief: Earl Warren and the Supreme Court". Michigan Law Review. 81: 922. Retrieved 30 July 2016.  ^ White 1982, pp. 148. White says it was not as payoff for campaign work. ^ Abraham 1992, p. 255. But Abraham suggests Ike owed Warren some gratitude. Eisenhower said he owed Warren nothing. ^ Newton, Jim (2006). Justice for All: Earl Warren and the Nation He Made. ISBN 978-1594482700.  ^ Personal and confidential To Milton Stover Eisenhower, 9 October 1953. In The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, ed. L. Galambos and D. van Ee, (1996) doc. 460. Archived January 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (July 5, 2005). "Presidents, Picking Justices, Can Have Backfires". New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2015.  ^ [1] ^ Smith, Jeam Edward (2012). Eisenhower in War and Peace. Random House. p. 603N.  ^ Newton 2006, pp. 280–292 ^ White 1982, pp. 159–161. ^ Belknap 2005, pp. 13–14 ^ Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). "Warren, Earl". Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 9. p. 838.  ^ Wrightsman, Lawrence S. (2006). The Psychology of the Supreme Court. p. 211.  ^ Zotti, Priscilla Machado (2005). Injustice for All: Mapp vs. Ohio and the Fourth Amendment. p. 11.  ^ Urofsky, Melvin I. (2001). The Warren Court: Justices, Rulings, and Legacy. p. 157.  ^ Powe 2000, pp. 499–500 ^ Urofsky 2001, p. xii says "But sometimes it went too far, and the work of the Burger Court in part consisted of correcting those excesses." ^ Powe 2000, p. 101. Powe reports "a fear not only among conservatives but among moderates as well as some liberals that the Justices had gone too far in protecting individual rights and in so doing had moved into the legislative domain." ^ Powe 2000, Ch. 19. ^ In later years, Eisenhower remarked several times that making Warren the Chief Justice was a mistake. He probably had the criminal cases in mind, not Brown. See Nichols, David. A. (2007). Matter of Justice: Eisenhower and the Beginning of the Civil Rights Revolution. pp. 91–93.  ^ Powe 2000. ^ See Smithsonian, "Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education" Archived June 30, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ See, e.g., Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education, Berea College v. Kentucky, Gong Lum v. Rice, Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, and Sweatt v. Painter. ^ For text see BROWN v. BOARD OF EDUCATION, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) ^ Carter, Robert L. (December 1968). "The Warren Court and Desegregation". Mich. L. Rev. 67 (2): 237–248. JSTOR 1287417.  ^ Patterson (2001). Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy.  ^ Gazell, James A. (September 1970). "One Man, One Vote: Its Long Germination". The Western Political Quarterly. 23 (3): 445–462. doi:10.1177/106591297002300301. JSTOR 446565.  ^ See REYNOLDS v. SIMS, 377 U.S. 533 (1964) ^ McKay, Robert B. (December 1968). "Reapportionment: Success Story of the Warren Court". Mich. L. Rev. 67 (2): 223–236. JSTOR 1287416.  ^ See MIRANDA v. ARIZONA, 384 U.S. 436 (1966) ^ Kahn, Ronald; Kersch, Ken I., eds. (2006). The Supreme Court and American Political Development. p. 442.  ^ Sowell, Thomas (1995). The Vision of the Anointed: Self-congratulation as a Basis for Social Policy. pp. 26–29.  ^ See ENGEL v. VITALE, 370 U.S. 421 (1962) ^ See Griswold v. Connecticut (No. 496) 151 Conn. 544, 200 A.2d 479, reversed ^ Belknap 2005. ^ The Warren Commission Report: Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy by President's Commission on The Assassination (1964) ^ Newton 2006, pp. 415–423, 431–442 ^ Holland, Max (November 1995). "The Key to the Warren Report". American Heritage. 46 (7): 50–59.  ^ Earl Warren was portrayed by real life New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison in JFK, the Oliver Stone film about the assassination and Garrison's investigation of it. ^ Ward, Artemus (2002). "An Extraconstitutional Arrangement: Lyndon Johnson and the Fall of the Warren Court". White House Studies. 2 (2): 171–183.  ^ Wasby, Stephen L. (July 1993). "Civil Rights and the Supreme Court: A Return of the Past". National Political Science Review. 4: 49–60.  ^ Political Research Associates, "John Birch Society" ^ "Republican Gomorrah. p. 147. Max Blumenthal. ISBN 978-1-56858-398-3 ^ "Earl Warren (1891–1974)". Earl Warren College. