Contents 1 History 1.1 Versions 1.2 4th Edition (abandoned) 1.3 5th Edition 1.4 6th Edition - ECMAScript 2015 1.5 7th Edition - ECMAScript 2016 1.6 8th Edition - ECMAScript 2017 1.7 ES.Next 2 Features 3 Syntax 4 Conformance 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] The ECMAScript specification is a standardized specifications of a scripting language developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape; initially it was named Mocha, later LiveScript, and finally JavaScript.[4] In December 1995, Sun Microsystems and Netscape announced JavaScript in a press release.[5] In March 1996, Netscape Navigator 2.0 was released, featuring support for JavaScript. Owing to the widespread success of JavaScript as a client-side scripting language for Web pages, Microsoft developed a compatible dialect of the language, naming it JScript to avoid trademark issues. JScript added new date methods to alleviate the Year 2000 problem caused by the JavaScript methods that were based on the Java Date class.[6] JScript was included in Internet Explorer 3.0, released in August 1996. Netscape delivered JavaScript to Ecma International for standardization and the work on the specification, ECMA-262, began in November 1996.[7] The first edition of ECMA-262 was adopted by the Ecma General Assembly in June 1997. Several editions of the language standard have been published since then. The name "ECMAScript" was a compromise between the organizations involved in standardizing the language, especially Netscape and Microsoft, whose disputes dominated the early standards sessions. Eich commented that "ECMAScript was always an unwanted trade name that sounds like a skin disease."[8] While both JavaScript and JScript aim to be compatible with ECMAScript, they also provide additional features not described in the ECMA specifications.[9] Versions[edit] There are eight editions of ECMA-262 published. Work on version 8 of the standard was finalized in June 2017.[10] Edition Date published Changes from prior edition Editor 1 June 1997 First edition Guy L. Steele Jr. 2 June 1998 Editorial changes to keep the specification fully aligned with ISO/IEC 16262 international standard Mike Cowlishaw 3 December 1999 Added regular expressions, better string handling, new control statements, try/catch exception handling, tighter definition of errors, formatting for numeric output and other enhancements Mike Cowlishaw 4 Abandoned Fourth Edition was abandoned, due to political differences concerning language complexity. Many features proposed for the Fourth Edition have been completely dropped; some are proposed for ECMAScript Harmony. 5 December 2009 Adds "strict mode," a subset intended to provide more thorough error checking and avoid error-prone constructs. Clarifies many ambiguities in the 3rd edition specification, and accommodates behaviour of real-world implementations that differed consistently from that specification. Adds some new features, such as getters and setters, library support for JSON, and more complete reflection on object properties.[11] Pratap Lakshman, Allen Wirfs-Brock 5.1 June 2011 This edition 5.1 of the ECMAScript Standard is fully aligned with third edition of the international standard ISO/IEC 16262:2011. Pratap Lakshman, Allen Wirfs-Brock 6 June 2015[12] The Sixth Edition, initially known as ECMAScript 6 (ES6) and later renamed to ECMAScript 2015 (ES2015)[12] adds significant new syntax for writing complex applications, including classes and modules, but defines them semantically in the same terms as ECMAScript 5 strict mode. Other new features include iterators and for/of loops, Python-style generators and generator expressions, arrow functions, binary data, typed arrays, collections (maps, sets and weak maps), promises, number and math enhancements, reflection, and proxies (metaprogramming for virtual objects and wrappers). As the first "ECMAScript Harmony" specification, it is also known as "ES6 Harmony." Allen Wirfs-Brock 7 June 2016[13] The Seventh Edition, also known as ECMAScript 2016,[13] intended to continue the themes of language reform, code isolation, control of effects and library/tool enabling from ES2015, includes two new features: the exponentiation operator (**) and Array.prototype.includes. Brian Terlson 8 June 2017[10] New features proposed include concurrency and atomics, zero-copy binary data transfer, more number and math enhancements, syntactic integration with promises (await/async), observable streams, SIMD types, better metaprogramming with classes, class and instance properties, operator overloading, value types (first-class primitive-like objects), records and tuples, and traits.[14][15] In June 2004, Ecma International published ECMA-357 standard, defining an extension to ECMAScript, known as ECMAScript for XML (E4X). Ecma also defined a "Compact Profile" for ECMAScript – known as ES-CP, or ECMA 327 – that was designed for resource-constrained devices, which was withdrawn in 2015.[16] 4th Edition (abandoned)[edit] The proposed fourth edition of ECMA-262 (ECMAScript 4 or ES4) would have been the first major update to ECMAScript since the third edition was published in 1999. The specification (along with a reference implementation) was originally targeted for completion by October 2008.