Contents 1 Physical and chemical properties 1.1 Synthesis 2 Recreational use 3 Adverse effects 3.1 Physiological 3.1.1 Crack lung 3.2 Psychological 3.3 Pregnancy and nursing 3.4 Reinforcement disorders 3.4.1 Tolerance 3.4.2 Addiction 4 Overdose 5 Society and culture 5.1 Synonyms 5.2 Drug combinations 5.3 Consumption 5.4 Legal status 5.4.1 Australia 5.4.2 Canada 5.4.3 United States 5.4.4 Europe 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading


Physical and chemical properties In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges,[3] with a slightly higher density than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form[3] (snaps when broken). A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic (see: cocaine), numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed. Purer forms of crack will sink in water or melt at the edges when near a flame (crack vaporizes at 90 °C, 194 °F).[1] Crack cocaine as sold on the streets may be adulterated or "cut" with other substances mimicking the appearance of crack cocaine to increase bulk. Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole[4] has been documented.[5] Synthesis In order for cocaine (in plastic bag at bottom) to be converted to crack, several supplies are needed. Pictured here are baking soda, a commonly used base in making crack, a metal spoon, a tealight, and a cigarette lighter. The spoon is held over the heat source in order to "cook" the cocaine into crack. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (August 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) A close up of the "cooking" process that creates crack. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, common baking soda) is a base used in preparation of crack, although other weak bases may substitute for it. The net reaction when using sodium bicarbonate is Coc-H+Cl− + NaHCO3 → Coc + H2O + CO2 + NaCl With Ammonium bicarbonate: Coc-H+Cl− + NH4HCO3 → Coc + NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O With Ammonium carbonate: 2(Coc-H+Cl−) + (NH4)2CO3 → 2 Coc + 2 NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O Crack cocaine is frequently purchased already in rock form,[3] although it is not uncommon for some users to "wash up" or "cook" powder cocaine into crack themselves. This process is frequently done with baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), water, and a spoon. Once mixed and heated, the bicarbonate reacts with the hydrochloride of the powder cocaine, forming free base cocaine and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in a reversible acid-base reaction. The heating accelerates the degradation of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. Loss of CO2 prevents the reaction from reversing back to cocaine hydrochloride. Free base cocaine separates as an oily layer, floating on the top of the now leftover aqueous phase. It is at this point that the oil is picked up rapidly, usually with a pin or long thin object. This pulls the oil up and spins it, allowing air to set and dry the oil, and allows the maker to roll the oil into the rock-like shape. Crack vaporizes near temperature 90 °C (194 °F),[1] much lower than the cocaine hydrochloride melting point of 190 °C (374 °F).[1] Whereas cocaine hydrochloride cannot be smoked (burns with no effect),[1] crack cocaine when smoked allows for quick absorption into the blood stream, and reaches the brain in 8 seconds.[1] Crack cocaine can also be injected intravenously with the same effect as powder cocaine. However, whereas powder cocaine dissolves in water, crack must be dissolved in an acidic solution such as lemon juice or white vinegar, a process that effectively reverses the original conversion of powder cocaine to crack.


Recreational use A woman smoking crack cocaine. Crack cocaine is commonly used as a recreational drug. Effects of crack cocaine include euphoria,[6] supreme confidence,[7] loss of appetite,[6] insomnia,[6] alertness,[6] increased energy,[6] a craving for more cocaine,[7] and potential paranoia (ending after use).[6][8] Its initial effect is to release a large amount of dopamine,[3] a brain chemical inducing feelings of euphoria.[citation needed] The high usually lasts from 5–10 minutes,[6][3] after which time dopamine levels in the brain plummet, leaving the user feeling depressed and low.[3] When (powder) cocaine is dissolved and injected, the absorption into the bloodstream is at least as rapid as the absorption of the drug which occurs when crack cocaine is smoked,[6] and similar euphoria may be experienced.