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21.  ^ Newton 2006, pp. 514 ^ Woodward, Bob; Scott Armstrong (2005). The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court. New York City: Siomn & Schustler. p. 385. ISBN 0-7432-7402-4.  ^ "Earl Warren Buried In Arlington Cemetery", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Washington (AP), July 13, 1974, page 3. ^ Warren inducted into California Hall of Fame Archived April 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., California Museum, Accessed 2007 ^ "Notable Trees of Berkeley" (flash). Retrieved 2010-02-25.  ^ "29-cent Warren". Smithsonian Postal Museum.  ^ Our Campaigns – CA US President – R Primary Race – May 05, 1936 ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1936 ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor – R Primary Race – Aug 25, 1942 ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor – D Primary Race – Aug 25, 1942 ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor Race – Nov 03, 1942 ^ Our Campaigns – CA US President – R Primary Race – May 16, 1944 ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1944 ^ Our Campaigns – CA – Governor – R Primary Race – Jun 05, 1946 ^ Our Campaigns – CA – Governor – D Primary Race – Jun 05, 1946 ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor Race – Nov 05, 1946 ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1948 ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Convention Race – Jun 21, 1948 ^ Our Campaigns – US Vice President – R Convention Race – Jun 21, 1948 ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor Race – Nov 07, 1950 ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1952 ^

Further reading[edit] Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.  Belknap, Michael (2005). The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren, 1953–1969. ISBN 978-1-57003-563-0.  Cray, Ed (1997). Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren. ISBN 978-0-684-80852-9.  The most comprehensive biography; highly favorable; strong on politics. Horwitz, Morton J. (1999). The Warren Court and the Pursuit of Justice. ISBN 978-0809016259.  Lewis, Anthony (1997). "Earl Warren". In Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. 4. pp. 1373–1400. ISBN 978-0791013779.  Moke, Paul. Earl Warren and the Struggle for Justice (Lexington, 2015). xiv, 363 pp. Newton, Jim (2006). Justice for All: Earl Warren and the Nation He Made. ISBN 978-1594482700.  Solid biography by journalist. Patterson, James T. (2001). Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy. ISBN 978-0195156324.  Powe, Lucas A. (2000). The Warren Court and American Politics. ISBN 978-0674006836.  Rawls, James J. (1987). "The Earl Warren Oral History Project: an Appraisal". Pacific Historical Review. 56 (1): 87–97. doi:10.2307/3638827.  Begun during the 1960s by the Bancroft Library's Regional Oral History Office, the collection includes more than 50 volumes of interviews recorded and transcribed during 1971–81, totaling about 12,000 pages. Scheiber, Harry N. (2006). Earl Warren and the Warren Court: The Legacy in American and Foreign Law. ISBN 978-0739116357.  Schwartz, Bernard (1996). The Warren Court: A Retrospective. ISBN 978-0195104394.  Schwartz, Bernard. "Chief Justice Earl Warren: Super Chief in Action". Journal of Supreme Court History. 23 (1): 112–132. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5818.1998.tb00128.x.  "The Chief". TIME. November 17, 1967.  Tushnet, Mark (1996). The Warren Court in Historical and Political Perspective. ISBN 978-0813916651.  Warren, Earl (1977). The Memoirs of Earl Warren. ISBN 978-0385128353.  Goes only to 1954. Warren, Earl (1959). Christman, Henry M., ed. The Public Papers of Chief Justice Earl Warren. OCLC 184375.  Speeches and decisions, 1946–1958. White, G. Edward (1982). Earl Warren, a public life. ISBN 0-19-503121-0.  By a leading scholar. Woodward, Robert; Armstrong, Scott (1979). The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court. ISBN 978-0743274029.  ISBN 978-0-380-52183-8. ISBN 978-0-671-24110-0. Smemo, Kristoffer. "The Little People's Century: Industrial Pluralism, Economic Development, and the Emergence of Liberal Republicanism in California, 1942–1946." Journal of American History (2015) 101#4 pp: 1166-1189.