[17] An overview of the language was released by the working group on October 23, 2007.[18] By August 2008, the ECMAScript 4th edition proposal had been scaled back into a project codenamed ECMAScript Harmony. Features under discussion for Harmony at the time included classes, a module system, optional type annotations and static typing, probably using a structural type system, generators and iterators, destructuring assignment, and algebraic data types. The intent of these features was partly to better support programming in the large, and to allow sacrificing some of the script's ability to be dynamic to improve performance. For example, Tamarin – the virtual machine for ActionScript developed and open sourced by Adobe – has just-in-time compilation (JIT) support for certain classes of scripts. In addition to introducing new features, some ES3 bugs were proposed to be fixed in edition 4.[19][20] These fixes and others, and support for JSON encoding/decoding, have been folded into the ECMAScript, 5th Edition specification.[21] Work started on Edition 4 after the ES-CP (Compact Profile) specification was completed, and continued for approximately 18 months where slow progress was made balancing the theory of Netscape's JavaScript 2 specification with the implementation experience of Microsoft's JScript .NET. After some time, the focus shifted to the ECMAScript for XML (E4X) standard. The update has not been without controversy. In late 2007, a debate between Eich, later the Mozilla Foundation's CTO, and Chris Wilson, Microsoft's platform architect for Internet Explorer, became public on a number of blogs. Wilson cautioned that because the proposed changes to ECMAScript made it backwards incompatible in some respects to earlier versions of the language, the update amounted to "breaking the Web,"[22] and that stakeholders who opposed the changes were being "hidden from view".[23] Eich responded by stating that Wilson seemed to be "repeating falsehoods in blogs" and denied that there was attempt to suppress dissent and challenged critics to give specific examples of incompatibility.[24] He also pointed out that Microsoft Silverlight and Adobe AIR rely on C# and ActionScript 3 respectively, both of which are larger and more complex than ECMAScript Edition 3.[25] 5th Edition[edit] Yahoo, Microsoft, Google, and other 4th edition dissenters formed their own subcommittee to design a less ambitious update of ECMAScript 3, tentatively named ECMAScript 3.1. This edition would focus on security and library updates with a large emphasis on compatibility. After the aforementioned public sparring, the ECMAScript 3.1 and ECMAScript 4 teams agreed on a compromise: the two editions would be worked on, in parallel, with coordination between the teams to ensure that ECMAScript 3.1 remains a strict subset of ECMAScript 4 in both semantics and syntax. However, the differing philosophies in each team resulted in repeated breakages of the subset rule, and it remained doubtful that the ECMAScript 4 dissenters would ever support or implement ECMAScript 4 in the future. After over a year since the disagreement over the future of ECMAScript within the Ecma Technical Committee 39, the two teams reached a new compromise in July 2008: Brendan Eich announced that Ecma TC39 would focus work on the ECMAScript 3.1 (later renamed to ECMAScript, 5th Edition) project with full collaboration of all parties, and vendors would target at least two interoperable implementations by early 2009.[26][27] In April 2009, Ecma TC39 published the "final" draft of the 5th edition and announced that testing of interoperable implementations was expected to be completed by mid-July.[28] On December 3, 2009, ECMA-262 5th edition was published.[29] 6th Edition - ECMAScript 2015[edit] The 6th edition, officially known as ECMAScript 2015, was finalized in June 2015.[12][30] This update adds significant new syntax for writing complex applications, including classes and modules, but defines them semantically in the same terms as ECMAScript 5 strict mode. Other new features include iterators and for/of loops, Python-style generators and generator expressions, arrow functions, binary data, typed arrays, collections (maps, sets and weak maps), promises, number and math enhancements, reflection, and proxies (metaprogramming for virtual objects and wrappers).[31][32] The complete list is extensive.[33] Browser support for ES2015 is still incomplete.[34] However, ES2015 code can be transpiled into ES5 code, which has more consistent support across browsers.[35] Transpiling adds an extra step to build processes whereas polyfills allow adding extra functionalities by including another JavaScript file. 7th Edition - ECMAScript 2016[edit] The 7th edition, officially known as ECMAScript 2016, was finalized in June 2016.[13] New features include the exponentiation operator (**), Array.prototype.includes (not to be confused with ClassList.contains). 8th Edition - ECMAScript 2017[edit] The 8th edition, officially known as ECMAScript 2017, was finalized in June 2017.[10] Includes await/async, which works using generators and promises. ES.Next[edit] ES.Next is a dynamic name that refers to whatever the next version is at time of writing. ES.Next features are more correctly called proposals, because, by definition, the specification has not been finalized yet.