Adverse effects Because crack is an illicit drug, users may consume impure or fake ("bunk") drug,[5] which may pose additional health risks. Physiological Main physiological effects of crack cocaine The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include[6] constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter.[6] Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest. Like other forms of cocaine, smoking crack can increase heart rate[9] and blood pressure, leading to long-term cardiovascular problems. Some research suggests that smoking crack or freebase cocaine has additional health risks compared to other methods of taking cocaine. Many of these issues relate specifically to the release of methylecgonidine and its effect on the heart,[9] lungs,[10] and liver.[11] Toxic adulterants: Many substances may have been added in order to expand the weight and volume of a batch, while still appearing to be pure crack. Occasionally, highly toxic substances are used, with a range of corresponding short and long-term health risks. Adulturants used with crack and cocaine include milk powder, sugars such as glucose, starch, caffeine, lidocaine, benzocaine, paracetamol, amphetamine, scopolamine and strychnine.[12] Smoking problems: Any route of administration poses its own set of health risks; in the case of crack cocaine, smoking tends to be more harmful than other routes. Crack users tend to smoke the drug because that has a higher bioavailability than other routes typically used for drugs of abuse such as insufflation.[citation needed] Crack has a melting point of around 90 °C (194 °F),[1] and the smoke does not remain potent for long. Therefore, crack pipes are generally very short, to minimize the time between evaporating and ingestion (thereby minimizing loss of potency).[citation needed] Having a very hot pipe pressed against the lips often causes cracked and blistered lips, colloquially known as "crack lip". The use of "convenience store crack pipes"[13] - glass tubes which originally contained small artificial roses - may contribute to this condition. These 4-inch (10-cm) pipes[13] are not durable and will quickly develop breaks; users may continue to use the pipe even though it has been broken to a shorter length. The hot pipe might burn the lips, tongue, or fingers, especially when passed between people who take hits in rapid succession, causing the short pipe to reach higher temperatures than if used by one person alone. Pure or large doses: Because the quality of crack can vary greatly, some people might smoke larger amounts of diluted crack, unaware that a similar amount of a new batch of purer crack could cause an overdose. This can trigger heart problems or cause unconsciousness. Pathogens on pipes: When pipes are shared, bacteria or viruses can be transferred from person to person. Crack lung In crack users, acute respiratory symptoms have been reported, sometimes termed crack lung. Symptoms include fever, hemoptysis and difficulty breathing.[14] In the 48-hour period after use, people with these symptoms have also had associated radiographic findings on chest xray of pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and eosinophil infiltration.[14] Psychological Stimulant drug abuse (particularly amphetamine and cocaine) can lead to delusional parasitosis (aka Ekbom's Syndrome: a mistaken belief they are infested with parasites).[15] For example, excessive cocaine use can lead to formication, nicknamed "cocaine bugs" or "coke bugs", where the affected people believe they have, or feel, parasites crawling under their skin.[15] (Similar delusions may also be associated with high fever or in connection with alcohol withdrawal, sometimes accompanied by visual hallucinations of insects.)[15] People experiencing these hallucinations might scratch themselves to the extent of serious skin damage and bleeding, especially when they are delirious.[8][15] Paranoia and anxiety are among the most common psychological symptoms of crack cocaine use. Psychosis is more closely associated with smoking crack cocaine than intranasal and intravenous use.[16] Pregnancy and nursing Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure "Crack baby" is a term for a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now considered exaggerated.[17] Studies show that prenatal cocaine exposure (independent of other effects such as, for example, alcohol, tobacco, or physical environment) has no appreciable effect on childhood growth and development.