External links[edit] Wikisource has original works written by or about: Earl Warren Wikiquote has quotations related to: Earl Warren Works by or about Earl Warren at Internet Archive Earl Warren at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Oral History Interview with Earl Warren, from the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library More information on Earl Warren and his Masonic Career. Earl Warren's Eulogy for John F. Kennedy "California 1946," (Dec 21, 1945). A speech by Earl Warren from the Commonwealth Club of California Records at the Hoover Institution Archives. "Earl Warren". Find a Grave. Retrieved September 2, 2010.  A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Earl Warren (April 11, 1952)" is available at the Internet Archive Comedy Clip Earl Warren & Gracie Allen – November 15, 1952 on YouTube Biography Earl Warren (1891–1974) author MELVIN I. UROFSKY Legal offices Preceded by Ulysses S. Webb Attorney General of California 1939–1943 Succeeded by Robert W. Kenny Preceded by Fred M. Vinson Chief Justice of the United States 1953–1969 Succeeded by Warren E. Burger Party political offices Preceded by Frank Merriam Republican nominee for Governor of California 1942, 1946, 1950 Succeeded by Goodwin Knight Preceded by Harold Stassen Keynote Speaker of the Republican National Convention 1944 Succeeded by Dwight H. Green Preceded by Culbert Olson Democratic nominee for Governor of California 1946 Succeeded by James Roosevelt Preceded by John W. Bricker Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States 1948 Succeeded by Richard Nixon Political offices Preceded by Culbert Olson Governor of California 1943–1953 Succeeded by Goodwin Knight v t e Chief Justices of the United States John Jay (1789–1795; cases) John Rutledge (1795; cases) Oliver Ellsworth (1796–1800; cases) John Marshall (1801–1835; cases) Roger B. Taney (1836–1864; cases) Salmon P. Chase (1864–1873; cases) Morrison Waite (1874–1888; cases) Melville Fuller (1888–1910; cases) Edward Douglass White (1910–1921; cases) William Howard Taft (1921–1930; cases) Charles Evans Hughes (1930–1941; cases) Harlan F. Stone (1941–1946; cases) Fred M. Vinson (1946–1953; cases) Earl Warren (1953–1969; cases) Warren E. Burger (1969–1986; cases) William Rehnquist (1986–2005; cases) John Roberts (2005–present; cases) v t e Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States Chief Justice Jay J. Rutledge Ellsworth J. Marshall Taney S. P. Chase Waite Fuller E. White Taft Hughes Stone Vinson Warren Burger Rehnquist J. Roberts Seat 1 J. Rutledge T. Johnson Paterson Livingston Thompson Nelson Hunt Blatchford E. White Van Devanter Black Powell Kennedy Seat 2 Cushing Story Woodbury Curtis Clifford Gray Holmes Cardozo Frankfurter Goldberg Fortas Blackmun Breyer Seat 3 Wilson Washington Baldwin Grier Strong Woods L. Lamar H. Jackson Peckham Lurton McReynolds Byrnes W. Rutledge Minton Brennan Souter Sotomayor Seat 4 Blair S. Chase Duvall Barbour Daniel Miller Brown Moody J. Lamar Brandeis Douglas Stevens Kagan Seat 5 Iredell Moore W. Johnson Wayne Seat 6 Todd Trimble McLean Swayne Matthews Brewer Hughes Clarke Sutherland Reed Whittaker White Ginsburg Seat 7 Catron Seat 8 McKinley Campbell Davis Harlan Pitney Sanford O. Roberts Burton Stewart O'Connor Alito Seat 9 Field McKenna Stone R. Jackson Harlan II Rehnquist Scalia Gorsuch Seat 10 Bradley Shiras Day Butler Murphy Clark T. Marshall Thomas Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct   Supreme Court of the United States The Warren Court Chief Justice: Earl Warren (1953–1969) 1953–1954: H. Black S. F. Reed F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas R. H. Jackson H. H. Burton T. C. Clark S. Minton 1955–1956: H. Black S. F. Reed F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas H. H. Burton T. C. Clark S. Minton J. M. Harlan II 1956–1957: H. Black S. F. Reed F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas H. H. Burton T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan 1957–1958: H. Black F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas H. H. Burton T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan C. E. Whittaker 1958–1962: H. Black F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan C. E. Whittaker P. Stewart 