Contents 1 History 2 General characteristics 2.1 Party political preferences 3 Future 4 Maps and tables 4.1 Current departments 4.2 Former departments 4.2.1 Former departments of the current territory of France 4.2.2 Departments of Algeria (Départements d'Algérie) 4.2.3 Departments in former French colonies 4.2.4 Departments of the Napoleonic Empire in Europe 5 See also 6 References

History[edit] Main article: Territorial formation of France Geometrical proposition rejected The former provinces (colours) and the departements (limits in black) The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées (Bridges and Highways) infrastructure administration.[2] Before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. The modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure. Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror,[citation needed] during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government. Departments at the maximum extent of the First French Empire (1812) The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after an area's principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine. The number of departments, initially 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire (see Provinces of the Netherlands for the annexed Dutch departments). Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86 (three of the original departments having been split). In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department. The 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle, Vosges and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin remained French, however, and became known as the Territoire de Belfort, and the remaining parts of Meurthe and Moselle were merged into a new Meurthe-et-Moselle department. When France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department. Likewise, the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, and a new Moselle department was created in the regained territory, with slightly different boundaries from the pre-war department of the same name. The re-organisation of Île-de-France in 1968 and the division of Corsica in 1975 added six more departments, raising the total in Metropolitan France to 96. By 2011, when the overseas collectivity of Mayotte became a department, joining the earlier overseas departments of the Republic (all created in 1946) – French Guiana, Guadeloupe (1946), Martinique, and Réunion, and Mayotte) – the total number of departments in the French Republic had become 101. In 2015, the Urban Community of Lyon was split from Rhône to form the Métropole de Lyon, a sui-generis entity, with the powers of both an intercommunality and those of a department on its territory, formally classified as a “territorial collectivity with particular status” (in French “collectivité territoriale à statut particulier”) and as such not belonging to any department.

General characteristics[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of France See also: List of French departments by population Population density in the departments (2007), showing the empty diagonal The departmental seat of government is known as the prefecture (préfecture) or chef-lieu de département and is generally a town of some importance roughly at the geographical centre of the department. This was determined according to the time taken to travel on horseback from the periphery of the department. The goal was for the prefecture to be accessible on horseback from any town in the department within 24 hours. The prefecture is not necessarily the largest city in the department: for instance, in Saône-et-Loire department the capital is Mâcon, but the largest city is Chalon-sur-Saône. Departments may be divided into arrondissements. The capital of an arrondissement is called a subprefecture (sous-préfecture) or chef-lieu d'arrondissement. Each department is administered by a departmental council (conseil départemental), an assembly elected for six years by universal suffrage, with the president of the council as executive of the department. Before 1982, the executive of a department was the prefect (préfet) who represents the French government in each department and is appointed by the president of France. The prefect is assisted by one or more sub-prefects (sous-préfet) based in the subprefectures of the department. Since 1982, the prefect retains only the powers that are not delegated to the department councils. The departments are further divided into communes, governed by municipal councils. As of 2013, there were 36,681 communes in France. In the overseas territories, some communes play a role at departmental level. Paris, the country's capital city, is a commune as well as a department. In continental France (metropolitan France, excluding Corsica), the median land area of a department is 5,965 km2 (2,303 sq mi), which is two-and-a-half times the median land area of the ceremonial counties of England and the preserved counties of Wales and slightly more than three-and-half times the median land