[18] However, the official opinion of the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the United States warns about health risks while cautioning against stereotyping: Many recall that "crack babies", or babies born to mothers who used crack cocaine while pregnant, were at one time written off by many as a lost generation. They were predicted to suffer from severe, irreversible damage, including reduced intelligence and social skills. It was later found that this was a gross exaggeration. However, the fact that most of these children appear normal should not be over-interpreted as indicating that there is no cause for concern. Using sophisticated technologies, scientists are now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal development may lead to subtle, yet significant, later deficits in some children, including deficits in some aspects of cognitive performance, information-processing, and attention to tasks—abilities that are important for success in school.[19] There are also warnings about the threat of breastfeeding: "It is likely that cocaine will reach the baby through breast milk." The March of Dimes advises the following regarding cocaine use during pregnancy: Cocaine use during pregnancy can affect a pregnant woman and her unborn baby in many ways. During the early months of pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, it can trigger preterm labor (labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or cause the baby to grow poorly. As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birthweight (less than 5.5 lb or 2.5 kg). Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Cocaine-exposed babies also tend to have smaller heads, which generally reflect smaller brains. Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed babies are at increased risk of birth defects, including urinary-tract defects and, possibly, heart defects. Cocaine also may cause an unborn baby to have a stroke, irreversible brain damage, or a heart attack.[20] Reinforcement disorders Tolerance An appreciable tolerance to cocaine’s high may develop, with many addicts reporting that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first experience.[6] Some users will frequently increase their doses to intensify and prolong the euphoric effects. While tolerance to the high can occur, users might also become more sensitive (drug sensitization) to cocaine's local anesthetic (pain killing) and convulsant (seizure inducing) effects, without increasing the dose taken; this increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparent low doses of cocaine.[6] Addiction Main article: Substance dependence Crack cocaine is popularly thought to be the most addictive form of cocaine.[1] However, this claim has been contested: Morgan and Zimmer wrote that available data indicated that "...smoking cocaine by itself does not increase markedly the likelihood of dependence.... The claim that cocaine is much more addictive when smoked must be reexamined."[21] They argued that cocaine users who are already prone to abuse are most likely to "move toward a more efficient mode of ingestion" (that is, smoking). The intense desire to recapture the initial high is what is so addictive for many users.[3] On the other hand, Reinarman et al. wrote that the nature of crack addiction depends on the social context in which it is used and the psychological characteristics of users, pointing out that many heavy crack users can go for days or weeks without using the drugs.[22]


Overdose A typical response among users is to have another hit of the drug; however, the levels of dopamine in the brain take a long time to replenish themselves, and each hit taken in rapid succession leads to progressively less intense highs.[3] However, a person might binge for 3 or more days without sleep, while inhaling hits from the pipe.[8] Use of cocaine in a binge, during which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses, leads to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia.[6] This may result in a full-blown paranoid psychosis, in which the individual loses touch with reality and experiences auditory hallucinations.[6] Large amounts of crack cocaine (several hundred milligrams or more) intensify the user's high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior.[6] Large amounts can induce tremors, vertigo, muscle twitches, paranoia, or, with repeated doses, a toxic reaction closely resembling amphetamine poisoning.[6]