1962: H. Black F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White 1962–1965: H. Black Wm. O. Douglas T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Goldberg 1965–1967: H. Black Wm. O. Douglas T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas 1967–1969: H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas T. Marshall v t e Members of the Warren Commission Earl Warren (Chairman) Hale Boggs John Sherman Cooper Allen Dulles Gerald Ford John J. McCloy Richard Russell Jr. v t e Governors of California Colony (1769–1822) Capt. Portolà Col. Fages Capt. Rivera Capt-Gen. de Neve Col. Fages Capt. Roméu Capt. Arrillaga Col. Bórica Lt. Col. Alberní Capt. Arrillaga Capt. J. Argüello Don Solá Territory (1822–36) Capt. L. Argüello Lt. Col. Echeandía Gen. Victoria Don P. Pico Lt. Col. Echeandía Brig. Gen. Figueroa Lt. Col. Castro Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Col. Chico Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Sovereignty (1836–46) Pres. Castro Pres. Alvarado · Uncle Carrillo (rival) Brig. Gen. Micheltorena Don P. Pico Republic (1846–50) Cdre. Sloat Cdre. Stockton · Gen. Flores (rival) Gen. Kearny · Maj. Frémont (mutineer) Gen. Mason Gen. Smith Gen. Riley Burnett (from 1849) U.S. State (since 1850) Burnett McDougal Bigler J. Johnson Weller Latham Downey Stanford Low Haight Booth Pacheco Irwin Perkins Stoneman Bartlett Waterman Markham Budd Gage Pardee Gillett H. Johnson Stephens Richardson Young Rolph Merriam Olson Warren Knight P. Brown Reagan J. Brown Deukmejian Wilson Davis Schwarzenegger J. Brown Before 1850 After 1850 After 1850 by age v t e Attorneys General of California Kewen McDougall Hastings McConnell Stewart Wallace Williams Pixley McCullough Hamilton Love Hamilton A. Hart Marshall Johnson W. Hart Fitzgerald Ford Webb Warren Kenny Howser P. Brown Mosk Lynch Younger Deukmejian Van de Kamp Lungren Lockyer J. Brown Harris Kenealy (Acting) Becerra v t e United States Republican Party Chairpersons of the RNC Morgan Raymond Ward Claflin Morgan Chandler Cameron Jewell Sabin Jones Quay Clarkson Carter Hanna Payne Cortelyou New Hitchcock Hill Rosewater Hilles Wilcox Hays Adams Butler Work Huston Fess Sanders Fletcher Hamilton Martin Walsh Spangler Brownell Reece Scott Gabrielson Summerfield Roberts Hall Alcorn T. B. Morton Miller Burch Bliss R. Morton Dole Bush Smith Brock Richards Laxalt/Fahrenkopf Reagan/Fahrenkopf Atwater Yeutter Bond Barbour Nicholson Gilmore Racicot Gillespie Mehlman Martínez Duncan Steele Priebus Romney McDaniel Presidential tickets Frémont/Dayton Lincoln/Hamlin Lincoln/Johnson Grant/Colfax Grant/Wilson Hayes/Wheeler Garfield/Arthur Blaine/Logan Harrison/Morton Harrison/Reid McKinley/Hobart McKinley/Roosevelt Roosevelt/Fairbanks Taft/Sherman Taft/Sherman/Butler Hughes/Fairbanks Harding/Coolidge Coolidge/Dawes Hoover/Curtis (twice) Landon/Knox Willkie/McNary Dewey/Bricker Dewey/Warren Eisenhower/Nixon (twice) Nixon/Lodge Goldwater/Miller Nixon/Agnew (twice) Ford/Dole Reagan/G. H. W. Bush (twice) G. H. W. Bush/Quayle (twice) Dole/Kemp G. W. Bush/Cheney (twice) McCain/Palin Romney/Ryan Trump/Pence Parties by state and territory State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Territory American Samoa District of Columbia Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Conventions (list) 1856 (Philadelphia) 1860 (Chicago) 1864 (Baltimore) 1868 (Chicago) 1872 (Philadelphia) 1876 (Cincinnati) 1880 (Chicago) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Chicago) 1892 (Minneapolis) 1896 (Saint Louis) 1900 (Philadelphia) 1904 (Chicago) 1908 (Chicago) 1912 (Chicago) 1916 (Chicago) 1920 (Chicago) 1924 (Cleveland) 1928 (Kansas City) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Cleveland) 1940 (Philadelphia) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (San Francisco) 1960 (Chicago) 1964 (San Francisco) 1968 (Miami Beach) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (Kansas City) 1980 (Detroit) 1984 (Dallas) 1988 (New Orleans) 1992 (Houston) 1996 (San Diego) 2000 (Philadelphia) 2004 (New York) 2008 (St. Paul) 2012 (Tampa) 2016 (Cleveland) Affiliated organizations Fundraising groups National Republican Congressional Committee National Republican Senatorial Committee Republican Conference of the United States House of