Contents 1 Types 2 Criticism 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links


Types[edit] A red telephone box is a British cultural icon A subset of cultural icons are national icons. A web-based survey was set up in 2006 allowing the public to nominate their ideas for national icons of England[4] and the results reflect the range of different types of icon associated with an English view of English culture. Some examples are: Big Ben (the nickname for the bell, but widely recognised as Elizabeth Tower of the Houses of Parliament in London);[5][6][7] Cup of tea (for the British tea drinking habit);[5][8][9] Red telephone box;[10][11][12] Red AEC Routemaster London double decker bus;[5][10][11] Spitfire, a World War II fighter aircraft.[5][11][13] Matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia.[14]. In the former Soviet Union, the hammer and sickle symbol and statues of Vladimir Lenin instead represented the country's most prominent cultural icons. The values, norms and ideals represented by a cultural icon vary both among people who subscribe to it, and more widely among other people who may interpret cultural icons as symbolising quite different values. Thus an apple pie is a cultural icon of the United States, but its significance varies among Americans. National icons can become targets for those opposing or criticising a regime, for example, crowds destroying statues of Lenin in Eastern Europe after the fall of communism[15] or burning the Stars and Stripes flag to protest about US actions abroad.[16] Religious icons can also become cultural icons in societies where religion and culture are deeply entwined, such as representations of the Madonna in societies with a strong catholic tradition.[17]


Criticism[edit] Describing something as iconic or as an icon has become very common in the popular media. This has drawn criticism from some: a writer in Liverpool Daily Post calls "iconic" "a word that makes my flesh creep", a word "pressed into service to describe almost anything."[18] The Christian Examiner nominates "iconic" in its list of overused words, finding over 18,000 "iconic" references in news stories alone, with another 30,000 for "icon", including its use for SpongeBob SquarePants.[19]


See also[edit] Category:Lists of cultural icons Popular culture Horror icon


References[edit] ^ Grayson, Kent; Martinec, Radan (2004-09-01). "Consumer Perceptions of Iconicity and Indexicality and Their Influence on Assessments of Authentic Market Offerings". Journal of Consumer Research. 31 (2): 296–312. doi:10.1086/422109. ISSN 0093-5301.  ^ Motley, Carol M.; Henderson, Geraldine Rosa (2008-03-01). "The global hip-hop Diaspora: Understanding the culture". Journal of Business Research. Cross-Cultural Business Research. 61 (3): 243–253. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.020.  ^ Heard about the famous icon? We have - far too often, The Independent (London), January 27, 2007 ^ "Our Collection". icons.org.uk. Retrieved August 16, 2014.  ^ a b c d British Postal Museum & Archive: Icons of England. Retrieved 15 December 2012. ^ Holloway, J Christopher; Taylor, Neil. The Business of Tourism (7th ed., 2006 (First published 1983) ed.). Pearson Education. p. 217.  ^ McManus, Erwin Raphael (2001). An Unstoppable Force: Daring to Become the Church God Had in Mind. Flagship Church Resources. p. 113.  ^ BBC: Tea steams ahead in icon hunt. Retrieved 15 December 2012. ^ Thorne, Tony (2011). The 100 Words that Make the English. Cuppa. Hachette Digital (e-book).  ^ a b Jenkins, Simon; Dean Godson (editor) (October 2005). "Replacing the Routemaster" (PDF). p. 7. Retrieved December 15, 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c Culture24: Icons of England. Retrieved 15 December 2012. ^ O'Neill, Brendan (2 April 2009). "Gulf News / Christian Science Monitor". To save a past that rings a bell. Retrieved December 15, 2012.  ^ Parker, Mike (2012). Cultural Icons: A Case Study Analysis of their Formation and Reception (PhD Thesis). Chapter 5: The Spitfire Aircraft. University of Central Lancashire. pp. 123–167.  ^ Bobo, Suzanna (25 December 2012). "Scuttlebutt: Wooden toy tells a story of love and industry". Kodiak Daily Mirror. Retrieved 9 April 2013.  ^ Jones, Jonathan (December 9, 2013). "Why smashing statues can be the sweetest revenge". Guardian.  ^ Laessing, ulf (September 14, 2012). "Anti-American fury sweeps Middle East over film". Reuters.  ^ Anthony B Pinn and Benjamin Valentin, eds. (2009). Creating Ourselves, African Americans and Hispanic Americans on popular culture and religious expression. Duke University Press. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Let's hear it for the Queen's English, Liverpool Daily Post ^ Modern word usage amazingly leaves us yearning for gay, old times Archived 2010-12-25 at the Wayback Machine., Christian Examiner


