Contents 1 Etymology 2 Suffixation 2.1 -(a)n 2.1.1 Continents 2.1.2 Countries 2.1.3 States and provinces 2.1.4 Cities 2.2 -ian 2.2.1 Countries 2.2.2 States, provinces, counties, and cities 2.3 -anian 2.4 -nian 2.5 -in(e) 2.6 -a(ñ/n)o/a, -e(ñ/n)o/a, or -i(ñ/n)o/a 2.6.1 Countries and regions 2.6.2 Cities 2.7 -ite 2.8 -(e)r 2.9 -ish 2.10 -ene 2.11 -ensian 2.12 -ard 2.13 -ese, -lese, -vese, or -nese 2.14 -i(e) 2.15 -ic 2.16 -iot(e) 2.17 -asque 2.18 -(we)gian 2.19 -onian 2.20 -vian 2.21 -san 2.22 -ois(e), -ais(e) 2.23 From Latin or Latinization 3 Prefixation 3.1 Cities 4 Non-Standard Examples 4.1 Formal 4.2 Informal 5 Ethnic demonyms 6 Fiction 7 See also 8 References 8.1 Notes 9 External links


Etymology[edit] The word gentilic comes from the Latin gentilis ("of a clan, or gens") and the English suffix -ic.[9] The word demonym was derived from the Greek word meaning "populace" (δῆμος demos) with the suffix for "name" (-onym). National Geographic attributes the term "demonym" to Merriam-Webster editor Paul Dickson in a recent work from 1990.[10] The word did not appear for nouns, adjectives, and verbs derived from geographical names in the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary nor in prominent style manuals such as the Chicago Manual of Style. It was subsequently popularized in this sense in 1997 by Dickson in his book Labels for Locals.[11] However, in What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names (the first edition of Labels for Locals)[12] Dickson attributed the term to George H. Scheetz, in his Names' Names: A Descriptive and Prescriptive Onymicon (1988),[1] which is apparently where the term first appears. The term may have been fashioned after demonymic, which the Oxford English Dictionary defines as the name of an Athenian citizen according to the deme to which the citizen belongs, with its first use traced to 1893.[13][14]


Suffixation[edit] Several linguistic elements are used to create demonyms in the English language. The most common is to add a suffix to the end of the location name, slightly modified in some instances. These may resemble Late Latin, Semitic, Celtic, or Germanic suffixes, such as: -(a)n[edit] Continents[edit] Africa → African Asia → Asian Australia → Australian Europe → European North America → North American Central America → Central American South America → South American Countries[edit] Albania → Albanian Algeria → Algerian Andorra → Andorran Angola → Angolan Antigua → Antiguan Argentina → Argentinean Armenia → Armenian Australia → Australian Austria → Austrian Barbuda → Barbudan Belize → Belizean Bolivia → Bolivian Bosnia → Bosnian Brunei → Bruneian Bulgaria → Bulgarian Brazil → Brazilian Canada → Canadian Cayman Islands→ Caymanian Chile → Chilean Colombia → Colombian Costa Rica → Costa Rican Croatia → Croatian Cuba → Cuban Dominica → Dominican Dominican Republic → Dominican El Salvador → Salvadoran Eritrea → Eritrean Estonia → Estonian Ethiopia → Ethiopian Fiji → Fijian Gambia, the → Gambian Georgia → Georgian Germany → German Guatemala → Guatemalan Guinea → Guinean Haiti → Haitian Honduras → Honduran Hungary → Hungarian India → Indian Indonesia → Indonesian Iran → Iranian Iraq → Iraqi Israel → Israeli Ivory Coast → Ivorian Jamaica → Jamaican Kenya → Kenyan Korea, North → North Korean Korea, South → South Korean Latvia → Latvian Liberia → Liberian Libya → Libyan Lithuania → Lithuanian FYRO Macedonia → Macedonian Malawi → Malawian Malaysia → Malaysian Mali → Malian Man, Isle of → ManxMan Mauritania → Mauritanian Mauritius → Mauritian Mexico → Mexican Micronesia → Micronesian Moldova → Moldovan Mongolia → Mongolian (also "Mongol") Morocco → Moroccan Mozambique → Mozambican Namibia → Namibian Nauru → Nauruan Nicaragua → Nicaraguan Nigeria → Nigerian Palau → Palauan Palestine → Palestinian Papua New Guinea → Papua New Guinean Paraguay → Paraguayan Persia → Persian Peru → Peruvian Romania → Romanian Russia → Russian Rwanda → Rwandan (also "Rwandese") Saint Lucia → Saint Lucian Saint Vincent and the Grenadines → Vincentian Samoa → Samoan Saudi Arabia → Saudi Arabian (also "Saudi") Serbia → Serbian Sierra Leone → Sierra Leonean Singapore → Singaporean Slovakia → Slovakian (also "Slovak") Slovenia → Slovenian (also "Slovene") South Africa → South African Sri Lanka → Sri Lankan St. Kitts and Nevis → Kittitian or Nevisian Syria → Syrian Lebanon → Lebanese Tanzania → Tanzanian Thailand →Thai Tonga → Tongan Tunisia → Tunisian Tuvalu → Tuvaluan Uganda → Ugandan United States of America → American Uruguay → Uruguayan Venezuela → Venezuelan Zambia → Zambian Zimbabwe → Zimbabwean States and provinces[edit] Alaska → Alaskan Alberta → Albertan Andalusia → Andalusian Arizona → Arizonan Arkansas → Arkansan Asturias → Asturian Bavaria → Bavarian Bohemia → Bohemian Borneo → Bornean British Columbia → British Columbian California → Californian Cantabria → Cantabrian Carinthia → Carinthian Colorado → Coloradan Corsica → Corsican Crete → Cretan Crimea → Crimean Dalmatia → Dalmatian Delaware → Delawarean Extremadura → Extremaduran Florida → Floridan (more commonly "Floridian" below) Galicia → Galician Galilee → Galilean Georgia → Georgian Hawaiʻi → Hawaiian[a] Hebrides → Hebridean Idaho → Idahoan Illinois → Illinoisan Indiana → Hoosier Iowa → Iowan Jakarta → Jakartan Java → Javan (also "Javanese") Johor → Johorean Judea → Judean Kansas → Kansan Karelia → Karelian Kedah → Kedahan Kelantan → Kelantanese Liguria → Ligurian Louisiana → Louisianan (also "Louisianian") Madeira → Madeiran Malacca → Malaccan Majorca → Majorcan Manitoba → Manitoban Masuria → Masurian Michigan → Michigander Minnesota → Minnesotan Menorca → Menorcan Mississippi → Mississippian Missouri → Missourian Moluccas → Moluccan Montana → Montanan Moravia → Moravian Nebraska → Nebraskan Negeri Sembilan → Negeri Sembilanese Nevada → Nevadan New Brunswick → New Brunswicker New Hampshire → New Hampshirite New Jersey → New Jerseyan New Mexico → New Mexican North Carolina → North Carolinian (also "Carolinian", see also South Carolina below) North Dakota → North Dakotan Nova Scotia → Nova Scotian Ohio → Ohioan Oklahoma → Oklahoman Ontario → Ontarian Oregon → Oregonian Papua → Papuan Pahang → Pahangese, Pahangite Patagonia → Patagonian Perlis → Perlisian Perak → Perakian Penang → Penangite Pennsylvania → Pennsylvanian Pomerania → Pomeranian Puerto Rico → Puerto Rican Queensland → Queenslander Samogitia → Samogitian Sabah → Sabahan Sardinia → Sardinian Sarawak → Sarawakian Silesia → Silesian South Australia → South Australian South Dakota → South Dakotan Styria → Styrian Sumatra → Sumatran Tahiti → Tahitian Tasmania → Tasmanian Tennessee → Tennesseean Terengganu → Terengganuan, Terengganurian Texas → Texan Thuringia → Thuringian Transylvania → Transylvanian Umbria → Umbrian Utah → Utahn Victoria → Victorian Virginia → Virginian Wake Island → Wakean Wallachia → Wallachian Washington state → Washingtonian Western Australia → Western Australian (informally, Westralian) West Papua → West Papuan Westphalia → Westphalian Yukon → Yukonian Cities[edit] Alexandria → Alexandrians Annapolis → Annapolitans Atlanta → Atlantans Austin → Austinites Baltimore → Baltimoreans Bogotá → Bogotans Canberra → Canberrans Cape Town - Capetonians Charlotte → Charlotteans Chicago → Chicagoans Cincinnati → Cincinnatians El Paso → El Pasoans, El Paseños Glasgow → Glaswegians Hanoi → Hanoians Houston → Houstonians Indianapolis → Indianapolitans Jakarta → Jakartans Kalamazoo → Kalamazooans Kiev → Kievans Kolkata → Calcuttans Las Vegas → Las Vegans Lancaster → Lancastrians Liverpool → Liverpudlians London → Londoners Manchester → Mancunians Miami → Miamians Minneapolis → Minneapolitans Mumbai → Mumbaikaars (Endonym by Vernacular Locals); Mumbaites (by sophisticates) Oklahoma City → Oklahoma Cityans Ottawa → Ottawans Philadelphia → Philadelphians Phoenix → Phoenicians Paris → Parisians Pisa → Pisans Regina → Reginans Riga → Rigans Rome → Romans Sacramento —> Sacramentans San Antonio → San Antonians San Diego → San Diegans San Francisco → San Franciscans San Jose → San Joseans Sarasota → Sarasotans Sioux City → Sioux Cityans Springville → Springvillians Sofia → Sofians St. Louis → St. Louisans Thebes → Thebans Toledo, Ohio → Toledoans Toronto → Torontonians Tucson → Tucsonans Tulsa → Tulsans Valencia → Valencians Vilnius → Vilnians Washington, DC → Washingtonian Yuma → Yumians -ian[edit] Countries[edit] Argentina → Argentinian (also "Argentine", also "Argentinean") Azerbaijan → Azerbaijanian (also "Azarbaijani") Bahamas → Bahamian Barbados → Barbadian (also "Bajan") Belarus → Belarusian Belgium → Belgian Bermuda → Bermudian Brazil → Brazilian Cameroon → Cameroonian Canada → Canadian (or "Canadien" [feminine "Canadienne"] in French) Cayman Islands → Caymanian Chad → Chadian Comoros → Comorian Croatia → Croatian Ecuador → Ecuadorian Egypt → Egyptian Ghana → Ghanaian Grenada → Grenadian Hungary → Hungarian India → Indian Iran → Iranian Italy → Italian Jordan → Jordanian Laos → Laotian Maldives → Maldivian Mongolia → Mongolian (ethnic demonym "Mongol") Palestine → Palestinian Saint Vincent → Vincentian Serbia → Serbian (ethnic demonym "Serb") Slovakia → Slovakian (ethnic demonym "Slovak") Slovenia → Slovenian (ethnic demonym "Slovene") Trinidad → Trinidadian Ukraine → Ukrainian States, provinces, counties, and cities[edit] Adelaide → Adelaidian Alabama → Alabamian Athens → Athenian Ballarat → Ballaratian Birmingham, Alabama → Birminghamian Blackburn → Blackburnian Blackpool → Blackpudlian Bangkok → Bangkokian Boston → Bostonian Brisbane → Brisbanian (also "Brisbanite") Bristol → Bristolian Burgundy → Burgundian Calgary → Calgarian Canary Islands → Canarian Canterbury, New Zealand → Cantabrian Cardiff → Cardiffian Castile → Castilian Chelmsford → Chelmsfordian Chittagong → Chittagonian Christchurch → Christchurchian (also "Christchurcher") Corinth → Corinthian Coventry → Coventrian Cumbria → Cumbrian Dayton → Daytonian Devon → Devonian Duluth → Duluthian Edmonton → Edmontonian Florida → Floridian Fort Worth → Fort Worthian Fredericton → Frederictonian Gibraltar → Gibraltarian Greenville → Greenvillian Hamilton → Hamiltonian Harrow → Harrovian Hartlepool → Hartlepudlian Hereford → Herefordian Hesse → Hessian Hobart → Hobartian Houston → Houstonian Isles of Scilly → Scillonian Iowa City → Iowa Citian Jessup → Jessupian Kansas City → Kansas Citian Kentucky → Kentuckian Kingston →Kingstonian Lancashire → Lancastrian Lancaster → Lancastrian Lethbridge → Lethbridgian Liverpool → Liverpudlian (also, though insulting and a negative term "Scouser") Louisiana → Louisianian (also "Louisianan") Louisville → Louisvillian Madrid → Madrilenian Maharashtra → Maharashtrian McKinney → McKinnian Melbourne → Melburnian Memphis → Memphian Michigan → Michiganian or Michigander Nelson → Nelsonian New Guinea → New Guinian New Orleans → New Orleanian North Carolina → North Carolinian Northern Territory → Territorian Oregon → Oregonian Paris → Parisian Peterborough → Peterborian Phoenix → Phoenician Plymouth → Plymothian Port Harcourt → Harcourtian Preston, Lancashire →Prestonian Prince George's County → Prince Georgian Rivers State → Riverian Rockwall, Texas → Rockwallian Rockwall County, Texas → Rockwallian Saskatchewan → Saskatchewanian Saskatoon → Saskatonian Savannah → Savannahian[16] Sicily → Sicilian Solihull → Silhillian South Carolina → South Carolinian Stockport > Stopfordian Swindon → Swindonian Tel Aviv, Israel → Tel Avivian Thrace → Thracian Towcester → Towcestrian Washington → Washingtonian Wellington → Wellingtonian Wilmington → Wilmingtonian -anian[edit] Guam → Guamanian -nian[edit] Bendigo → Bendigonian Buffalo → Buffalonian Manchester (UK) → Mancunian Panama → Panamanian Sligo → Sligonian Tampa → Tampanian Tobago → Tobagonian Toronto → Torontonian Torquay → Torquinian Trinidad & Tobago → Trinbagonian -in(e)[edit] Argentina → Argentine (and less commonly as "Argentinian" or "Argentinean") Byzantium → Byzantine Florence → Florentine (also Latin "Florentia") The Levant → Levantine Montenegro → Montenegrin Palatinate → Palatine Philippines → Filipino (feminine: Filipina, see below) Philistia → Philistine -a(ñ/n)o/a, -e(ñ/n)o/a, or -i(ñ/n)o/a[edit] as adaptations from the standard Spanish suffix -e(ñ/n)o (sometimes using a final -a instead of -o for a female, following the Spanish suffix standard -e(ñ/n)a) Countries and regions[edit] Cebu → Cebuanos El Salvador → Salvadoreños (also "Salvadoran") Philippines → Filipinos Cities[edit] Albuquerque → Albuquerqueans (also "Burqueño") Cavite → Caviteños Davao City → Davaoeños Los Angeles → Angelenos Manila → Manileños (also "Manilans") São Paulo → Paulistanos Zamboanga City → Zamboangueño people -ite[edit] Akron → Akronites Ann Arbor → Ann Arborites Austin → Austinites Bergen County, New Jersey → Bergenites Boulder → Boulderites Brisbane → Brisbanites (also "Brisbanian") Bronx → Bronxites Brooklyn → Brooklynites [17] Carson City, Nevada → Carsonites Chennai → Chennaiites Dallas → Dallasites Decatur → Decaturites Delhi → Delhites Denton, Texas → Dentonites Denver → Denverites Dhaka → Dhakaites (also "Dhakai" or "Dhakaiya") Dubai → Dubaiites Dunedin → Dunedinites Durban → Durbanites Erie, Pennsylvania → Erieites Gaya → Gayaites Irmo, South Carolina → Irmites Israel → Israelites (also "Israeli", depending on the usage; see below) Istanbul → Istanbulites Jerusalem → Jerusalemites Karachi → Karachiites Kerala → Keralites (also Malayali or Malayalee) Manhattan → Manhattanites Moscow → Muscovites (also Latin "Muscovia") Montpelier, Vermont → Montpelierites Mumbai → Mumbaiites New Hampshire → New Hampshirites Oban → Obanites Odessa → Odessites Patna → Patnaites Perth → Perthites (also "Perthian" and "Perthling") Putney → Putneyites Queens → Queensites [18] Reading → Readingites Reno, Nevada → Renalians Ruskin, Florida → Ruskinites Saint Paul, Minnesota → Saint Paulites Seattle → Seattleites Seoul → Seoulites Shiloh → Shilonites (as in: "Ahijah the Shilonite") Springfield (The Simpsons) → Springfieldians Spokane → Spokanites Sydney → Sydneyites (also "Sydneysider") Telangana→ Telanganites Tokyo → Tokyoites Vancouver → Vancouverites Vizag → Vizagites Wenham, Massachusetts → Wenhamites Westchester County, New York → Westchesterites Whittier, California → Whittierites Winston-Salem → Winston-Salemites Wisconsin → Wisconsinites Wyoming → Wyomingites -(e)r[edit] Amsterdam → Amsterdammers Auckland → Aucklanders Beijing → Beijingers Belgrade → Belgraders Berlin → Berliners Bucharest → Bucharesters Budapest → Budapesters Cleveland → Clevelanders Cook Islands → Cook Islanders Copenhagen → Copenhageners Detroit → Detroiters Dublin → Dubliners Dresden → Dresdeners Fife → Fifers Frankfurt → Frankfurters Greenland → Greenlanders (also "Greenlandic") Hamburg → Hamburgers Hannover → Hannoveraners Hong Kong → Hongkonger/Hong Kongers (also "Hong Kongese"/"Hongkongese") Iceland → Icelanders (also "Icelandic") Kosovo → Kosovars Leeds → Loiners Leipzig → Leipzigers Liechtenstein → Liechtensteiners Little Rock, AR → Little Rockers London → Londoners Lorraine → Lorrainers Luxembourg → Luxembourgers Maine → Mainers Maryland → Marylanders Michigan → Michiganders Montreal → Montrealers Netherlands → Netherlanders (also "Dutchman" and "Hollander") New England → New Englanders New York → New Yorkers New Zealand → New Zealanders Newfoundland → Newfoundlanders Pittsburgh → Pittsburghers Prague → Praguers Puntland → Puntlanders Quebec → Quebeckers or Quebecers (though see below; irregular forms) Queensland → Queenslanders Rhineland → Rhinelanders Rhode Island → Rhode Islanders Rotterdam → Rotterdammers Saigon → Saigoners Solomon Islands → Solomon