Features[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2017) Main article: JavaScript § Features The ECMAScript language includes structured, dynamic, functional, and prototype-based features.[36]

Syntax[edit] This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2017) Main article: ECMAScript syntax

Conformance[edit] In 2010, Ecma International started developing a standards test for Ecma 262 ECMAScript.[37] Test262 is an ECMAScript conformance test suite that can be used to check how closely a JavaScript implementation follows the ECMAScript 5th Edition Specification. The test suite contains thousands of individual tests, each of which tests some specific requirements of the ECMAScript specification. Development of test262 is a project of Ecma Technical Committee 39 (TC39). The testing framework and individual tests are created by member organizations of TC39 and contributed to Ecma for use in Test262. Important contributions were made by Google (Sputnik testsuite) and Microsoft who both contributed thousands of tests. The Test262 testsuite already contains more than 11,000 tests and is being developed further as of 2013[update]. ECMAScript specifications through ES7 are well-supported in major web browsers. The table below shows the conformance rate for current versions of software with respect to the most recent editions of ECMAScript. Scripting engine Reference application(s) Conformance ES5[38] ES6[39] Newer (2016+)[40] SpiderMonkey Firefox 100% 97% 77% Chrome V8 Google Chrome, Opera 100% 97% 93% JavaScriptCore (Nitro) Safari 97% 99% 64% Chakra Microsoft Edge 100% 96% 60%

See also[edit] Comparison of layout engines (ECMAScript) ECMAScript for XML (E4X) JavaScript JScript List of ECMAScript engines

References[edit] ^ Stefanov, Stoyan (2010). JavaScript Patterns. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 5. ISBN 9781449396947. Retrieved 2016-01-12. The core JavaScript programming language [...] is based on the ECMAScript standard, or ES for short.  ^ "TC39 - ECMAScript® (formerly TC39-TG1)". Ecma International. Retrieved 22 August 2015.  ^ "A Short History of JavaScript". W3C. Retrieved 31 March 2017.  ^ Krill, Paul (2008-06-23). "JavaScript creator ponders past, future". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "Netscape and Sun Announce JavaScript, the Open, Cross-platform Object Scripting Language for Enterprise Networks and the Internet". Netscape. December 4, 1995. Archived from the original on 2007-09-16. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "Brendan's Roadmap Updates: Popularity". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008.  ^ "Industry Leaders to Advance Standardization of Netscape's JavaScript at Standards Body Meeting". Netscape. November 15, 1996. Archived from the original on 1998-12-03. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "Will there be a suggested file suffix for es4?". 2006-10-03. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "JScript VS JavaScript". 2015-11-25.  ^ a b c "ECMAScript 2017 Language Specification". Ecma International. June 2017.  ^ "Changes to JavaScript, Part 1: EcmaScript 5". YouTube. 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ a b c "ECMAScript 2015 Language Specification". Ecma International. June 2015.  ^ a b c "ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification". Ecma International. June 2016.  ^ "strawman:strawman [ES Wiki]". 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "tc39/ecma262". TC39. GitHub. Retrieved 27 December 2015.  ^ 2015-03-24 Meeting Notes. ESDiscuss. Also see Ecma withdrawn Standards. ECMA. ^ "ES4 overview paper released". Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "Proposed ECMAScript 4th Edition – Language Overview" (PDF). 23 October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2010.  ^ John Resig. "John Resig – Bug Fixes in JavaScript 2". Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "Compatibility Between ES3 and Proposed ES4" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ ^ "ECMAScript 3 and Beyond – IEBlog – Site Home – MSDN Blogs". 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "What I think about ES4. - Albatross! - Site Home – MSDN Blogs". 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "Open letter to Chris Wilson". Brendan Eich. 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "JavaScript 2 and the Open Web". 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2014-01-20.  ^ "ECMAScript Harmony". Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "A Major Milestone in JavaScript Standardization – JScript Blog – Site Home – MSDN Blogs". 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ "Ecma International finalises major revision of ECMAScript". Ecma International. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2009-05-22.  ^ "Ecma latest news". Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "ECMAScript 6 compatibility table".  ^ ^ "About". ECMAScript. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 2009-12-17.  ^ "ECMAScript Language – test262". Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2013-10-31.  ^ ^ ^

External links[edit] Official website ISO Standard ISO 16262 Ecma Standards ECMA-262 ECMA-262 ECMAScript Language Specification 3rd edition (December 1999) ECMAScript Language Specification, Edition 3 Final, 24-Mar-00 ECMA-262 ECMAScript Language Specification 5th edition (December 2009) ECMA-262 ECMAScript Language Specification 5.1 edition (June 2011) ECMA-290 ECMAScript Components Specification (June 1999) ECMA-327 ECMAScript 3rd Edition Compact Profile (June 2001) ECMA-357 ECMAScript for XML (E4X) Specification (June 2004) v t e Layout engines Active Blink EdgeHTML Gecko Goanna KHTML MARTHA Prince QtWebEngine Servo WebKit Discontinued Amaya Boxely Gazelle GtkHTML HTMLayout iCab Mariner Presto Tasman Tkhtml Trident Comparisons HTML non-standard HTML HTML5 media canvas XML XHTML 1.1 MathML SVG CSS ECMAScript DOM Graphics Typography v t e ECMAScript Dialects ActionScript Caja JavaScript engines asm.js JScript JScript .NET QtScript TypeScript WMLScript Engines (comparison) Carakan Futhark InScript JavaScriptCore JScript KJS Linear B Narcissus QtScript Rhino SpiderMonkey TraceMonkey JägerMonkey Tamarin V8 ChakraCore Chakra JScript .NET Nashorn Frameworks Client-side Ample SDK Chaplin.js Dojo Echo Ext JS Google Web Toolkit jQuery Lively Kernel midori MochiKit MooTools Prototype Pyjs qooxdoo Rialto Rico SmartClient SproutCore Spry Wakanda Framework Server-side AppJet Jaxer Node.js WakandaDB Multiple Cappuccino Objective-J PureMVC Libraries Backbone.js SWFObject SWFAddress Underscore.js People Brendan Eich Douglas Crockford John Resig Scott Isaacs Other DHTML Ecma International JSDoc JSGI JSHint JSLint JSON JSSS Sputnik SunSpider Asynchronous module