Representatives Republican Conference of the United States Senate Republican Governors Association Sectional groups College Republicans Chairmen Congressional Hispanic Conference International Democrat Union Log Cabin Republicans Republican Jewish Coalition Republican National Hispanic Assembly Republicans Abroad Teen Age Republicans Young Republicans Factional groups Republican Main Street Partnership Republican Majority for Choice Republican Liberty Caucus Republican National Coalition for Life Republican Study Committee ConservAmerica Liberty Caucus Freedom Caucus Ripon Society The Wish List Related articles History Primaries Debates 2009 chairmanship election 2011 chairmanship election 2013 chairmanship election 2015 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election Bibliography Timeline of modern American conservatism Republican Party portal v t e (1932 ←) United States presidential election, 1936 (→ 1940) Democratic Party Convention Nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt VP nominee John Nance Garner Candidates Henry S. Breckinridge Republican Party Convention Nominee Alf Landon VP nominee Frank Knox Candidates William Borah Stephen A. Day Lester J. Dickinson Warren Green Frank Knox Earl Warren Frederick Steiwer Third party and independent candidates Communist Party Nominee Earl Browder VP nominee James W. Ford Prohibition Party Nominee D. Leigh Colvin VP nominee Claude A. Watson Socialist Party Nominee Norman Thomas VP nominee George A. Nelson Union Party Nominee William Lemke Socialist Labor Party Nominee John W. Aiken VP nominee Emil F. Teichert Christian Party Nominee William Dudley Pelley VP nominee Willard Kemp Other 1936 elections: House Senate v t e (1944 ←) United States presidential election, 1948 (→ 1952) Democratic Party Convention Primaries Nominee Harry Truman VP nominee Alben W. Barkley Candidates Harley M. Kilgore Richard Russell Jr. Henry A. Wallace Republican Party Convention Primaries Nominee Thomas Dewey VP nominee Earl Warren Candidates Riley A. Bender Herbert E. Hitchcock Douglas MacArthur Joseph William Martin Jr. Edward Martin Leverett Saltonstall Harold Stassen Arthur H. Vandenberg Robert Taft State's Rights Democratic Party Nominee Strom Thurmond VP nominee Fielding L. Wright Other third party and independent candidates Prohibition Party Nominee Claude A. Watson VP nominee Dale H. Learn Progressive Party Nominee Henry A. Wallace VP nominee Glen H. Taylor Socialist Party Nominee Norman Thomas VP nominee Tucker P. Smith Socialist Workers Party Nominee Farrell Dobbs VP nominee Grace Carlson Independents and other candidates Gerald L. K. Smith Other 1948 elections: House Senate v t e (1948 ←) United States presidential election, 1952 (→ 1956) Republican Party Convention Primaries Nominee Dwight D. Eisenhower VP nominee Richard Nixon Candidates Riley A. Bender George Theodore Mickelson Harold Stassen Robert Taft Earl Warren Democratic Party Convention Primaries Nominee Adlai Stevenson VP nominee John Sparkman Candidates Alben W. Barkley Paul A. Dever W. Averell Harriman Hubert Humphrey Estes Kefauver Robert S. Kerr Richard Russell Jr. Third party and independent candidates Prohibition Party Nominee Stuart Hamblen VP nominee Enoch A. Holtwick Progressive Party Nominee Vincent Hallinan VP nominee Charlotta Bass Socialist Labor Party Nominee Eric Hass Socialist Party Nominee Darlington Hoopes VP nominee Samuel H. Friedman Socialist Workers Party Nominee Farrell Dobbs VP nominee Myra Tanner Weiss Independents and other candidates Edward Longstreet Bodin Henry B. Krajewski Other 1952 elections: House Senate Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 10642343 LCCN: n50028322 ISNI: 0000 0001 2120 5863 GND: 118806254 SELIBR: 236767 SUDOC: 027749665 BNF: cb11972576d (data) NDL: 00460226 SNAC: w6db81bx Retrieved from "" Categories: 1891 births1974 deaths20th-century American judges20th-century American politiciansAmerican FreemasonsAmerican military personnel of World War IAmerican Odd FellowsAmerican people of Norwegian descentAmerican people of Swedish descentAmerican ProtestantsBurials at Arlington National CemeteryCalifornia Attorneys GeneralCalifornia RepublicansChief Justices of the United StatesDistrict attorneys in CaliforniaGovernors of CaliforniaJames Cardinal Gibbons Medal winnersMembers of the Warren CommissionMilitary personnel from CaliforniaPoliticians from Bakersfield, CaliforniaPresidential Medal of Freedom recipientsRecess appointmentsRepublican Party state governors of the United StatesRepublican Party (United States) vice presidential nomineesUnited States Army officersUnited States federal judges appointed by Dwight D. 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Earl_Warren - Photos and All Basic Informations