area of a county of the United States. At the 2001 census, the median population of a department in continental France was 511,012 inhabitants, which is 21 times the median population of a U.S. county, but less than two-thirds of the median population of a ceremonial county of England and Wales. Most of the departments have an area of between 4,000 and 8,000 km², and a population between 320,000 and 1 million. The largest in area is Gironde (10,000 km²), while the smallest is the city of Paris (105 km²). The most populous is Nord (2,550,000) and the least populous is Lozère (74,000). The departments are numbered: their two-digit numbers appear in postal codes, in INSEE codes (including "social security numbers") and on vehicle number plates. Initially, the numbers corresponded to the alphabetical order of the names of the departments, but several changed their names, so the correspondence became less exact. There is no number 20, but 2A and 2B instead, for Corsica. Corsican postal codes for addresses in both departments do still start with 20. The two-digit code "98" is used by Monaco. Together with the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code FR, the numbers form the ISO 3166-2 country subdivision codes for the metropolitan departments. The overseas departments get three digits—e.g. 971 for Guadeloupe (see table below). Originally, the relationship between the departments and the central government was left somewhat ambiguous. While citizens in each department elected their own officials, the local governments were subordinated to the central government, becoming instruments of national integration. By 1793, however, the revolutionary government had turned the departments into transmission belts for policies enacted in Paris. With few exceptions, the departments had this role until the early 1960s. Party political preferences[edit] These maps cannot be used as a useful resource of voter preferences, because Departmental Councils are elected on a two-round system, which drastically limits the chances of fringe parties, if they are not supported on one of the two rounds by a moderate party. After the 1992 election, the left had a majority in only 21 of the 100 departments; after the 2011 election, the left dominated 61 of the 100 departments. (Mayotte only became a department after the election.) Party affiliation of the General Council Presidents of the various departments in the cantonal elections of 1998. Party affiliation of the General Council Presidents of the various departments in the elections of 2001. Party affiliation of the General Council Presidents of the various departments in the elections of 2004. Party affiliation of the General Council Presidents of the various departments in the elections of 2008. Party affiliation of the General Council Presidents of the various departments in the elections of 2011. Key to the parties: Divers Centre = Independents of the Centre or Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate) Divers Droite (DVD) = Independent conservatives Divers Gauche (DVG) = Independent left-wing politicians MPF = Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France) (right) Nouveau Centre = New Centre (centre or centre-right) PCF = French Communist Party (Parti communiste français) PRG = Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche) PS = Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) UDF = Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française) succeeded by Democratic Movement UMP = Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire)

Future[edit] The removal of one or more levels of local government has been discussed for some years; in particular, the option of removing the departmental level. Frédéric Lefebvre, spokesman for the UMP, said in December 2008 that the fusion of the departments with the regions was a matter to be dealt with soon. This was soon refuted by Édouard Balladur and Gérard Longuet, members of the Committee for the reform of local authorities, known as the Balladur Committee.[3] In January 2008, the Attali Commission recommended that the departmental level of government should be eliminated within ten years.[4] Nevertheless, the Balladur Committee has not retained this proposition and does not advocate the disappearance of the departments, but simply "favors the voluntary grouping of departments", which it suggests also for the regions, with the aim of reducing the number of regions to 15.[5] This committee advocates, on the contrary, the suppression of the cantons.[5]

