Contents 1 Preservation and contamination 2 Sequence of events 3 Documentation 4 Evidence collection 4.1 Chain of custody 5 Types of crime scenes 6 Reconstruction 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Preservation and contamination[edit] A crime scene is often preserved by setting up a blockade to control the movement in and out of a scene as well as maintaining the scene's integrity.[4] A perimeter is taped off with barricade tape in order to keep only those necessary on site. This is done to prevent contaminated evidence. Investigators try to avoid contamination at all costs. While it is difficult to completely avoid contamination, many steps are taken to ensure the integrity of the crime scene remains intact. Officers take care to not eat, drink, smoke, or take their breaks near the crime scene. Anything leftover by the officers on scene could be mistaken for potential evidence and tamper with the success of the investigation.

Sequence of events[edit] The Initial Responding Officer receives a dispatch call and arrives at the location of the crime. This officer plays a crucial part in maintaining the integrity of the scene. Initial responders are in charge of securing the scene by setting up physical barriers to control the traffic in and around the area. The officer also documents his/her initial observations as well as the condition of the scene upon arrival.[1] Once the crime scene investigation unit arrives on scene, being sure not to touch anything, an initial walkthrough is performed. This walkthrough helps the investigators get an understanding of what kind of crime has occurred. The unit notes on the presence of potential evidence and devises a plan for processing the scene.[5] A second walkthrough is performed for the purpose of documentation. The unit will take pictures and draw sketches of the scene. Sometimes videos are taken to ensure every detail of the crime is documented.[5] After a thorough documentation has been conducted, the CSI unit carefully collects all items that could be considered evidence. These items are tagged, logged, and packaged to ensure nothing is damaged or lost. All evidence from the scene is sent to the forensic laboratory for analysis.[5] The forensic laboratory processes all pieces of evidence from the scene. Once the results are in they go to the lead detective on the case[5]

Documentation[edit] Photographs of all evidence are taken before anything is touched, moved, or otherwise further investigated. Evidence markers are placed next to each piece of evidence allowing for organization of the evidence. Sketching the scene is also a form of documentation at a crime scene. This allows for notes to be taken as well as to gauge distances and other information that may not be easily detected from only a photograph. The investigators will draw out locations of evidence and all other objects in the room. The sketch is usually drawn from an above point of view. Notes are taken by investigators to ensure memorization of their thoughts and suspicions about different pieces of evidence. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Evidence collection[edit] FBI agents collect evidence from a crime scene Evidence comes in many different forms such as guns, blood on knives, etc. It can be anything from a biological sample like blood, or everyday item like receipts or bank statements. Other types of evidence include: fibers, firearm residue, photographs or videos, and fingerprints. Forensic scientists analyze this evidence so they can come up with an explanation for why and how a crime occurred. Ensuring that evidence is collected in an accurate and timely manner helps officers to better understand what happened at the scene and aids in the investigation being completed successfully. Only the appropriate personnel with the proper knowledge and training should be collecting evidence. These individuals include, First Responders, Crime Scene Investigators, and other specialized personnel.[6] Different types of evidence will sometimes need different methods of collection or specific containers. For instance, paper containers, such as bags,envelopes, or boxes, may be optimal for biological samples. Paper containers allow evidence that is not completely dry to continue drying.[7] This type of collection protects those samples from deteriorating. When the evidence is collected properly there is less of a chance that the items collected will be damaged or contaminated. Forensics uses a variety of different tools and techniques. Fingerprint collection through the use of grey or black magnetic powder. DNA and other bodily fluids are collected and, whether it is hair or fluid, for further examination in a lab.[2] Shoe and tire prints can be collected using dental stone. Electronics are taken for examination by a technical expert to search for further evidence. Documents from the area are also taken for further examination. Ammunition and weapons are taken for matching to wounds and ballistics. Photographs of tool marks are taken because they can be matched to a weapon at a later time. Any other trace evidence is also collected. Trace evidence is anything left behind by a perpetrator or could have been transferred to the perpetrator. Interviews of both witnesses and victims of the crime are taken by law enforcement officials in order to gain knowledge and creating a timeline of events. Chain of custody[edit] After evidence has been collected from the scene of the crime, it is placed in its appropriate container and then is labeled or tagged. The tag identifies the specific scene the evidence came from and establishes the “chain of custody”. The chain of custody refers to the order in which evidence is handled by individuals who are involved in the case’s investigation. The chain of custody is pertinent to the investigation and guarantees the physical security of all evidence that is part of the case. The following types of identifiers are needed to establish the chain:.[6] - Initials or names of the person collecting the evidence, and all the subsequent people who have and will come in contact with the evidence. The date of collection and transfer The name of the agency, case number, and type of crime Voucher or property clerk number The name of the victim or the suspect Where the item is being stored A summary of what the item is

Types of crime scenes[edit] Different types of crime scenes include outdoors, indoor, and conveyance. Outdoor crime scenes are the most difficult to investigate. The exposure to elements such as rain, wind, or heat, as well as animal activity, contaminates the crime scene and leads to the destruction of evidence. Indoor crime scenes have a significantly lower chance of contamination because of the lack of exposure. The contamination here usually comes from the people factor. Conveyance crime scenes are crimes committed by means of transportation, such as robbery or auto theft. Each type of crime scene, along with the nature of the crime committed (robbery, homicide, rape, etc.) have different procedures. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Reconstruction[edit] Crime scene reconstruction is the use of scientific methods, physical evidence, deductive reasoning, and their interrelationships to gain explicit knowledge of the series of events that surround the commission of a crime.

See also[edit] Criminal justice portal Forensic photography Problem property

References[edit] ^ a b U.S. Department of Justice (2013). Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement.  ^ a b Curtis, Caitlin; Hereward, James (August 29, 2017). "From the crime scene to the courtroom: the journey of a DNA sample". The Conversation. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "Evidence Packaging: A How-to Guide" (PDF).  ^ U.S. Department of Justice (2013). Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement. pp. 4, 5.  ^ a b c d Layton, Julia. "How Crime Scene Investigation Works". How Stuff Works, Science.  ^ a b Fisher, Barry A. J.; Fisher, David R. (2012). Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.  ^ "Evidence Packaging: A How-to Guide" (PDF). 

External links[edit] Look up crime scene in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. bioFORENSICS - Tools for forensic identification. Authority control GND: 4121759-7 Retrieved from "" Categories: Forensic evidenceHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from April 2016All articles needing additional referencesWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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