Earl_Warren More Links

Earle WarrenEarl W. WarrenJustice Warren (disambiguation)Chief Justice Of The United StatesDwight D. EisenhowerFred M. VinsonWarren E. BurgerGovernor Of CaliforniaFrederick F. HouserCulbert OlsonGoodwin KnightCalifornia Attorney GeneralCulbert OlsonUlysses S. WebbRobert W. KennyCalifornia Republican PartyLouis B. MayerAlameda County, CaliforniaLos AngelesWashington, D.C.Republican Party (United States)University Of California, BerkeleyBachelor Of ArtsJuris DoctorEarl Warren's SignatureUnited StatesUnited States ArmyFirst Lieutenant91st Division (United States)Governor Of CaliforniaChief Justice Of The United StatesLiberalism In The United StatesWarren CourtAmerican LawRights Of The AccusedPublic School-sponsored PrayersOne Man–one VoteBrown V. Board Of EducationGideon V. WainwrightReynolds V. SimsMiranda V. ArizonaGovernor Of CaliforniaJerry BrownDistrict AttorneyAlameda County, CaliforniaCalifornia Attorney GeneralRepublican Party (United States)Vice President Of The United StatesUnited States Presidential Election, 1948Thomas E. DeweyWarren CommissionAssassination Of John F. KennedyNorwegian AmericanSwedish AmericanSouthern Pacific RailroadBlacklistBakersfield, CaliforniaBakersfield High SchoolUniversity Of California, BerkeleyJuris DoctorUC Berkeley School Of LawSecret SocietySigma PhiCal BandRobert Gordon SproulUniversity Of CaliforniaAdmission To The Bar In The United StatesOakland, CaliforniaEnlargeWorld War IUnited States Army91st Division (United States)Camp Lewis, WashingtonFirst SergeantSecond LieutenantCamp LeeArmistice DayFirst LieutenantEnlargeAlameda County Superior CourtCalifornia State AssemblyOakland, CaliforniaJoseph R. KnowlandThe Oakland TribuneHiram JohnsonProgressive EraDistrict AttorneyAlameda County, CaliforniaGet Tough On Crime1934 West Coast Waterfront StrikeWhitney V. CaliforniaCalifornia Criminal Syndicalism ActEarl King, Ernest Ramsay, And Frank ConnerJohn Charles DalyFreemasonryIndependent Order Of Odd FellowsBenevolent And Protective Order Of ElksLoyal Order Of MooseAmerican LegionGrand Master (order)Cross-filingGambling ShipSouthern CaliforniaProgressive EraUlysses S. WebbEugenics In CaliforniaCalifornia Alien Land Law Of 1913Native Sons Of The Golden WestOyama V. CaliforniaJapanese American InternmentAttack On Pearl HarborKorematsu V. United StatesEnlargeCulbert OlsonDemocratic Party (United States)Jerry BrownCalifornia Gubernatorial Election, 2010EnlargeProgressive EraEfficiency MovementWorld War IINew DealFederal Aid Highway Act Of 1956Mendez V. WestminsterAnti-miscegenation LawPerez V. SharpUnited States Presidential Election, 1948Thomas E. DeweyDewey Defeats TrumanHarry S. TrumanAlben W. BarkleyEnlarge1952 Republican National ConventionFavorite SonRichard NixonDwight D. EisenhowerUnited States Presidential Election, 1952Solicitor General Of The United StatesFred M. VinsonChief Justice Of The United StatesSecond Inauguration Of Dwight D. EisenhowerJohn F. KennedyLyndon B. JohnsonSecond Inauguration Of Lyndon B. JohnsonFirst Inauguration Of Richard NixonEnlargeWarren CourtHugo L. BlackFranklin D. RooseveltNew Deal CoalitionFelix FrankfurterRobert H. JacksonHugo BlackWilliam O. DouglasLouis BrandeisHugo BlackWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Conservatism In The United StatesModern Liberalism In The United StatesJohn F. KennedyArthur GoldbergWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Right To CounselBrown V. Board Of EducationList Of United States Supreme Court Cases, Volume 347United States ReportsNAACPPlessy V. FergusonStanley Forman ReedRichard NixonCivil Rights Act Of 1964Voting Rights Act Of 1965PrecedentOne Man, One VoteBaker V. CarrReynolds V. SimsGideon V. WainwrightList Of United States Supreme Court Cases, Volume 372United States