Maps and tables[edit] Current departments[edit] Each department has a coat of arms with which it is commonly associated, though not all are officially recognized or used. INSEE code Arms 1 Department Prefecture Region Named after 01 Ain Bourg-en-Bresse  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Ain (river) 02 Aisne Laon  Hauts-de-France Aisne (river) 03 Allier Moulins  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Allier (river) 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence 2 Digne-les-Bains  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Alps 05 Hautes-Alpes Gap  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Alps 06 Alpes-Maritimes Nice  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Alps 07 Ardeche !Ardèche Privas  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Ardèche (river) 08 Ardennes Charleville-Mezieres !Charleville-Mézières  Grand Est Ardennes Forest 09 Ariege !Ariège Foix  Occitanie Ariège (river) 10 Aube Troyes  Grand Est Aube (river) 11 Aude Carcassonne  Occitanie Aude (river) 12 Aveyron Rodez  Occitanie Aveyron (river) 13 Bouches-Du-Rhone !Bouches-du-Rhône Marseille  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Rhône (river) 14 Calvados Caen  Normandy Calvados rocks 15 Cantal Aurillac  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Mounts of Cantal 16 Charente Angouleme !Angoulême  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Charente (river) 17 Charente-Maritime 3 La Rochelle  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Charente (river) 18 Cher Bourges  Centre-Val de Loire Cher (river) 19 Correze !Corrèze Tulle  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Corrèze (river) 2A Corse-du-Sud Ajaccio  Corsica Island of Corsica 2B Haute-Corse Bastia  Corsica Island of Corsica 21 Cote-Dor !Côte-d'Or Dijon  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Côte d'Or (escarpment) 22 Cotes-Darmor !Côtes-d'Armor 4 Saint-Brieuc Brittany coasts of Armorica 23 Creuse Gueret !Guéret  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Creuse (river) 24 Dordogne Perigueux !Périgueux  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Dordogne (river) 25 Doubs Besancon !Besançon  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Doubs (river) 26 Drome !Drôme Valence  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Drôme (river) 27 Eure Evreux !Évreux  Normandy Eure (river) 28 Eure-et-Loir Chartres  Centre-Val de Loire Eure and Loir rivers 29 Finistere !Finistère Quimper Brittany Finis Terræ (end of earth) 30 Gard Nimes !Nîmes  Occitanie Gardon (river) 31 Haute-Garonne Toulouse  Occitanie Garonne (river) 32 Gers Auch  Occitanie Gers (river) 33 Gironde 5 Bordeaux  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Gironde (river) 34 Herault !Hérault Montpellier  Occitanie Hérault (river) 35 Ille-et-Vilaine Rennes Brittany Ille and Vilaine rivers 36 Indre Chateauroux !Châteauroux  Centre-Val de Loire Indre (river) 37 Indre-et-Loire Tours  Centre-Val de Loire Indre and Loire rivers 38 Isere !Isère Grenoble  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Isère (river) 39 Jura Lons-le-Saunier  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Jura Mountains 40 Landes Mont-de-Marsan  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Landes forest 41 Loir-et-Cher Blois  Centre-Val de Loire Loir and Cher rivers 42 Loire Saint-Etienne !Saint-Étienne  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Loire (river) 43 Haute-Loire Le Puy-en-Velay  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Loire (river) 44 Loire-Atlantique 6 Nantes  Pays de la Loire Loire (river) 45 Loiret Orleans !Orléans  Centre-Val de Loire Loiret (river) 46 Lot Cahors  Occitanie Lot (river) 47 Lot-et-Garonne Agen  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Lot and Garonne rivers 48 Lozere !Lozère Mende  Occitanie Mont Lozère 49 Maine-et-Loire 7 Angers  Pays de la Loire Maine and Loire rivers 50 Manche Saint-Lo !Saint-Lô  Normandy English Channel 51 Marne Chalons-en-Champagne !Châlons-en-Champagne  Grand Est Marne (river) 52 Haute-Marne Chaumont  Grand Est Marne (river) 53 Mayenne Laval  Pays de la Loire Mayenne (river) 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle Nancy  Grand Est Meurthe and Moselle rivers 55 Meuse Bar-le-Duc  Grand Est Meuse (river) 56 Morbihan Vannes Brittany Gulf of Morbihan 57 Moselle Metz  Grand Est Moselle (river) 58 Nievre !Nièvre Nevers  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Nièvre (river) 59 Nord Lille  Hauts-de-France North 60 Oise Beauvais  Hauts-de-France Oise (river) 61 Orne Alencon !Alençon  Normandy Orne (river) 62 Pas-de-Calais Arras  Hauts-de-France Strait of Dover 63 Puy-de-Dome !Puy-de-Dôme Clermont-Ferrand  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Puy de Dôme volcano 64 Pyrenees-Atlantiques !Pyrénées-Atlantiques 8 Pau  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Pyrenees 65 Hautes-Pyrenees !Hautes-Pyrénées Tarbes  Occitanie Pyrenees 66 Pyrenees-Orientales !Pyrénées-Orientales Perpignan  Occitanie Pyrenees 67 Bas-Rhin Strasbourg  Grand Est Rhine (river) 68 Haut-Rhin Colmar  Grand Est Rhine (river) 69 Rhone !Rhône Lyon (provisional)  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Rhône (river) 69M Lyon !Metropolitan Lyon 18 Lyon  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes communes of Lyon 70 Haute-Saone !Haute-Saône Vesoul  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Saône (river) 71 Saone-et-Loire !Saône-et-Loire Macon !Mâcon  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Saône