Islanders Stockholm → Stockholmers Stuttgart → Stuttgarters Tallinn → Tallinners Vermont → Vermonters Winnipeg → Winnipeggers Yellowknife → Yellowknifers Yukon → Yukoners Zurich → Zurichers Often used for European locations and Canadian locations -ish[edit] (Usually suffixed to a truncated form of the toponym, or place-name.) "-ish" is usually proper only as an adjective. See note below list. Åland → Ålandish people Britain, Great Britain and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland → British people (demonym "Briton") Cornwall → Cornish people (demonym "Cornishman, Cornishwoman") Denmark → Danish people (demonym "Dane") England → English people (demonym "Englishman, Englishwoman") Finland → Finnish people (demonym "Finn" or "Finnic") Flanders → Flemish people (demonym "Fleming") Ireland → Irish people (demonym "Irishman, Irishwoman") Kurdistan → Kurdish people (demonym "Kurd") Kent → Kentish people Luxembourg → Luxembourgish people (demonym "Luxembourger") Northern Ireland → Northern Irish people Oakland → Oaklandish people Poland → Polish people (demonym "Pole") Scotland → Scottish people (demonym "Scot" or "Scotsman, Scotswoman") Spain → Spanish people (demonym "Spaniard") Sweden → Swedish people (demonym "Swede") Turkey → Turkish people (demonym "Turk") -ene[edit] Cairo → Cairene Cyrenaica → Cyrene Damascus → Damascene Nazareth → Nazarene Slovenia → Slovene (also "Slovenian") Often used for Middle Eastern locations and European locations. -ensian[edit] Kingston-upon-Hull (UK) → Hullensian Leeds (UK) → Leodensian -ard[edit] Spain → Spaniard (also "Spanish") Savoy → Savoyard Montagne → Montagnard -ese, -lese, -vese, or -nese[edit] Abruzzo → Abruzzese Aragon → Aragonese Aceh → Acehnese Assam → Assamese Bali → Balinese Bengal/Bangladesh → Bengalese (also "Bengali" or "Bangladeshi" see below) Benin → Beninese (also "Beninois") Bern → Bernese Bhutan → Bhutanese Bologna → Bolognese Calabria → Calabrese China → Chinese Congo → Congolese Da Lat → Dalatese East Timor → East Timorese Faroe Islands → Faroese Gabon → Gabonese (also Gabonais/e) Genoa → Genovese Guangdong ("Canton") → Cantonese Guyana → Guyanese Hainan → Hainanese Hong Kong → Hongkongese Hunan → Hunanese Japan → Japanese Java → Javanese (also "Javan") Lebanon → Lebanese Macao → Macanese Malta → Maltese Manila → Manilese Marshall Islands → Marshallese Milan → Milanese Myanmar/Burma → Burmese (though see below; irregular forms) Nepal → Nepalese (also "Nepali") Piedmont → Piedmontese Pittsburgh → Pittsburghese (as used routinely by residents of Pittsburgh referring only to the accent/dialect) Portugal → Portuguese Rwanda → Rwandese (also "Rwandan") San Marino → Sammarinese Sark → Sarkese Senegal → Senegalese Shanghai → Shanghaiese Siam → Siamese Sikkim → Sikkimese (South) Sudan → (South) Sudanese Suriname → Surinamese Taiwan → Taiwanese Togo → Togolese Turin → Torinese Tyrol → Tyrolese Vienna → Viennese Vietnam → Vietnamese "-ese" is usually considered proper only as an adjective, or to refer to the entirety.[citation needed] Thus, "a Chinese person" is used rather than "a Chinese". Often used for East Asian and Francophone locations, from the similar-sounding French suffix -ais(e), which is originally from the Latin adjectival ending -ensis, designating origin from a place: thus Hispaniensis (Spanish), Danensis (Danish), etc. -i(e)[edit] Allahabad → Allahabadiin Azawad → Azawadi Azerbaijan → Azeri (more commonly "Azerbaijani", and sometimes "Azerbaijanian") Azra → Azragi Balochistan → Balochistani (also "Baloch", "Baluch", or "Baluchi") Bahrain → Bahraini Bangladesh → Bangladeshi (also "Bengali" or "Bengalese") Barisal → Barisali (also "Borishali") Bengal → Bengali Bharat → Bharati Bihar → Bihari Birmingham (UK) → Brummie Dagestan → Dagestani Dhaka → Dhakai (also "Dhakaiya", or "Dhakaite") Faridabad → Faridabadi Glasgow → Weegie Gujarat → Gujarati Hayastan → Hayastani (also "Armenian") Hazara → Hazaragi (also "Azragi") Hyderabad → Hyderabadi Iraq → Iraqi Israel → Israeli (in the modern State of Israel) Kerala → Malayali (also "Malayalee", or "Keralite") Kashmir → Kashmiri Kazakhstan → Kazakhstani (also "Kazakh") Kurdistan → Kurdistani (also "Kurdish", "Kurd") Kuwait → Kuwaiti Kyrgyzstan → Kyrgyzstani (also "Kyrgyz") Lahore → Lahori Nepal → Nepali (also "Nepalese") Oman → Omani Pakistan → Pakistani Punjab → Punjabi Qatar → Qatari Rajasthan → Rajasthani Rangpur → Rangpuri Sindh → Sindhi Somalia → Somali Sylhet → Sylheti (also "Siloti") Tajikistan → Tajikistani (also "Tajik") Tel Aviv → Tel Avivi (also "Tel Avivim" (plural)) Turkmenistan → Turkmenistani (also "Turkmen") United Arab Emirates → Emirati Uzbekistan → Uzbekistani (also "Uzbek") Yemen → Yemeni Yorkshire → Yorkie (also "Yorkshireman", or "Tyke") Mostly for Middle Eastern and South Asian locales and in Latinate names for the various people that ancient Romans encountered (e.g. Allemanni, Helvetii) -ic[edit] Finn → Finnic (also "Finnish") Antarctica → Antarctic Greenland → Greenlandic (also "Greenlander") Iceland → Icelandic (also "Icelander") Iran → Iranic (also "Iranian") Slav → Slavic -iot(e)[edit] Chios → Chiot Corfu → Corfiot Cyprus → Cypriot ("Cyprian" before 1960 independence of Cyprus) Phanar → Phanariote Used especially for Greek locations. -asque[edit] Monaco → Monégasque (native citizen of Monaco) Menton → Mentonasque Basque Country → Basque Often used for French locations. -(we)gian[edit] Galloway → Galwegian Galway → Galwegian Glasgow → Glaswegian Norway → Norwegian -onian[edit] Aberdeen → Aberdonian Bath → Bathonian Connacht → Connachtonian Cork → Corkonian [19] Dundee → Dundonian Halifax → Haligonian Newport → Newportonian Oxford → Oxonian Truro→Truronian Often used for British and Irish locations. -vian[edit] Barrow-in-Furness → Barrovian[20] Bolivia : Bolivian Harrow → Harrovian Oamaru → Oamaruvian Oslo → Oslovian Peru → Peruvian Warsaw → Warsovian Waterloo → Waterluvian[21] Wythenshawe → Wythenshavian -san[edit] Burkina Faso → Burkina Fasan (also Burkinabè) -ois(e), -ais(e)[edit] Benin → Beninois(e) (also Beninese) Gabon → Gabonais(e) (also Gabonese) Seychelles → Seychellois(e) Quebec → Quebecois(e) (also Quebecker, most common within Canada) While derived from French, these are also official demonyms in English. From Latin or Latinization[edit] Alsace → Alsatian (Alsatia) Ashbourne → Ashburnian (Essiburn) Cambridge → Cantabrigian Colchester → Colcestrian Courland → Couronian (Curonia) Exeter → Exonian Germany → German (Germani) Guernsey → Sarnian (Sarnia) Halifax → Haligonian Hispanic America → Hispanic (Hispania) Leeds → Leodensian (Ledesia) Lviv → Leopolitan (Leopolis) Manchester → Mancunian (Mancunia) Melbourne → Melburnian (Melburnia) Minneapolis → Minneapolitan Naples → Neapolitan (Neapolis) Newcastle → Novocastrian (Novum Castrum) Orkney Islands → Orcadian (Orcadia) Oswestry → Oswestrian (Oswestria) Shropshire → Salopian (Salopia) Tripoli → Tripolitan (Tripolis) Venice → Venetian Wolverhampton → Wulfrunian


Prefixation[edit] It is much rarer to find Demonyms created with a prefix. Mostly they are from Africa and the Pacific, and are not generally known or used outside the country concerned. In much of East Africa, a person of a particular ethnic group will be denoted by a prefix. For example, a person of the Luba people would be a Muluba, the plural form Baluba, and the language, Kiluba or Tshiluba. Similar patterns with minor variations in the prefixes exist throughout on a tribal level. And Fijians who are indigenous Fijians are known as Kaiviti (Viti being the Fijian name for Fiji). On a country level: Botswana → Motswana (singlular), Batswana (plural) Burundi → Umurundi (singular), Abarundi (plural) Lesotho → Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural) In the Pacific, at least two countries use prefixation: Kiribati → i-Kiribati Vanuatu → Ni-Vanuatu Cities[edit] Shillong → nong Shillong


