Contents 1 History 2 Usage 2.1 Operational 2.2 Proposed 3 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 5 Further considerations 6 Double Crossover Merging Interchange 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links 10.1 Examples

History[edit] Pictures from the first diverging diamond interchange in the United States, in Springfield, Missouri Top left: Traffic enters the interchange along Missouri Route 13 Top right: Traffic crosses over to the left side of the road Bottom left: Traffic crosses over Interstate 44 Bottom right:Traffic crosses back over to the right side of the road. Southbound approach to the I-44/Route 13 interchange in Springfield Prior to 2009 the only known diverging diamond interchanges were in France in the communities of Versailles, Le Perreux-sur-Marne (A4 at N486) and Seclin, all built in the 1970s.[5] (The ramps of the first two have been reconfigured to accommodate ramps of other interchanges, but they continue to function as diverging diamond interchanges.) Despite the fact that such interchanges already existed, the idea for the DDI was "reinvented" around 2000, inspired by the former "synchronized split-phasing" type freeway-to-freeway interchange between Interstate 95 and I-695 north of Baltimore.[6] In 2005, the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) considered reconfiguring the existing interchange on Interstate 75 at U.S. Route 224 and State Route 15 west of Findlay as a diverging diamond interchange to improve traffic flow. Had it been constructed, it would have been the first DDI in the United States.[7] By 2006, ODOT had reconsidered, instead adding lanes to the existing overpass.[8][9] The Missouri Department of Transportation was the first US agency to construct one, in Springfield at the junction between I-44 and Missouri Route 13 (at 37°15′01″N 93°18′39″W / 37.2503°N 93.3107°W / 37.2503; -93.3107 (Springfield, Missouri diverging diamond interchange)). Construction began the week of January 12, 2009, and the interchange opened on June 21, 2009.[10][11] This interchange was a conversion of an existing standard diamond interchange, and used the existing bridge. The first interchange in Canada opened on August 13, 2017 at Macleod Trail and 162 Avenue South in Calgary, Alberta.[12] The interchange in Seclin (at 50°32′41″N 3°3′21″E / 50.54472°N 3.05583°E / 50.54472; 3.05583) between the A1 and Route d'Avelin was somewhat more specialized than in the diagram at right: eastbound traffic on Route d'Avelin intending to enter the A1 northbound must keep left and cross the northernmost bridge before turning left to proceed north onto A1; eastbound traffic continuing east on Route d'Avelin must select a single center lane, merge with A1 traffic that is exiting to proceed east, and cross a center bridge. All westbound traffic that is continuing west or turning south onto A1 uses the southernmost bridge. Additional research was conducted by a partnership of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center and published by Ohio Section of the Institute of Transportation Engineers.[13] The Federal Highway Administration released a publication titled "Alternative Intersections/Interchanges: Informational Report (AIIR)" [14] with a chapter dedicated to this design.

Usage[edit] Operational[edit] As of January 19, 2018, 106 DDIs were operational across the world including: 2 in Canada 1 in Denmark opened September 17, 2017[15] 3 in France 1 in Malaysia 2 in Saudi Arabia 1 in South Africa 1 in the United Arab Emirates 95 in the United States of America[16] Proposed[edit] Australia - Caloundra Road interchange on the Bruce Highway (Exit 188) in the Sunshine Coast Region of Queensland as part of a wider upgrade. Construction began in May 2017 and is expected to be complete late 2020.[17] United States - I-5/SR-510 interchange in Washington State will be reconstructed into a diverging diamond interchange, the first in Washington State. Construction is planned to start in summer 2018 and completed in summer 2020.[18]

Advantages[edit] Two-phase signals with short cycle lengths, significantly reducing delay. Reduced horizontal curvature reduces the risk of off-road crashes. Increases the capacity of turning movements to and from the ramps. Potentially reduces the number of lanes on the crossroad, minimizing space consumption. Reduces the number of conflict points, thus theoretically improving safety. Increases the capacity of an existing overpass or underpass, by removing the need for turn lanes. Costs significantly less than a normal interchange.