and Loire rivers 72 Sarthe Le Mans  Pays de la Loire Sarthe (river) 73 Savoie Chambery !Chambéry  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Savoy 74 Haute-Savoie Annecy  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Savoy 75 Paris 9 Paris  Île-de-France city of Paris 76 Seine-Maritime 10 Rouen  Normandy Seine (river) 77 Seine-et-Marne Melun  Île-de-France Seine and Marne rivers 78 Yvelines 11 Versailles  Île-de-France Forest of Yvelines 79 Deux-Sevres !Deux-Sèvres Niort  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Sèvre Nantaise and Sèvre Niortaise rivers 80 Somme Amiens  Hauts-de-France Somme (river) 81 Tarn Albi  Occitanie Tarn (river) 82 Tarn-et-Garonne Montauban  Occitanie Tarn and Garonne rivers 83 Var Toulon  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Var (river) 84 Vaucluse Avignon  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Fontaine-de-Vaucluse spring 85 Vendee !Vendée La Roche-sur-Yon  Pays de la Loire Vendée (river) 86 Vienne Poitiers  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Vienne (river) 87 Haute-Vienne Limoges  Nouvelle-Aquitaine Vienne (river) 88 Vosges Epinal !Épinal  Grand Est Vosges Mountains 89 Yonne Auxerre  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Yonne (river) 90 Territoire de Belfort Belfort  Bourgogne-Franche-Comté city of Belfort 91 Essonne 12 Evry !Évry  Île-de-France Essonne (river) 92 Hauts-de-Seine 13 Nanterre  Île-de-France Seine (river) 93 Seine-Saint-Denis 14 Bobigny  Île-de-France Seine (river) 94 Val-de-Marne Créteil  Île-de-France Marne (river) 95 Val-d'Oise Pontoise 15  Île-de-France Oise (river) 971 Guadeloupe 16 Basse-Terre  Guadeloupe Guadeloupe island 972 Martinique 16 Fort-de-France  Martinique Martinique island 973 Guyane 16 Cayenne  French Guiana The Guianas 974 Reunion !La Réunion 16 Saint-Denis  Réunion Réunion island 976 Mayotte 17 Mamoudzou  Mayotte Mayotte island Notes: ^1 Most of the coats of arms are not official ^2 This department was known as Basses-Alpes ("Lower Alps") until 1970 ^3 This department was known as Charente-Inférieure ("Lower Charente") until 1941 ^4 This department was known as Côtes-du-Nord ("Coasts of the North") until 1990 ^5 This department was known as Bec-d'Ambès ("Beak of Ambès") from 1793 until 1795. The Convention eliminated the name to avoid recalling the outlawed Girondin political faction. ^6 This department was known as Loire-Inférieure ("Lower Loire") until 1957 ^7 This department was known as Mayenne-et-Loire ("Mayenne and Loire") until 1791 ^8 This department was known as Basses-Pyrénées ("Lower Pyrenees") until 1969 ^9 Number 75 was formerly assigned to Seine ^10 This department was known as Seine-Inférieure ("Lower Seine") until 1955 ^11 Number 78 was formerly assigned to Seine-et-Oise ^12 Number 91 was formerly assigned to Alger, in French Algeria ^13 Number 92 was formerly assigned to Oran, in French Algeria ^14 Number 93 was formerly assigned to Constantine, in French Algeria ^15 The prefecture of Val-d'Oise was established in Pontoise when the department was created, but moved de facto to the neighbouring commune of Cergy; currently, both part of the ville nouvelle of Cergy-Pontoise ^16 The overseas departments each constitute a region and enjoy a status identical to metropolitan France. They are part of France and the European Union, though special EU rules apply to them. ^17 Mayotte became the 101st department of France on 31 March 2011. The INSEE code of Mayotte is 976 (975 is already assigned to the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon) ^18 Metropoles with territorial collectivity statute. Regions and departments of metropolitan France; the numbers are those of the first column The departments in the immediate vicinity of Paris; the numbers are those of the first column Former departments[edit] Former departments of the current territory of France[edit] Department Prefecture Dates in existence Rhône-et-Loire Lyon 1790–1793 Split into Rhône and Loire on 12 August 1793. Corsica Bastia 1790–1793 Split into Golo and Liamone. Golo Bastia 1793–1811 Reunited with Liamone into Corsica. Liamone Ajaccio 1793–1811 Reunited with Golo into Corsica. Mont-Blanc Chambéry 1792–1815 Formed from part of the Duchy of Savoy, a territory of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia and was restored to Piedmont-Sardinia after Napoleon's defeat. The department corresponds approximately with the present French departments Savoie and Haute-Savoie. Léman Geneva 1798–1814 Formed when the Republic of Geneva was annexed into the First French Empire. Geneva was added to territory taken from several other departments to create Léman. The department corresponds with the present Swiss canton and parts of the present French departments Ain and Haute-Savoie. Meurthe Nancy 1790–1871 Meurthe ceased to exist following the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by the German Empire in 1871 and was not recreated after the province was restored to France by the Treaty of Versailles. Seine Paris 1790–1967 On 1 January 1968, Seine was divided into four new departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, and Val-de-Marne (the last incorporating a small amount of territory from Seine-et-Oise as well). Seine-et-Oise Versailles 1790–1967 On 1 January 1968, Seine-et-Oise was divided into four new departments: Yvelines, Val-d'Oise, Essonne, Val-de-Marne (the last largely comprising territory from Seine). Corsica Ajaccio 1811–1975 On 15 September 1975, Corsica was divided in two, to form Corse-du-Sud and Haute-Corse. Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre 1976–1985 Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon was an overseas department from 1976 until it was converted to an overseas collectivity on 11 June 1985. Departments of Algeria (Départements d'Algérie)[edit] The three Algerian departments in 1848 Departments of French Algeria from 1957 to 1962 Unlike the rest of French-controlled Africa, Algeria was divided into overseas departments from 1848 until its independence in 1962. These departments were supposed to be "assimilated" or "integrated" to France sometime in the future. Before 1957 № Department Prefecture Dates of existence 91 Alger Algiers (1848–1957) 92 Oran Oran (1848–1957) 93 Constantine Constantine (1848–1957) – Bône Annaba (1955–1957) 1957–1962 № Department Prefecture Dates of existence 8A Oasis Ouargla (1957–1962) 8B Saoura Béchar (1957–1962) 9A Alger Algiers (1957–1962) 9B Batna Batna (1957–1962) 9C Bône Annaba (1955–1962) 9D Constantine Constantine (1957–1962) 9E Médéa Médéa (1957–1962) 9F Mostaganem Mostaganem (1957–1962) 9G Oran Oran (1957–1962) 9H Orléansville Chlef (1957–1962) 9J Sétif Sétif (1957–1962) 9K Tiaret Tiaret (1957–1962) 9L Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou (1957–1962) 9M Tlemcen Tlemcen (1957–1962) 9N Aumale Sour el Ghozlane (1958–1959) 9P Bougie Béjaïa (1958–1962) 9R Saïda Saïda (1958–1962) Departments in former French colonies[edit] Department Modern-day location Dates in existence Département du Sud Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) 1795–1800 Département de l'Inganne (Mostly in the Dominican Republic with eastern part of Haiti) 1795–1800 Département du Nord 1795–1800 Département de l'Ouest 1795–1800 Département de Samana (In the Dominican Republic) 1795–1800 Sainte-Lucie Saint Lucia, Tobago 1795–1800 Île de France Mauritius, Rodrigues, Seychelles 1795–1800 Indes-Orientales Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon, Mahé and Chandernagore 1795–1800 Departments of the Napoleonic Empire in Europe[edit] There are a number of former departments in territories conquered by France during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire that are now not part of France: Department Prefecture (French name) Prefecture (English name) Current location1 Contemporary location2 Dates in existence Mont-Terrible Porrentruy Switzerland Holy Roman Empire: Prince-Bishopric of Basel3 1793–1800 Dyle Bruxelles Brussels Belgium Austrian Netherlands: Duchy of Brabant County of Hainaut 1795–1814 Escaut Gand Ghent Belgium Netherlands Austrian Netherlands: County of Flanders Dutch Republic: United States of the Zeelandic Flanders 1795–1814 Forêts Luxembourg Luxembourg Belgium Germany Austrian Netherlands: Duchy of Bouillon Duchy of Luxembourg 1795–1814 Jemmape Mons Belgium Austrian Netherlands: County of Hainaut Lordship of Tournai County of Namur Holy Roman Empire: Bishopric of Liège 1795–1814 Lys Bruges Austrian Netherlands: County of Flanders 1795–1814 Meuse-Inférieure Maëstricht Maastricht Belgium Netherlands Austrian Netherlands: Austrian Upper Guelders Duchy of Limburg Dutch Republic: Dutch Upper Guelders Limburg of the States Holy Roman Empire: Bishopric of Liège: County of Horne County of Loon Imperial Abbey of Thorn Maastricht5 1795–1814 Deux-Nèthes Anvers Antwerp Belgium Austrian Netherlands: Duchy of Brabant Dutch Republic: Brabant of the States (after 1810) 1795–1814 Ourthe Liège Belgium Germany Austrian Netherlands: Duchy of Brabant Duchy of Limburg Duchy of Luxembourg County of Namur Holy Roman Empire: Bishopric of Liège Imperial Abbey of Stavelot-Malmedy 1795–1814 Sambre-et-Meuse Namur Belgium Austrian Netherlands: Duchy of Brabant Duchy of Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire: Bishopric of Liège 1795–1814 Corcyre Corfou Corfu Greece Republic of Venice4 1797–1799 Ithaque Argostoli 1797–1798 Mer-Égée Zante Zakynthos 1797–1798 Mont-Tonnerre Mayence Mainz Germany Holy Roman Empire: Archbishopric of Mainz Electorate of the Palatinate Bishopric of Speyer 1801–1814 Rhin-et-Moselle Coblence Koblenz Holy Roman Empire: Archbishopric of Cologne Electorate of the Palatinate Archbishopric of Trier 1801–1814 Roer Aix-la-Chapelle Aachen Germany Netherlands Holy Roman Empire: Free Imperial City of Aachen Archbishopric of Cologne Electorate of the Palatinate: Grand Duchy of Berg Duchy of Jülich Kingdom of Prussia: Prussian Guelders Imperial Free City of Wesel (after 1805) 1801–1814 Sarre Trèves Trier Belgium Germany Holy Roman Empire: Electorate of the Palatinate: County of Veldenz Duchy of Zweibrücken Archbishopric of Trier 1801–1814 Doire Ivrée Ivrea Italy Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia Duchy of Savoy 1802–1814 Marengo Alexandrie Alessandria 1802–1814 Pô Turin 1802–1814 Sésia Verceil Vercelli 1802–1814 Stura Coni Cuneo 1802–1814 Tanaro6 Asti 1802–1805 Apennins Chiavari Republic of Genoa7 1805–1814 Gênes Gênes Genoa 1805–1814 Montenotte Savone Savona 1805–1814 Arno Florence Grand Duchy of Tuscany8 1808–1814 Méditerranée Livourne Livorno 1808–1814 Ombrone Sienne Siena 1808–1814 Taro Parme Parma Holy Roman Empire: Duchy of Parma & Piacenza 1808–1814 Rome9 Rome Papal States 1809–1814 Trasimène Spolète Spoleto 1809–1814 Bouches-du-Rhin Bois-le-Duc 's-Hertogenbosch Netherlands Dutch Republic:10 Batavian Brabant (Brabant of the States) Dutch Guelders 1810–1814 Bouches-de-l'Escaut Middelbourg Middelburg Dutch Republic:10 County of Zeeland 1810–1814 Simplon Sion Switzerland République des Sept-Dizains11 1810–1814 Bouches-de-la-Meuse La Haye The Hague Netherlands Dutch Republic:10 County of Holland 1811–1814 Bouches-de-l'Yssel Zwolle Dutch Republic:10 Overijssel 1811–1814 Ems-Occidental Groningue Groningen Netherlands Germany Dutch Republic:10 Dutch Upper Guelders 1811–1814 Ems-Oriental Aurich Germany Holy Roman Empire: Kingdom of Prussia: County of East Frisia10 1811–1814 Frise Leuwarden Leeuwarden Netherlands Dutch Republic:10 Friesland 1811–1814 Yssel-Supérieur Arnhem Dutch Republic:10 Dutch Upper Guelders 1811–1814 Zuyderzée Amsterdam Dutch Republic:10 County of Holland Lordship of Utrecht 1811–1814 Bouches-de-l'Elbe Hambourg Hamburg Germany Holy Roman Empire: Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg Electorate of Hanover Free Hanseatic City of Lübeck 1811–1814 Bouches-du-Weser Brême Bremen Holy Roman Empire: Free Hanseatic City of Bremen Electorate of Hanover Duchy of Oldenburg 1811–1814 Ems-Supérieur Osnabrück Holy Roman Empire: Electorate of Hanover Bishopric of Osnabrück Kingdom of Prussia: Town and County of Lingen Principality of Minden County of Ravensberg 1811–1814 Lippe12 Munster Münster Holy Roman Empire: Bishopric of Münster Electorate of the Palatinate: Grand Duchy of Berg 1811–1814 Bouches-de-l'Èbre Lérida Lleida Spain Kingdom of Spain: Catalonia 1812–1813 Montserrat Barcelone Barcelona 1812–1813 Sègre Puigcerda Puigcerdà 1812–1813 Ter Gérone Girona 1812–1813 Bouches-de-l'Èbre-Montserrat Barcelone Barcelona Previously the departments of Bouches-de-l'Èbre and Montserrat 1813–1814 Sègre-Ter Gérone Girona Previously the departments of Sègre and Ter 1813–1814 Notes for Table 7: Where a Napoleonic department was composed of parts from more than one country, the nation-state containing the prefecture is listed. Please expand this table to list all countries containing significant parts of the department. Territories that were a part of Austrian Netherlands were also a part of Holy Roman Empire. The Bishopric of Basel was a German Prince-Bishopric, not to be confused with the adjacent Swiss Canton of Basel. The territories of the Republic of Venice were lost to France, becoming the Septinsular Republic, a nominal vassal of the Ottoman Empire, from 1800–07. After reverting to France at the Treaty of Tilsit, these territories then became a British protectorate, as the United States of the Ionian Islands Maastricht was a condominium of the Dutch Republic and the Bishopric of Liège. On 6 June 1805, as a result of the annexation of the Ligurian Republic (the puppet successor state to the Republic of Genoa), Tanaro was abolished and its territory divided between the departments of Marengo, Montenotte and Stura. Before becoming the department of Apennins, the Republic of Genoa was converted to a puppet successor state, the Ligurian Republic. Before becoming the department of Arno, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany was converted to a puppet successor state, the Kingdom of Etruria. Rome was known as the department du Tibre until 1810. Before becoming the departments of Bouches-du-Rhin, Bouches-de-l'Escaut, Bouches-de-la-Meuse, Bouches-de-l'Yssel, Ems-Occidental, Frise, Yssel-Supérieur and Zuyderzée, these territories of the Dutch Republic were converted to a puppet successor state, the Batavian Republic (1795–1806), then those territories that had not already been annexed (all except the first two departments here), along with the Prussian County of East Frisia, were converted to another puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. Before becoming the department of Simplon, the République des Sept Dizains was converted to a revolutionary République du Valais (16 March 1798) which was swiftly incorporated (1 May 1798) into the puppet Helvetic Republic until 1802 when it became the independent Rhodanic Republic. In the months before Lippe was formed, the arrondissements of Rees and Münster were part of Yssel-Supérieur, the arrondissement of Steinfurt was part of Bouches-de-l'Yssel and the arrondissement of Neuenhaus was part of Ems-Occidental.