ReportsSixth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionPowell V. AlabamaMiranda V. ArizonaList Of United States Supreme Court Cases, Volume 384United States ReportsAttorney At Law (United States)Miranda WarningMapp V. OhioTerry V. OhioEngel V. VitaleUnited States Bill Of RightsGriswold V. ConnecticutRight Of PrivacyJohn Marshall Harlan IIPotter StewartByron R. WhiteThurgood MarshallAbe FortasEnlargeWarren CommissionLee Harvey OswaldEnlargeAbe FortasHomer ThornberryFilibusterLouis WolfsonWarren E. BurgerWilliam RehnquistAnthony LewisPhilosopher KingDennis J. HutchinsonPotter StewartEnlargeConservatismImpeachmentJohn Birch SocietySouthern BaptistEvangelismJerry FalwellMoral MajorityPolitical Action CommitteeJimmy CarterPrivate SchoolsMedStar Georgetown University HospitalWatergateUnited States V. NixonWashington National CathedralArlington National CemeteryRonald ReaganState Funeral Of Ronald ReaganArnold SchwarzeneggerMaria ShriverCalifornia Hall Of FameThe California MuseumEarl Warren Bill Of Rights ProjectPresidential Medal Of FreedomLibrary Of CongressEnlargeUniversity Of California, BerkeleyMongolian OakUndergraduate EducationUniversity Of California, San DiegoEarl Warren CollegeEarl Warren Middle SchoolSolana Beach, CaliforniaGarden Grove, CaliforniaLake Elsinore, CaliforniaSan Antonio, TexasEarl Warren High SchoolDowney, CaliforniaWarren High School (Downey, California)Santa Barbara, CaliforniaCalifornia State Route 13United States Postal ServiceGreat Americans SeriesAlf LandonUnited States Presidential Election, 1936William Edgar BorahAlf LandonFrank KnoxStephen A. DayWarren GreenGovernor Of CaliforniaWilliam E. RikerCulbert OlsonWrite-in CandidateCulbert OlsonCalifornia Gubernatorial Election, 1942Culbert OlsonUnited States Presidential Election, 1944Douglas MacArthurJohn W. BrickerThomas E. DeweyW. Chapman RevercombHarold StassenRiley A. BenderCharles A. ChristophersonWendell WillkieRobert W. KennyRobert W. KennyCalifornia Gubernatorial Election, 1946James RooseveltWrite-in CandidateUnited States Presidential Election, 1948Harold StassenRobert A. TaftThomas E. DeweyRiley A. BenderDouglas MacArthurLeverett SaltonstallHerbert E. HitchcockEdward Martin (Pennsylvania Politician)Arthur H. VandenbergDwight D. EisenhowerHarry S. TrumanHenry A. WallaceJoseph William Martin Jr.Alfred E. Driscoll1948 Republican National ConventionThomas E. DeweyRobert A. TaftHarold StassenArthur H. VandenbergDwight H. GreenAlfred E. DriscollRaymond E. BaldwinJoseph William Martin Jr.B. Carroll ReeceDouglas MacArthurEverett Dirksen1948 Republican National ConventionUnited States Presidential Election, 1948Harry S. TrumanAlben W. BarkleyThomas E. DeweyStrom ThurmondFielding L. WrightDixiecratHenry A. WallaceGlen H. TaylorCalifornia Gubernatorial Election, 1950James RooseveltUnited States Presidential Election, 1952Robert A. TaftDwight D. EisenhowerHarold StassenThomas H. WerdelGeorge T. MickelsonDouglas MacArthurRiley A. BenderWayne Morse1952 Republican National ConventionDwight D. EisenhowerRobert A. TaftHarold StassenDouglas MacArthur1952 Republican National ConventionDwight D. EisenhowerRobert A. TaftDouglas MacArthurWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalWikipedia:What Wikipedia Is NotWikipedia:"In Popular Culture" ContentWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Trivia SectionsWikipedia:Editing PolicyWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesSuper Chief: The Life And Legacy Of Earl WarrenJim GarrisonOliver StoneJFK (film)Stephen King11/22/63Richard KileySeparate But Equal (film)Kurt VonnegutSlaughter House FiveKing Of The HillKing Of The Hill (season 2)Hank HillAlternate HistoryColonization (series)Harry TurtledoveWorldwarThe Chad Mitchell TrioThe SimpsonsThe Simpsons (season 4)George W. BushHarriet MiersSandra Day O'ConnorPatrick LeahyWarren BurgerRoe V. 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WebbCalifornia Attorney GeneralRobert W. KennyFred M. VinsonChief Justice Of The United StatesWarren E. BurgerFrank MerriamRepublican Party (United States)Governor Of CaliforniaCalifornia Gubernatorial Election, 1942California Gubernatorial Election, 1946California Gubernatorial Election, 1950Goodwin KnightHarold StassenRepublican National Convention1944 Republican National ConventionDwight H. GreenCulbert OlsonDemocratic Party (United States)Governor Of CaliforniaCalifornia Gubernatorial Election, 1946James RooseveltJohn W. 