definition CommonJS Lists JavaScript libraries Ajax frameworks Comparisons JavaScript frameworks server-side JavaScript v t e Standards of Ecma International Application interfaces ANSI escape code Common Language Infrastructure Office Open XML OpenXPS File systems (tape) Advanced Intelligent Tape DDS DLT Super DLT Holographic Versatile Disc Linear Tape-Open (Ultrium-1) VXA File systems (disk) CD-ROM CD File System (CDFS) FAT FAT12 FAT16 FAT16B FD UDF Ultra Density Optical Universal Media Disc Graphics Universal 3D Programming languages C++/CLI C# Eiffel JavaScript (E4X, ECMAScript) Radio link interfaces NFC UWB Other ECMA-35 List of Ecma standards (1961 - Present) v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category v t e List of International Electrotechnical Commission standards IEC standards IEC 60027 IEC 60034 IEC 60038 IEC 60062 IEC 60063 IEC 60068 IEC 60112 IEC 60228 IEC 60269 IEC 60297 IEC 60309 IEC 60320 IEC 60364 IEC 60446 IEC 60559 IEC 60601 IEC 60870 IEC 60870-5 IEC 60870-6 IEC 60906-1 IEC 60908 IEC 60929 IEC 60958 AES3 S/PDIF IEC 61030 IEC 61131 IEC 61131-3 IEC 61158 IEC 61162 IEC 61334 IEC 61346 IEC 61355 IEC 61400 IEC 61499 IEC 61508 IEC 61511 IEC 61850 IEC 61851 IEC 61883 IEC 61960 IEC 61968 IEC 61970 IEC 62014-4 IEC 62056 IEC 62061 IEC 62196 IEC 62262 IEC 62264 IEC 62304 IEC 62325 IEC 62351 IEC 62365 IEC 62366 IEC 62379 IEC 62386 IEC 62455 IEC 62680 IEC 62682 IEC 62700 ISO/IEC standards ISO/IEC 646 ISO/IEC 2022 ISO/IEC 4909 ISO/IEC 5218 ISO/IEC 6429 ISO/IEC 6523 ISO/IEC 7810 ISO/IEC 7811 ISO/IEC 7812 ISO/IEC 7813 ISO/IEC 7816 ISO/IEC 7942 ISO/IEC 8613 ISO/IEC 8632 ISO/IEC 8652 ISO/IEC 8859 ISO/IEC 9126 ISO/IEC 9293 ISO/IEC 9592 ISO/IEC 9593 ISO/IEC 9899 ISO/IEC 9945 ISO/IEC 9995 ISO/IEC 10021 ISO/IEC 10116 ISO/IEC 10165 ISO/IEC 10179 ISO/IEC 10646 ISO/IEC 10967 ISO/IEC 11172 ISO/IEC 11179 ISO/IEC 11404 ISO/IEC 11544 ISO/IEC 11801 ISO/IEC 12207 ISO/IEC 13250 ISO/IEC 13346 ISO/IEC 13522-5 ISO/IEC 13568 ISO/IEC 13818 ISO/IEC 14443 ISO/IEC 14496 ISO/IEC 14882 ISO/IEC 15288 ISO/IEC 15291 ISO/IEC 15408 ISO/IEC 15444 ISO/IEC 15445 ISO/IEC 15504 ISO/IEC 15511 ISO/IEC 15693 ISO/IEC 15897 ISO/IEC 15938 ISO/IEC 16262 ISO/IEC 17024 ISO/IEC 17025 ISO/IEC 18000 ISO/IEC 18004 ISO/IEC 18014 ISO/IEC 19752 ISO/IEC 19757 ISO/IEC 19770 ISO/IEC 19788 ISO/IEC 20000 ISO/IEC 21000 ISO/IEC 21827 ISO/IEC 23000 ISO/IEC 23003 ISO/IEC 23008 ISO/IEC 23270 ISO/IEC 23360 ISO/IEC 24707 ISO/IEC 24727 ISO/IEC 24744 ISO/IEC 24752 ISO/IEC 26300 ISO/IEC 27000 ISO/IEC 27000-series ISO/IEC 27002 ISO/IEC 27040 ISO/IEC 29119 ISO/IEC 33001 ISO/IEC 38500 ISO/IEC 42010 ISO/IEC 80000 Related International Electrotechnical Commission Retrieved from "" Categories: Computer-related introductions in 1997C programming language familyComputer standardsDynamically typed programming languagesEcma standardsJavaScript dialect enginesJavaScript programming language familyObject-based programming languagesProgramming languages with an ISO standardPrototype-based programming languagesScripting languagesHidden categories: Pages using deprecated image syntaxArticles to be expanded from February 2017All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesArticles with empty sections from February 2017All articles with empty sectionsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2013All articles containing potentially dated statements

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