See also[edit] Book: French departements Wikimedia Commons has media related to Departments of France. ISO 3166-2:FR List of French departments by population, area and population density

References[edit] ^ Ministère de l'intérieur, Les élections départementales : comprendre ce qui change (in French), retrieved 2015-07-30  ^ Masson, Jean-Louis (1984). "Provinces, départements, régions: L'organisation administrative de la France d'hier à demain". Google Livres (French Google Books site). Éditions Fernand Lanore. Retrieved 2017-07-15.  ^ "La fusion département-région n'est pas à l'ordre du jour". L'Express. Retrieved 2011-07-21.  ^ Report of the Attali Commission "Decision 260", p. 197 (in French) ^ a b "Les 20 propositions du Comité (20 propositions of the Committee)" (in French). Committee for the reform of local authorities. Retrieved 2009-11-11.  v t e Departments of France 01 Ain 02 Aisne 03 Allier 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence 05 Hautes-Alpes 06 Alpes-Maritimes 07 Ardèche 08 Ardennes 09 Ariège 10 Aube 11 Aude 12 Aveyron 13 Bouches-du-Rhône 14 Calvados 15 Cantal 16 Charente 17 Charente-Maritime 18 Cher 19 Corrèze 2A Corse-du-Sud 2B Haute-Corse 21 Côte-d'Or 22 Côtes-d'Armor 23 Creuse 24 Dordogne 25 Doubs 26 Drôme 27 Eure 28 Eure-et-Loir 29 Finistère 30 Gard 31 Haute-Garonne 32 Gers 33 Gironde 34 Hérault 35 Ille-et-Vilaine 36 Indre 37 Indre-et-Loire 38 Isère 39 Jura 40 Landes 41 Loir-et-Cher 42 Loire 43 Haute-Loire 44 Loire-Atlantique 45 Loiret 46 Lot 47 Lot-et-Garonne 48 Lozère 49 Maine-et-Loire 50 Manche 51 Marne 52 Haute-Marne 53 Mayenne 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle 55 Meuse 56 Morbihan 57 Moselle 58 Nièvre 59 Nord 60 Oise 61 Orne 62 Pas-de-Calais 63 Puy-de-Dôme 64 Pyrénées-Atlantiques 65 Hautes-Pyrénées 66 Pyrénées-Orientales 67 Bas-Rhin 68 Haut-Rhin 69D Rhône 70 Haute-Saône 71 Saône-et-Loire 72 Sarthe 73 Savoie 74 Haute-Savoie 75 Paris 76 Seine-Maritime 77 Seine-et-Marne 78 Yvelines 79 Deux-Sèvres 80 Somme 81 Tarn 82 Tarn-et-Garonne 83 Var 84 Vaucluse 85 Vendée 86 Vienne 87 Haute-Vienne 88 Vosges 89 Yonne 90 Territoire de Belfort 91 Essonne 92 Hauts-de-Seine 93 Seine-Saint-Denis 94 Val-de-Marne 95 Val-d'Oise Overseas departments 971 Guadeloupe 972 Martinique 973 French Guiana 974 Réunion 976 Mayotte Metropolis with territorial collectivity statute 69M Lyon v t e Articles on second-level administrative divisions of European countries Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France1 Georgia2 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Kazakhstan1 Kosovo3 Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia1 Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom 1 Has part of its territory outside Europe. 2 Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on the definition of the border. 3 Partially recognised. List of administrative divisions by country Retrieved from "" Categories: Country subdivisions in EuropeDepartments of FranceFrance geography-related listsLists of subdivisions of FranceSecond-level administrative country subdivisionsSubdivisions of FranceHidden categories: CS1 French-language sources (fr)Articles with French-language external linksUse dmy dates from January 2018Use British English from January 2018Articles containing French-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2017

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AllierAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesAllier (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 04Alpes-de-Haute-ProvenceDigne-les-BainsProvence-Alpes-Côte D'AzurAlpsCoat Of Arms Of Department 05Hautes-AlpesGap, Hautes-AlpesProvence-Alpes-Côte D'AzurAlpsCoat Of Arms Of Department 06Alpes-MaritimesNiceProvence-Alpes-Côte D'AzurAlpsCoat Of Arms Of Department 07ArdèchePrivasAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesArdèche (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 08Ardennes (department)Charleville-MézièresGrand EstArdennes ForestCoat Of Arms Of Department 09Ariège (department)FoixOccitanieAriège (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 10AubeTroyesGrand EstAube (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 11AudeCarcassonneOccitanieAude (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 12AveyronRodezOccitanieAveyron (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 13Bouches-du-RhôneMarseilleProvence-Alpes-Côte D'AzurRhône (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 14Calvados (department)CaenNormandyCoat Of Arms Of Department 15CantalAurillacAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesMounts Of CantalCoat Of Arms Of Department 16CharenteAngoulêmeNouvelle-AquitaineCharente (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 17Charente-MaritimeLa RochelleNouvelle-AquitaineCharente (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 18Cher (department)BourgesCentre-Val De LoireCher (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 19CorrèzeTulleNouvelle-AquitaineCorrèze (river)Coat Of Arms Of CorsicaCorse-du-SudAjaccioCorsicaCorsicaCoat Of Arms Of CorsicaHaute-CorseBastiaCorsicaCorsicaCoat Of Arms Of Department 21Côte-d'OrDijonBourgogne-Franche-ComtéCôte D'Or (escarpment)Coat Of Arms Of Department 22Côtes-d'ArmorSaint-BrieucBrittanyBrittany (administrative Region)ArmoricaCoat Of Arms Of Department 23CreuseGuéretNouvelle-AquitaineCreuse (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 24DordognePérigueuxNouvelle-AquitaineDordogne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 25DoubsBesançonBourgogne-Franche-ComtéDoubs (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 26DrômeValence, DrômeAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesDrôme (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 27EureÉvreuxNormandyEure (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 28Eure-et-LoirChartresCentre-Val De LoireEure (river)LoirCoat