Disadvantages[edit] Drivers may not be familiar with configuration, particularly with regards to merging maneuvers along the opposite side of the roadway or the crossover flow of traffic. Pedestrian (and other sidewalk user) access requires at least four crosswalks (two to cross the two signalized lane crossover intersections, while two more cross the local road at each end of the interchange).[19] This could be mitigated by signalizing all movements, without impacting the two-phase nature of the interchange’s signals. Free-flowing traffic in both directions on the non-freeway road is impossible, as the signals cannot be green at both intersections for both directions simultaneously. Highway bus stops are appropriately sited outside the interchange. Allowing exiting traffic to reenter the through road in the same direction requires leaving the interchange on the local road and turning around, e.g., via a median U-turn crossover. This affects several use cases: Drivers who take the wrong exit Bypassing a crash at the bridge Allowing an oversize load to bypass a low bridge

Further considerations[edit] No standards currently exist for this design The design depends on site-specific conditions. Additional signage, lighting, and pavement markings are needed beyond the levels for a standard diamond interchange. Local road should be a low speed facility, preferably under 45 mph (72 km/h) posted speed on the crossroad approach. However this may be mitigated by utilizing a higher design speed for the crossing movements. 3D computer generated DCMI

Double Crossover Merging Interchange[edit] DCMI traffic flow patterns A free-flowing interchange variant, patented in 2015,[20] has received recent attention.[21][22][23] Called the double crossover merging interchange (DCMI), it includes elements from the diverging diamond interchange, the tight diamond interchange, and the stack interchange. It eliminates the disadvantages of weaving and of merging into the outside lane from which the standard DDI variation suffers. As of 2016, no such interchanges have been constructed.

See also[edit] Single-point urban interchange (SPUI) Jughandle Hook turn Michigan left Superstreet

References[edit] ^ Hughes, Warren; Jagannathan, Ram (October 2009). "Double Crossover Diamond Interchange". Federal Highway Administration. FHWA-HRT-09-054. Retrieved April 22, 2012.  ^ "Diverging Diamond Interchange". OHM Advisors.  ^ Gilbert Chlewicki: About History ^ "Gallery: Looking Back at the 100 Best Innovations of 2009". Popular Science. Retrieved January 20, 2012.  ^ Staff (June 13, 2013). "I-64 Interchange at Route 15, Zion Crossroads". Virginia Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 11, 2013.  ^ Chlewicki, Gilbert (2003). "New Interchange and Intersection Designs: The Synchronized Split-Phasing Intersection and the Diverging Diamond Interchange" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2009-10-20.  ^ Patch, David (May 2, 2005). "French Connection May Control Traffic Flow". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Retrieved April 8, 2014.  ^ Sedensky, Matt (March 30, 2006). "Missouri Drivers May Go to the Left". Star-News. Wilmington, North Carolina. Associated Press. Retrieved April 8, 2014.  ^ "Wrong Way? Not in Kansas City". Land Line Magazine. March 31, 2006. Retrieved April 8, 2014.  ^ Staff (April 2009). "I-44/Route 13 Interchange Reconstruction: Diverging Diamond Design". Missouri Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2009.  ^ Springfield District Office (June 19, 2008). "Public Meeting Tuesday, June 24, On I-44/Route 13 Reconstruction To Reduce Congestion, Improve Safety" (Press release). Missouri Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 19, 2008.  ^ ^ Edara, Praveen K.; Bared, Joe G. & Jagannathan, Ramanujan. "Diverging Diamond Interchange and Double Crossover Intersection: Vehicle and Pedestrian Performance" (PDF).  ^ Hughes, Warren; Jagannathan, Ram; Sengupta, Dibu & Hummer, Joe (April 2010). Alternative Intersections/Interchanges: Informational Report (AIIR) (Report). Federal Highway Administration.  ^ Ministeren markerede ibrugtagning af det dynamiske ruderanlæg ^ "Alternative Intersections and Interchanges". Retrieved 2017-02-03.  ^ "Bruce Highway Upgrade – Caloundra Road to Sunshine Motorway". Department of Transport and Main Roads. Queensland Government. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.  ^ ^ "The 'Diverging Diamond' Interchange Is an Abomination - Sarah Goodyear". The Atlantic Cities. 2011-09-20. Retrieved 2014-04-22.  ^ "United States Patent 8,950,970: Double Crossover Merging Interchange". United States Patent and Trademark Office. February 10, 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.  ^ "TRAFFIC ENGINEERING COUNCIL BEST PAPER and BEST PRODUCT AWARD: Past Recipients". Institute of Transportation Engineers. 2016. Archived from the original on October 4, 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.  ^ "Alternative Intersections & Interchanges Symposium" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. July 21, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.  ^ Buteliauskas, Stanislovas; Juozapavičius, Aušrius (June 15, 2014). "Interchange of a New Generation Pinavia" (PDF). Military Academy of Lithuania. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 4, 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016. 