Society and culture Synonyms atari; base; bazooka; beamers; beemers; bebe; bee-bee; berry; bing; bolo; bomb; boulder; boulders; butter; caine; cane; Casper; Casper the ghost; cavvy; chemical; chewies; cloud; cloud nine; crills; crunch and munch; dip; famous dimes; fan; fish scale; fries; fry; glo; golfball; gravel; grit; hail; hamburger; helper; hubba; ice cube; kangaroo; kibbles and bits; kibbles; krills; lightem; paste; patico; pebbles; pee wee; pony; raw; ready; ready rocks; redi rocks; roca; rock; rooster; rox; Roxanne; scud; Scotty; scramble; scruples; seven-up; sherm; sherms; sleet; snowballs; stones; teeth; tension; top gun; tweak; ultimate; wash; white cloud; work; yahoo; yay; yayoo; yeah-O; yeyo; yeo; yuck.[23] Drug combinations Crack cocaine may be combined with amphetamine ("croack"); tobacco ("coolie"); marijuana ("buddha"; "caviar"; "chronic"; "cocoa puffs"; "fry daddy"; "gimmie"; "gremmie"; "juice"; "primo"; "torpedo"; "turbo"; "woolie"; "woola"); heroin ("moon rock"); and phencyclidine ("clicker"; "p-funk"; "spacebase").[23] Consumption Crack smoking ("hitting the pipe"; "puffing"; "beaming up (to Scotty)") is commonly performed with utensils such as pipes ("bowl"; "devil's dick"; "glass dick"; "horn"; "Uzi"); improvised pipes made from a plastic bottle ("Masarati"); water pipes ("bong"; "hubbly-bubbly"); and laboratory pipettes ("demo").[23] Legal status U.S. Food and Drug Administration anti-crack poster Cocaine is listed as a Schedule I drug in the United Nations 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, making it illegal for non-state-sanctioned production, manufacture, export, import, distribution, trade, use and possession.[24] In most states (except in the U.S.) crack falls under the same category as cocaine. Australia In Australia, crack falls under the same category as cocaine, which is listed as a Schedule 8 controlled drug, indicating that any substances and preparations for therapeutic use under this category have high potential for abuse and addiction. It is permitted for some medical use, but is otherwise outlawed. Canada As a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, crack is not differentiated from cocaine and other coca products. However, the court may weigh the socio-economic factors of crack usage in sentencing. As a guideline, Schedule I drugs carry a maximum 7-year prison sentence for possession for an indictable offense and up to life imprisonment for trafficking and production. A summary conviction on possession carries a $1000–$2000 fine and/or 6 months to a year imprisonment. United States In the United States, cocaine is a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act, indicating that it has a high abuse potential but also carries a medicinal purpose.[25][26] Under the Controlled Substances Act, crack and cocaine are considered the same drug. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 increased penalties for crack cocaine possession and usage. It mandated a mandatory minimum sentence of five years without parole for possession of five grams of crack; to receive the same sentence with powder cocaine one had to have 500 grams.[27] This sentencing disparity was reduced from 100-to-1 to 18-to-1 by the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010. Europe In the United Kingdom, crack is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. In the Netherlands it is a List 1 drug of the Opium Law.


See also Look up crack cocaine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crack cocaine. CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US Cocaine paste ("paco") Structurally related chemicals: proparacaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, procaine, hexylcaine, bupivacaine, benoxinate, mepivacaine, prilocaine, etidocaine, benzocaine, chloroprocaine, propoxycaine, dyclonine, dibucaine, and pramoxine.