Bibliography[edit] Biedermann, Hans (1994). Dictionary of Symbolism: Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them. Meridan.  Brooker, Will (2001). Batman Unmasked: Analysing a Cultural Icon. Continuum.  Edwards, Peter; Karl Enenkel, and Elspeth Graham (editors) (2011). The Horse as Cultural Icon: The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World. Brill. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Foudy, Julie; Leslie Heywood; Shari L Dworkin (2003). Built to Win: The Female Athlete as Cultural Icon. University of Minnesota Press.  Gilbert, Erik (2008). The Dhow as Cultural Icon. Boston University. * Heyer, Paul (2012). Titanic Century: Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Praeger.  Heyer, Paul (2012). Titanic Century: Media, Myth, and the Making of a Cultural Icon. Praeger.  Meyer, Denis C. (2010). Cles Pour la France en 80 Icones Culturelles. Hachette.  Nelkin, Dorothy; M Susan Lindee (2004). The DNA Mystique: The Gene as a Cultural Icon. University of Michigan Press.  Reydams-Schils, Gretchen J (2003). Plato's Timaeus as Cultural Icon. University of Notre Dame Press. 


External links[edit] Our New Icons by The Daily Telegraph Nothing and no one are Off Limits in an Age of Iconomania by The Age British Postal Museum & Archive: Icons of England Culture24: Icons of England v t e Culture Outline Sciences Cultural anthropology Cultural astronomy Cultural ecology Cultural geography Cultural neuroscience Cultural studies Culturology Culture theory Neuroculture Subfields Bioculture Cross-cultural studies Cross-cultural communication Cross-cultural leadership Cross-cultural psychiatry Cross-cultural psychology Cultural analytics Cultural economics Cultural entomology Cultural health Cultural history Cultural mapping Cultural mediation Cultural psychology Culturomics Intercultural learning Intercultural relations Philosophy of culture Popular culture studies Semiotics of culture Sociology of culture Sound culture Theology of culture Transcultural nursing Types Constructed culture Dominant culture Folk culture High culture Individualistic culture Legal culture Low culture Microculture Official culture Political culture Civic Popular culture Urban Primitive culture Subculture Alternative culture list Super culture Vernacular culture Culture by location Aspects Acculturation Cultural appropriation Cultural area Cultural artifact Cultural baggage Cultural behavior Cultural bias Cultural capital Cross-cultural Cultural communication Cultural conflict Cultural cringe Cultural dissonance Cultural emphasis Cultural framework Cultural heritage Cultural icon Cultural identity Cultural industry Cultural invention Cultural landscape Cultural learning Cultural leveling Cultural memory Cultural pluralism Cultural practice Cultural property Cultural reproduction Cultural system Cultural technology Cultural universal Cultureme Enculturation High- and low-context cultures Interculturality Manuscript culture Material culture Non-material culture Organizational culture Print culture Protoculture Safety culture Technoculture Trans-cultural diffusion Transculturation Visual culture Politics Colonial mentality Consumer capitalism Cross cultural sensitivity Cultural assimilation Cultural attaché Cultural backwardness Cultural Bolshevism Cultural conservatism Cultural contracts Cultural deprivation Cultural diplomacy Cultural environmentalism Cultural exception Cultural feminism Cultural genocide Cultural globalization Cultural hegemony Cultural imperialism Cultural intelligence Cultural liberalism Cultural nationalism Cultural pessimism Cultural policy Cultural racism Cultural radicalism Cultural retention Cultural Revolution Cultural rights Cultural safety Cultural silence Cultural subsidy Cultural Zionism Culture change Culture minister Culture of fear Culture war Deculturalization Dominator culture Interculturalism Intraculturalism Monoculturalism Multiculturalism Biculturalism Pluriculturalism Security culture Transculturism Related Animal culture Archaeological culture Bennett scale Bullying culture Cannabis culture Circuit of culture Coffee culture Cross-cultural Cultural center Cultural Christian Cultural Mormon Cultural competence Cultural critic Cultural Detective Cultural determinism Cultural diversity Cultural encoding Cultural evolutionism Cultural Hindu Cultural homogenization Cultural institution Cultural jet lag Cultural Judaism Cultural lag Cultural literacy Cultural mosaic Cultural movement Cultural mulatto Cultural Muslim Cultural probe Cultural relativism Culture speculation Cultural tourism Pop-culture Cultural translation Cultural turn Cultural sensibility Culture and positive psychology Culture and social cognition Culture gap Culture hero Culture industry Culture shock Culturgen Children's culture Culturalism Cyberculture Death and culture Disability culture Deaf culture Emotions and culture Intercultural communication Intercultural competence Languaculture Living things in culture Media culture Oppositional culture Participatory culture Permission culture Rape culture Remix culture Tea culture Transformation of culture Urban culture Welfare culture Category Portal Commons WikiProject changes Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cultural_icon&oldid=810533581" Categories: Cultural historyPopular cultureSymbolsHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listCS1 maint: Extra text: authors listCS1 maint: Uses editors parameterWebarchive template wayback links


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