History and functions[edit] The term drungus is first attested in Latin in the late 4th century AD. It derives from Gaulish *dhrungho (see Old Irish drong; Old Breton drogn or drog), meaning "tribe", "group", "throng" or "crowd". An alternative Germanic etymology (thrunga) cited by some historians,[1] originates in 17th-century guesswork which has been rejected by the overwhelming majority of philologists.[2] The earliest usage of drungus in Latin is non-technical and similarly signifies a generic "band" or "troop", which Vegetius equates to Latin globus.[3] The term first occurs in Greek as droungos (δροῦγγος) or drongos (δρόγγος), with the same meaning, in the early 5th century.[4] In the late 6th century, the Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602) applies droungos to a specific tactical deployment, usually of cavalry, characterised as a compact non-linear grouping suited to outflanking tactics, ambushes and irregular operations. He is the first author to employ the cognate adverb droungisti (Greek: δρουγγιστί), with the sense of "in group formation" or "small-group tactics".[5] Maurice also occasionally employs droungos as a generic expression for larger "groupings" or "formations" of troops, though in this sense he refers only to a "division" (meros) and never to a "brigade" (moira) with which droungos became associated in later sources.[6] By the middle of the 7th century, this meaning had been superseded by a new meaning, which it held until the 11th century. The droungos, alternatively known as a moira (μοίρα), was now formalized as a regular subdivision of a tourma, the chief subdivision of the new themata (θέματα, singular: θέμα). In turn, each droungos was composed of several banda (singular: bandon). Thus each moira or droungos was the analogue of a modern regiment or brigade, initially circa 1000 men strong (and hence also referred to as a chiliarchia). On occasion, it could rise to 3000 men, and Emperor Leo VI the Wise (r. 886–912) is recorded as having established droungoi of only 400 men for the new smaller themes created during his reign.[7] From the late 12th century onwards, the term droungos was applied to mountainous areas in Greece, and was associated with the meaning of "pass" or "mountain range" (zygos). In the 13th century, it also came to designate the military units detailed to guard these locations, similar to the earlier kleisourai.[1]

References[edit] ^ a b Kazhdan 1991, p. 664. ^ Rance 2004, pp. 97–105. ^ Vegetius. Epitoma rei Militaris, III.16 and III.19. ^ John Chrysostom. Epistulae ad Olympiadem, 4.2. ^ Maurice. Strategikon, III.14 and IV.5. ^ Maurice. Strategikon, I.3 and IX.3; Rance 2004, pp. 109–114. ^ Treadgold 1995, pp. 104–105.

Sources[edit] Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  Rance, Philip (2004). "Drungus, Δροῦγγος and Δρουγγιστί – A Gallicism and Continuity in Roman Cavalry Tactics". Phoenix. 58: 96–130. doi:10.2307/4135199.  Treadgold, Warren T. (1995). Byzantium and Its Army, 284–1081. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3163-2.  v t e Byzantine Empire topics History Preceding Roman Empire Dominate (330–717) Early Constantinian-Valentinian era (Constantinian dynasty - Valentinian dynasty) Theodosian era Leonid era Justinian era Heraclian era Twenty Years' Anarchy (717–1204) Middle Isaurian era Nikephorian era Amorian era Macedonian era Doukid era Komnenian era Angelid era (1204–1453) Late Fourth Crusade Frankokratia represented by Latin Empire Byzantine Successor States (Nicaea / Epirus–Thessalonica / Morea / Trebizond) Palaiologan era Decline of the Byzantine Empire Fall of Constantinople Governance Central Emperors Basileus Autokrator Senate Imperial bureaucracy Eparch Early Praetorian prefects Magister officiorum Comes sacrarum largitionum Comes rerum privatarum Quaestor sacri palatii Middle Logothetes tou dromou Sakellarios Logothetes tou genikou Logothetes tou stratiotikou Chartoularios tou sakelliou Chartoularios tou vestiariou Epi tou eidikou Protasekretis Epi ton deeseon Late Megas logothetes Mesazon Provincial Early Praetorian prefectures Dioceses Provinces Quaestura exercitus Exarchate of Ravenna Exarchate of Africa Middle Themata Kleisourai Bandon Catepanates Late Kephale Despotates Diplomacy Treaties Diplomats Military Army Battle tactics Military manuals Wars Battles Revolts Siege warfare Generals Mercenaries Early Late Roman army East Roman army Foederati Bucellarii Scholae Palatinae Excubitors Middle Themata Kleisourai Tourma Droungos Bandon Tagmata Domestic of the Schools Hetaireia Akritai Varangian Guard Late Komnenian army Pronoia Vestiaritai Palaiologan army Allagion Paramonai Grand Domestic Navy Karabisianoi Maritime themata Cibyrrhaeot Aegean Sea Samos Dromon Greek fire Droungarios of the Fleet Megas doux Admirals Naval battles Religion and law Religion Eastern Orthodox Church Byzantine Rite Ecumenical councils Saints Patriarchate of Constantinople Arianism Monophysitism Paulicianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Bogomilism Hesychasm Mount Athos Missionary activity Bulgaria Moravia Serbs Kievan Rus' Jews Muslims Law Codex Theodosianus Corpus Juris Civilis Ecloga Basilika Hexabiblos Mutilation Culture and society Architecture Secular Sacred Cross-in-square Domes Constantinople Great Palace of Constantinople Blachernae Palace Hagia Sophia Hagia Irene Chora Church Pammakaristos Church City Walls Thessalonica Arch of Galerius and Rotunda Hagios Demetrios Hagia Sophia Panagia Chalkeon Ravenna San Vitale Sant'Apollinare in Classe Sant'Apollinare Nuovo Other locations Daphni Monastery Hosios Loukas Nea Moni of Chios Saint Catherine's Monastery Mystras Art Icons Enamel Glass Mosaics Painters Macedonian period art Komnenian renaissance Economy Agriculture Coinage Mints Trade silk Silk Road Varangians Dynatoi Literature Novel Acritic songs Digenes Akritas Alexander romance Historians Everyday life Calendar Cuisine Dance Dress Flags and insignia Hippodrome Music Octoechos People Byzantine Greeks Slavery Units of measurement Science Learning Encyclopedias Inventions Medicine Philosophy Neoplatonism Scholars University Impact Byzantine commonwealth Byzantine studies Museums Byzantinism Cyrillic script Neo-Byzantine architecture Greek scholars in the Renaissance Third Rome Megali Idea Byzantine Empire portal v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Droungos&oldid=808325583" Categories: Subdivisions of the Byzantine EmpireTypes of country subdivisionsMilitary units and formations of the Byzantine EmpireHidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text

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