References ^ a b c d e f g h Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment, Todd Wilk Estroff, M.D., 2001 (306 pages), pp. 44-45, (describes cocaine/crack processing & melting points): p.44 has "cannot be smoked because...melting point of 190°C"; p.45 has "It is the most addictive form of cocaine", webpage: [1], p. 44, at Google Books ^ Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. (1997). "Crack in Context: America's Latest Demon Drug". In Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. Berkeley, CA.: University of California Press.  ^ a b c d e f g h A.M. Costa Rica, July 2008, Crack rocks offer a short but intense high to smokers. ^ Kinzie, Erik (April 2009). "Levamisole Found in Patients Using Cocaine". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 53 (4). Retrieved 2009-08-18.  ^ a b "Officials warn of life-threatening cocaine in area", Stacy O'Brien, Red Deer Advocate, December 2008, webpage: reddeer-officials: notes cocaine with the worming medicine levamisole. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "DEA, Drug Information, Cocaine", United States DOJ Drug Enforcement Administration, 2008, webpage: DEA-cocaine. ^ a b White Mischief: A Cultural History of Cocaine, Tim Madge, 2004, ISBN 1-56025-370-3, link: [2], p. 18, at Google Books. ^ a b c "Life or Meth - CRACK OF THE 90'S", Salt Lake City Police Department, Utah, 2008, PDF file: Methlife-PDF Archived 2007-10-31 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ a b Scheidweiler KB, Plessinger MA, Shojaie J, Wood RW, Kwong TC (2003). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methylecgonidine, a crack cocaine pyrolyzate". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 307 (3): 1179–87. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.055434. PMID 14561847. Retrieved 2008-02-24.  ^ Yang Y, Ke Q, Cai J, Xiao YF, Morgan JP (2001). "Evidence for cocaine and methylecgonidine stimulation of M(2) muscarinic receptors in cultured human embryonic lung cells". Br. J. Pharmacol. 132 (2): 451–60. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703819. PMC 1572570 . PMID 11159694.  ^ Fandiño AS, Toennes SW, Kauert GF (2002). "Studies on hydrolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways of anhydroecgonine methyl ester (methylecgonidine) using microsomal preparations from rat organs". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15 (12): 1543–8. doi:10.1021/tx0255828. PMID 12482236.  ^ Cole, Claire; Jones, Lisa; McVeigh, Jim; Kicman, Andrew; Syed, Qutub; Belis, Mark A. (2010). Cut: A Guide to Adulturants, Bulkinh Agents and other Contaminants found in Illicit Drugs. Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University. pp. 6–25.  ^ a b Lengel, Allan (April 5, 2006). "A Rose With Another Name: Crack Pipe". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2017.  ^ a b Mégarbane, B; Chevillard, L (5 December 2013). "The large spectrum of pulmonary complications following illicit drug use: features and mechanisms". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 206 (3): 444–51. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2013.10.011. PMID 24144776.  ^ a b c d "Delusional Parasitosis", The Bohart Museum of Entomology, 2005, webpage: UCDavis-delusional[permanent dead link]. ^ Morton, W. Alexander (August 1999). "Cocaine and Psychiatric Symptoms". Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1 (4): 109–113. Retrieved May 23, 2017.  ^ Okie, Susan (2009-01-27). "The Epidemic That Wasn't". The New York Times.  ^ "Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Frank et al. 285 (12): 1613 — JAMA". Jama.ama-assn.org. 2001-03-28. Retrieved 2010-12-22.  ^ NIDA - Research Report Series - Cocaine Abuse and Addiction Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Street Drugs and pregnancy". March of Dimes. Retrieved 2009-05-26.  ^ Morgan, John P.; Zimmer, Lynn (1997). "Social Pharmacology of Smokeable Cocaine". In Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press.  ^ Reinarman, Craig; Waldorf, Dan; Murphy, Sheigla B.; Levine, Harry G. (1997). "The Contingent Call of the Pipe: Bingeing and Addiction Among Heavy Cocaine Smokers". In Reinarman, Craig; Levine, Harry G. Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press.  ^ a b c Tom Dalzell (2009), The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-37182-7  ^ "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  ^ "DEA, Title 21, Section 812". Usdoj.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-09-05.  ^ 21 U.S.C. § 812(b)(2) Retrieved 2008-05-01. ^ Sterling, Eric. "Drug Laws and Snitching: A Primer". PBS. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 