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BurgerBurger CourtList Of United States Supreme Court Cases By The Burger CourtWilliam RehnquistRehnquist CourtList Of United States Supreme Court Cases By The Rehnquist CourtJohn RobertsRoberts CourtList Of United States Supreme Court Cases By The Roberts CourtSeal Of The United States Supreme CourtTemplate:SCOTUS JusticesTemplate Talk:SCOTUS JusticesList Of Justices Of The Supreme Court Of The United StatesSupreme Court Of The United StatesChief Justice Of The United StatesJohn JayJohn RutledgeOliver EllsworthJohn MarshallRoger B. TaneySalmon P. ChaseMorrison WaiteMelville FullerEdward Douglass WhiteWilliam Howard TaftCharles Evans HughesHarlan F. StoneFred M. VinsonWarren E. BurgerWilliam RehnquistJohn RobertsSeal Of The United States Supreme CourtJohn RutledgeThomas Johnson (jurist)William Paterson (judge)Henry Brockholst LivingstonSmith ThompsonSamuel NelsonWard HuntSamuel BlatchfordEdward Douglass WhiteWillis Van DevanterHugo BlackLewis F. 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DouglasJohn Paul StevensElena KaganJames IredellAlfred MooreWilliam Johnson (judge)James Moore WayneThomas ToddRobert TrimbleJohn McLeanNoah Haynes SwayneStanley Matthews (lawyer)David Josiah BrewerCharles Evans HughesJohn Hessin ClarkeGeorge SutherlandStanley Forman ReedCharles Evans WhittakerByron WhiteRuth Bader GinsburgJohn CatronJohn McKinleyJohn Archibald CampbellDavid Davis (Supreme Court Justice)John Marshall HarlanMahlon PitneyEdward Terry SanfordOwen RobertsHarold Hitz BurtonPotter StewartSandra Day O'ConnorSamuel AlitoStephen Johnson FieldJoseph McKennaHarlan F. StoneRobert H. JacksonJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam RehnquistAntonin ScaliaNeil GorsuchJoseph P. BradleyGeorge Shiras Jr.William R. DayPierce Butler (justice)Frank MurphyTom C. ClarkThurgood MarshallClarence ThomasSupreme Court Of The United StatesChief Justice Of The United StatesHugo BlackStanley Forman ReedFelix FrankfurterWilliam O. DouglasRobert H. JacksonHarold Hitz BurtonTom C. ClarkSherman MintonHugo BlackStanley Forman ReedFelix FrankfurterWilliam O. DouglasHarold Hitz BurtonTom C. ClarkSherman MintonJohn Marshall Harlan IIHugo BlackStanley Forman ReedFelix FrankfurterWilliam O. DouglasHarold Hitz BurtonTom C. ClarkJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Hugo BlackFelix FrankfurterWilliam O. DouglasHarold Hitz BurtonTom C. ClarkJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Charles Evans WhittakerHugo BlackFelix FrankfurterWilliam O. DouglasTom C. ClarkJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Charles Evans WhittakerPotter StewartHugo BlackFelix FrankfurterWilliam O. DouglasTom C. ClarkJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Potter StewartByron WhiteHugo BlackWilliam O. DouglasTom C. ClarkJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Potter StewartByron WhiteArthur GoldbergHugo BlackWilliam O. DouglasTom C. ClarkJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Potter StewartByron WhiteAbe FortasHugo BlackWilliam O. DouglasJohn Marshall Harlan IIWilliam J. Brennan Jr.Potter StewartByron WhiteAbe FortasThurgood MarshallTemplate:WarrenCommissionTemplate Talk:WarrenCommissionWarren CommissionHale BoggsJohn Sherman CooperAllen Welsh DullesGerald FordJohn J. McCloyRichard Russell Jr.Template:Governors Of CaliforniaTemplate Talk:Governors Of CaliforniaGovernor Of CaliforniaSpanish EmpireGaspar De PortolàPedro FagesFernando Rivera Y MoncadaFelipe De NevePedro FagesJosé Antonio RoméuJosé Joaquín De ArrillagaDiego De BoricaPedro De AlberniJosé Joaquín De ArrillagaJosé Darío ArgüelloPablo Vicente De SoláSeal Of The Governor Of California1824 Constitution Of MexicoLuis Antonio ArgüelloJosé María De EcheandíaManuel VictoriaPío PicoJosé María De EcheandíaJosé FigueroaJosé CastroNicolás GutiérrezMariano ChicoNicolás GutiérrezJuan Bautista AlvaradoJosé CastroJuan Bautista AlvaradoCarlos Antonio CarrilloManuel MicheltorenaPío PicoCalifornia RepublicJohn D. SloatRobert F. StocktonJosé María FloresStephen W. 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