Non-Standard Examples[edit] Demonyms may also not conform to the underlying naming of a particular place, but instead arise out of historical or cultural particularities that become associated with its denizens. These demonyms are usually more informal and colloquial. In the United States such informal demonyms frequently become associated with mascots of the intercollegiate sports teams of the state university system. In other countries the origins are often disputed. Formal[edit] Albuquerque → Burquenos Buenos Aires → Porteños Indiana → Hoosier Los Angeles → Angelenos[22] Rio de Janeiro → Cariocas Massachusetts → Bay Staters[23][24] Valparaíso → Porteños Informal[edit] Arizona → Sand Cutter[25] Birmingham, England → Brummie Canada → Canuck Connecticut → Nutmegger Jersey → Jèrriais (adjectival), Jerseyman (demonym) Kansas → Jayhawker Liverpool → Scouser or Liverpudlian London, England → Cockney (Specifically: One hailing from East London, England) Newcastle upon Tyne, England → Geordie Newfoundland, Canada → Newfie New Zealand → Kiwi North Carolina → Tar Heel Pittsburgh → Yinzer Scotland → Jock[26] Sydney → Sydneysider Ohio → Buckeye Oklahoma → Okie, Sooner Oldham → Yonner


Ethnic demonyms[edit] Abkhazia → Abkhazs Afghanistan → Afghans Arabia → Arabs Azerbaijan → Azerbaijanis, Azeris bengal→bengali Canada → Canadians Chechnya → Chechens Cornwall → Cornishman, Cornishwoman Croatia → Croats Czech Republic → Czechs Denmark → Danes England → Englishman, Englishwoman Finland → Finn Flanders → Flemings France → French people Indonesia → Indonesians Ingushetia → Ingushians Iran → Iranian, Persian (note: Do not consider themselves as Arabian) Ireland → Irishman, Irishwoman Jersey → Jerseyman, Jerseywoman Kalmykia → Kalmyks Kazakhstan → Kazakhs Kosovo → Kosovars Kerry → Kerrymans KwaZulu → Zulus Kurdistan → Kurds Kyrgyzstan → Kyrgyzs Lapland → Lapps (note: considered offensive in Norway and Sweden. "Same" is preferred in Swedish, derived from the land being called Sapmi in the native language) Luxembourg → Luxembourgers Madagascar → Malagasys, Madagascans Mongolia → Mongols Netherlands → Dutch people New South Wales → New South Welshman Philippines - Filipinos Poland → Poles Scotland → Scots, Scotsman, Scotswoman Serbia → Serbs Slovakia → Slovaks Slovenia → Slovenes Somalia → Somalis Spain → Spaniards Swaziland → Swazis Sweden → Swedes Tajikistan → Tajiks Tamil Nadu → Tamils Tatarstan →Tatars Thailand → Thais Turkey → Turks Turkmenistan → Turkmens Ulster → Ulsterman United States of America → Americans Uzbekistan → Uzbeks Wales → Welsh people Yorkshire → Yorkshireman, Yorkshirewoman


Fiction[edit] Literature and science fiction have created a wealth of gentilics that are not directly associated with a cultural group. These will typically be formed using the standard models above. Examples include Martian for hypothetical people of Mars (credited to scientist Percival Lowell) or Gondorian for the people of Tolkien's fictional land of Gondor. Other science fiction examples include Jovian for those of Jupiter or its moons, and Venusian for those of Venus. Fictional aliens refer to the inhabitants of Earth as Earthling (from the diminutive -ling, ultimately from Old English -ing meaning "descendant"), as well as "Terran", "Terrene", "Tellurian", "Earther", "Earthican", "Terrestrial", and "Solarian" (from Sol, the sun). Fantasy literature which involves other worlds or other lands also has a rich supply of gentilics. Examples include Lilliputians and Brobdingnagians, from the islands of Lilliput and Brobdingnag in the satire Gulliver's Travels. In a few cases, where a linguistic background has been created, non-standard gentilics are formed (or the eponyms back-formed). Examples include Tolkien's Rohirrim (from Rohan) and the Star Trek world's Klingon people (with various version of homeworld name).