Further reading[edit] Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. "Drivers' Evaluation of the Diverging Diamond Interchange". Federal Highway Administration. FHWA-HRT-07-048.  Innovations Library (May 2010). "Missouri's Experience with a Diverging Diamond Interchange: Lessons Learned" (PDF). Missouri Department of Transportation.  Chlewicki, Gilbert (2003). "New Interchange and Intersection Designs: The Synchronized Split-Phasing Intersection and the Diverging Diamond Interchange" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 20, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2009.  Chlewicki, Gilbert (December 4, 2011). "About Chlewicki". The Diverging Diamond Interchange Website. Retrieved January 20, 2012. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diverging diamond interchange. DDI Guideline – A UDOT Guide to Diverging Diamond Interchanges, Utah Department of Transportation, June 2014 Transportation engineers discuss the design of the fifth U.S. DDI in Alcoa, TN Video of Paramics Traffic Simualtion software modeling a Double Crossover Diamond Interchange Diverging Diamond Interchange Visualization, Instructional video on how to drive in a DDI, NCDOTcommunications, published on 10 March 2011 Images of Diverging Diamond Interchange in Springfield, Missouri the first in North America. Animation of Diverging Diamond Interchange under construction at Elmhurst Road on Interstate 90 near Elk Grove, Illinois, to be completed in 2016 Animation of Diverging Diamond Interchange at I-590/Winton Road (Rochester, New York) Examples[edit] 48°49′56″N 2°09′10″E / 48.832115°N 2.152859°E / 48.832115; 2.152859 Map of a diverging diamond interchange in Versailles, France 48°49′49.1″N 2°29′35.3″E / 48.830306°N 2.493139°E / 48.830306; 2.493139 Map of a diverging diamond interchange in Le Perreux-sur-Marne, France 50°32′41.2″N 3°3′20.9″E / 50.544778°N 3.055806°E / 50.544778; 3.055806 Map of a diverging diamond interchange in Seclin, France v t e Streets and roadways Types of road Limited-access Freeway / Motorway Dual carriageway / Divided highway / Expressway Elevated highway By country Australia Brazil China Croatia Czech Republic Germany Greece Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Pakistan Portugal Spain United Kingdom United States Main roads Arterial road Collector road County highway Express-collector setup Farm-to-market road Highway Link road Two-lane expressway 2+1 road 2+2 road Parkway Super two Trunk road Highway systems by country Local roads Alley Backroad Bicycle boulevard Boulevard Country lane Dead end Driveway Frontage road Green lane Main street Primitive road Road Side road Single carriageway Single-track road Street Sunken lane Other terms Channelization Concurrency Detour Hierarchy of roads Private highway Route number Special route Business route Street hierarchy Toll road Road junctions Interchanges (grade-separated) Cloverleaf Diamond Free-flow Directional T Diverging diamond Parclo Raindrop Roundabout Single-point urban (SPUI) Stack Three-level diamond Trumpet Intersections (at-grade) 3-way junction Bowtie Box junction Continuous flow Hook turn Jughandle Michigan left Offset T-intersection Protected intersection Quadrant roadway Right-in/right-out (RIRO) Roundabout Seagull intersection Split intersection Superstreet Texas U-turn Traffic circle Turnaround Surfaces Asphalt concrete Bioasphalt Brick Chipseal Cobblestone Concrete Reinforced concrete Corduroy Crocodile cracking Crushed stone Diamond grinding of pavement Dirt Full depth recycling Glassphalt Gravel Ice Macadam Pavement milling Permeable Plank Rubberized asphalt Sealcoat Sett Stamped asphalt Tarmac Texture Road hazards Aquaplaning Black ice Bleeding Crosswind Dead Man's Curve Expansion joint Fog Ford Hairpin turn Level crossing Manhole cover Oil spill Oversize load Pothole Road debris Road slipperiness Road train Roadkill Rockfall Rut Speed bump Storm drain Washboarding Washout Whiteout Space and time allocation Barrier transfer machine Bicycle lane Climbing lane Complete streets Contraflow lane Contraflow lane reversal High-occupancy toll lane High-occupancy vehicle lane Lane Living street Managed lane Median / Central reservation Motorcycle lane Passing lane Pedestrian crossing Pedestrian zone Refuge island Reversible lane Road diet Road verge Runaway truck ramp Shared space Sidewalk / Pavement Shoulder Street running railway Traffic calming Traffic directionality Traffic island Traffic lanes Traffic signal preemption Unused highway Wide outside lane Woonerf Demarcation Bollard Botts' dots Cable barrier Cat's eye (road) Concrete step barrier Constant-slope barrier Curb F-Shape barrier Guard rail Jersey barrier Kassel kerb Noise barrier Raised pavement marker Road surface marking Rumble strip Traffic barrier Traffic cone Structures Bridge Causeway Overpass / Flyover Underpass / Tunnel Glossary of road transport terms Road types by features Retrieved from "" Categories: Road junction typesHidden categories: Articles with limited geographic scope from December 2013North America-centricUse mdy dates from December 2013

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