Of Arms Of Department 29FinistèreQuimper, FinistèreBrittanyBrittany (administrative Region)Coat Of Arms Of Department 30GardNîmesOccitanieGardon (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 31Haute-GaronneToulouseOccitanieGaronne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 32GersAuchOccitanieGers (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 33GirondeBordeauxNouvelle-AquitaineGironde (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 34HéraultMontpellierOccitanieHérault (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 35Ille-et-VilaineRennesBrittanyBrittany (administrative Region)IlleVilaineCoat Of Arms Of Department 36IndreChâteaurouxCentre-Val De LoireIndre (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 37Indre-et-LoireToursCentre-Val De LoireIndre (river)LoireCoat Of Arms Of Department 38IsèreGrenobleAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesIsère (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 39Jura (department)Lons-le-SaunierBourgogne-Franche-ComtéJura MountainsCoat Of Arms Of Department 40Landes (department)Mont-de-MarsanNouvelle-AquitaineLandes ForestCoat Of Arms Of Department 41Loir-et-CherBloisCentre-Val De LoireLoirCher (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 42Loire (department)Saint-ÉtienneAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesLoire (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 43Haute-LoireLe Puy-en-VelayAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesLoire (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 44Loire-AtlantiqueNantesPays De La LoireLoire (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 45LoiretOrléansCentre-Val De LoireLoiret (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 46Lot (department)CahorsOccitanieLot (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 47Lot-et-GaronneAgenNouvelle-AquitaineLot (river)GaronneCoat Of Arms Of Department 48LozèreMende, LozèreOccitanieMont LozèreCoat Of Arms Of Department 49Maine-et-LoireAngersPays De La LoireMaine (river)LoireCoat Of Arms Of Department 50MancheSaint-LôNormandyEnglish ChannelCoat Of Arms Of Department 51MarneChâlons-en-ChampagneGrand EstMarne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 52Haute-MarneChaumont, Haute-MarneGrand EstMarne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 53MayenneLaval, MayennePays De La LoireMayenne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 54Meurthe-et-MoselleNancy, FranceGrand EstMeurthe (river)MoselleCoat Of Arms Of Department 55Meuse (department)Bar-le-DucGrand EstMeuse (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 56MorbihanVannesBrittanyBrittany (administrative Region)Gulf Of MorbihanCoat Of Arms Of Department 57Moselle (department)MetzGrand EstMoselle (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 58NièvreNeversBourgogne-Franche-ComtéNièvre (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 59Nord (French Department)LilleHauts-de-FranceNorthCoat Of Arms Of Department 60OiseBeauvaisHauts-de-FranceOise (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 61OrneAlençonNormandyOrne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 62Pas-de-CalaisArrasHauts-de-FranceStrait Of DoverCoat Of Arms Of Department 63Puy-de-DômeClermont-FerrandAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesPuy De DômeCoat Of Arms Of Department 64Pyrénées-AtlantiquesPau, Pyrénées-AtlantiquesNouvelle-AquitainePyreneesCoat Of Arms Of Department 65Hautes-PyrénéesTarbesOccitaniePyreneesCoat Of Arms Of Department 66Pyrénées-OrientalesPerpignanOccitaniePyreneesCoat Of Arms Of Department 67Bas-RhinStrasbourgGrand EstRhine (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 68Haut-RhinColmarGrand EstRhine (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 69Rhône (department)LyonAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesRhône (river)Metropolitan LyonLyonAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesLyonCoat Of Arms Of Department 70Haute-SaôneVesoulBourgogne-Franche-ComtéSaône (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 71Saône-et-LoireMâconBourgogne-Franche-ComtéSaôneLoireCoat Of Arms Of Department 72SartheLe MansPays De La LoireSarthe (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 73SavoieChambéryAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesSavoyCoat Of Arms Of Department 74Haute-SavoieAnnecyAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesSavoyCoat Of Arms Of Department 75ParisParisÎle-de-FranceParisCoat Of Arms Of Department 76Seine-MaritimeRouenNormandySeine (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 77Seine-et-MarneMelunÎle-de-FranceSeineMarne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 78YvelinesVersailles, YvelinesÎle-de-FranceForest Of YvelinesCoat Of Arms Of Department 79Deux-SèvresNiortNouvelle-AquitaineSèvre NantaiseSèvre NiortaiseCoat Of Arms Of Department 80Somme (department)AmiensHauts-de-FranceSomme (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 81Tarn (department)AlbiOccitanieTarn (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 82Tarn-et-GaronneMontaubanOccitanieTarn (river)GaronneCoat Of Arms Of Department 83Var (department)ToulonProvence-Alpes-Côte D'AzurVar (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 84VaucluseAvignonProvence-Alpes-Côte D'AzurFontaine-de-VaucluseCoat Of Arms Of Department 85VendéeLa Roche-sur-YonPays De La LoireVendée (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 86ViennePoitiersNouvelle-AquitaineVienne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 87Haute-VienneLimogesNouvelle-AquitaineVienne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 88Vosges (department)ÉpinalGrand EstVosges MountainsCoat Of Arms Of Department 89YonneAuxerreBourgogne-Franche-ComtéYonne (river)Coat Of Arms Of Department 90Territoire De 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