See also[edit] Geography portal List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names List of adjectivals and demonyms for astronomical bodies List of adjectivals and demonyms for continental regions List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations List of adjectivals and demonyms for Australia List of adjectivals and demonyms for Canada List of adjectivals and demonyms for India List of adjectivals and demonyms for Malaysia List of adjectivals and demonyms for Mexico List of adjectivals and demonyms for New Zealand List of adjectivals and demonyms for the Philippines List of adjectivals and demonyms for the United States List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions List of adjectivals and demonyms for Greco-Roman antiquity List of adjectivals and demonyms for fictional regions List of regional nicknames Macedonia naming dispute Nationality -onym, especially ethnonym and Exonym and endonym


References[edit] ^ a b George H. Scheetz (1988). Names' Names: A Descriptive and Pervasive Onymicon. Schütz Verlag.  ^ "gentile, adj. and n.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a gens or clan; belonging to any nation but the Jews; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Davidson, Thomas, ed. (1901) Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language. London: W. & R. Chambers; p. 382 ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a gens or clan; belonging to the Gentiles; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Macdonald, A. M., ed. (1972) Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary; new ed. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers; p. 544 ^ "Gramática Inglesa. Adjetivos Gentilicios". mansioningles.com.  ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.  ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.  ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.  ^ "Dictionary". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 25 July 2015.  ^ "Gentilés, Demonyms: What's in a Name?". National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society (U.S.). 177: 170. February 1990.  ^ William Safire (1997-12-14). "On Language; Gifts of Gab for 1998". New York Times.  ^ What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names by Paul Dickson (Facts on File, February 1990). ISBN 978-0-8160-1983-0. ^ "Oxford English Dictionary". Oxford University Press.  ^ "Aristotle's Constitution of Athens, edited by J.E. Sandy, at the Internet Archive". p. 116.  ^ Press, AIP, Associated (2007). Stylebook and briefing on media law (42nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465004898.  ^ "Savannahian". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-10-12.  ^ "Investing in Future, Quiet Manhattan Apartments Next to Construction Sites" https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/12/realestate/manhattan-apartments-next-to-construction-sites.html ^ "Copquin explains "Queensites" for New York Times - Yale Press Log". Yale Press Log.  ^ "Corkonian". merriam-webster.com.  ^ "North West Evening Mail". nwemail.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31.  ^ "City of Waterloo on Twitter".  ^ "Angeleno". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "Massachusetts: General Laws, Section 35". malegislature.gov.  ^ Prior to the Massachusetts State Legislature designating "Bay Stater" as the state's official demonym, other terms used included Massachusett, borrowed from the native Massachusett tribe, Massachusite, championed by the early English Brahmins, Massachusettsian, by analogy with other state demonyms, and Masshole, originally derogatory. ^ "The State of Arizona - An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State". netstate.com.  ^ "Is it a slur to call someone a Jock?". BBC.  Notes[edit] ^ Local usage generally reserves Hawaiian as an ethnonym referring to Native Hawaiians. Hawaii resident is the preferred local form to refer to state residents in general regardless of ethnicity.[15]


External links[edit] Look up demonym or gentilic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. www.geography-site.co.uk Alphabetical list of world demonyms. www.everything2.com Demonyms of the World. CIA World Factbook – NATIONALITY www.peoplefrom.co.uk Demonyms of the United Kingdom. v t e Ethnicity Related concepts Clan Ethnic group Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe Ethnology Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy Groups by region Africa Arab League Americas Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America Asia Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia Australia Indigenous Europe Oceania Indigenous European Identity and ethnogenesis Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat Multiethnic society Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state Ideology and ethnic conflict Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist movements Xenophobia Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Demonym&oldid=820793721" Categories: DemonymsSemanticsTypes of wordsHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from March 2017All articles needing additional referencesArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textPages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parametersAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from April 2013


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