Further reading Cooper, Edith Fairman, The emergence of crack cocaine abuse, Nova Publishers, 2002 v t e Stimulants Adamantanes Adapromine Amantadine Bromantane Memantine Rimantadine Adenosine antagonists 8-Chlorotheophylline 8-Cyclopentyltheophylline 8-Phenyltheophylline Aminophylline Caffeine CGS-15943 Dimethazan Paraxanthine SCH-58261 Theobromine Theophylline Alkylamines Cyclopentamine Cypenamine Cyprodenate Heptaminol Isometheptene Levopropylhexedrine Methylhexaneamine Octodrine Propylhexedrine Tuaminoheptane Ampakines CX-516 CX-546 CX-614 CX-691 CX-717 IDRA-21 LY-404,187 LY-503,430 Nooglutyl Org 26576 PEPA S-18986 Sunifiram Unifiram Arylcyclohexylamines Benocyclidine Dieticyclidine Esketamine Eticyclidine Gacyclidine Ketamine Phencyclamine Phencyclidine Rolicyclidine Tenocyclidine Tiletamine Benzazepines 6-Br-APB SKF-77434 SKF-81297 SKF-82958 Cholinergics A-84,543 A-366,833 ABT-202 ABT-418 AR-R17779 Altinicline Anabasine Arecoline Bradanicline Cotinine Cytisine Dianicline Epibatidine Epiboxidine GTS-21 Ispronicline Nicotine PHA-543,613 PNU-120,596 PNU-282,987 Pozanicline Rivanicline Sazetidine A SIB-1553A SSR-180,711 TC-1698 TC-1827 TC-2216 Tebanicline UB-165 Varenicline WAY-317,538 Convulsants Anatoxin-a Bicuculline DMCM Flurothyl Gabazine Pentetrazol Picrotoxin Strychnine Thujone Eugeroics Adrafinil Armodafinil CRL-40,940 CRL-40,941 Fluorenol JZ-IV-10 Modafinil Oxazolines 4-Methylaminorex Aminorex Clominorex Cyclazodone Fenozolone Fluminorex Pemoline Thozalinone Phenethylamines 1-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-aminobutane 1-Methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane 2-Fuoroamphetamine 2-Fuoromethamphetamine 2-OH-PEA 2-Phenyl-3-aminobutane 2,3-MDA 3-Fuoroamphetamine 3-Fluoroethamphetamine 3-Fluoromethcathinone 3-Methoxyamphetamine 3-Methylamphetamine 3,4-DMMC 4-BMC 4-CMC 4-Ethylamphetamine 4-Fluoroamphetamine 4-Fluoromethamphetamine 4-MA 4-Methylbuphedrone 4-Methylcathinone 4-MMA 4-Methylpentedrone 4-MTA 6-FNE AL-1095 Alfetamine a-Ethylphenethylamine Amfecloral Amfepentorex Amfepramone Amidephrine 2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene 2-Aminoindane 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole 2-Aminotetralin Acridorex Amphetamine (Dextroamphetamine, Levoamphetamine) Amphetaminil Arbutamine β-Methylphenethylamine β-Phenylmethamphetamine Benfluorex Benzedrone Benzphetamine BDB BOH 3-Benzhydrylmorpholine BPAP Buphedrone Bupropion Butylone Camfetamine Cathine Cathinone Chlorphentermine Cilobamine Cinnamedrine Clenbuterol Clobenzorex Cloforex Clortermine Cypenamine D-Deprenyl Denopamine Dimethoxyamphetamine Dimethylamphetamine Dimethylcathinone Dobutamine DOPA (Dextrodopa, Levodopa) Dopamine Dopexamine Droxidopa EBDB Ephedrine Epinephrine Epinine Etafedrine Ethcathinone Ethylnorepinephrine Ethylone Etilamfetamine Etilefrine Famprofazone Fencamfamin Fencamine Fenethylline Fenfluramine (Dexfenfluramine, Levofenfluramine) Fenproporex Feprosidnine Flephedrone Fludorex Formetorex Furfenorex Gepefrine Hexapradol Hexedrone HMMA Hordenine 4-Hydroxyamphetamine 5-Iodo-2-aminoindane Ibopamine IMP Indanylamphetamine Iofetamine Isoetarine Isoethcathinone Isoprenaline L-Deprenyl (Selegiline) Lefetamine Lisdexamfetamine Lophophine MBDB MDA (tenamfetamine) MDBU MDEA MDMA (midomafetamine) MDMPEA MDOH MDPR MDPEA Mefenorex Mephedrone Mephentermine Metanephrine Metaraminol Mesocarb Methamphetamine (Dextromethamphetamine, Levomethamphetamine) Methoxamine Methoxyphenamine MMA Methcathinone Methedrone Methoxyphenamine Methylenedioxycathinone Methylone Mexedrone MMDA MMDMA MMMA Morforex N,alpha-Diethylphenylethylamine N-Ethylbuphedrone N-Ethylhexedrone N,N-Dimethylphenethylamine Naphthylamphetamine Nisoxetine Norepinephrine Norfenefrine Norfenfluramine Normetanephrine L-Norpseudoephedrine Octopamine (drug) Orciprenaline Ortetamine Oxifentorex Oxilofrine PBA PCA PCMA PHA Pentorex Pentedrone Pentylone Phenatine Phenpromethamine Phentermine Phenylalanine Phenylephrine Phenylpropanolamine Pholedrine PIA PMA PMEA PMMA PPAP Phthalimidopropiophenone Prenylamine Propylamphetamine Pseudoephedrine Ropinirole Salbutamol (Levosalbutamol) Sibutramine Solriamfetol Synephrine Theodrenaline Tiflorex Tranylcypromine Tyramine Tyrosine Xylopropamine Zylofuramine Phenylmorpholines 3-Fluorophenmetrazine Fenbutrazate Fenmetramide G-130 Manifaxine Morazone Morforex Oxaflozane PD-128,907 Phendimetrazine Phenmetrazine 2-Phenyl-3,6-dimethylmorpholine Pseudophenmetrazine Radafaxine Piperazines 2C-B-BZP 3C-PEP BZP CM156 DBL-583 GBR-12783 GBR-12935 GBR-13069 GBR-13098 GBR-13119 MeOPP MBZP oMPP Vanoxerine Piperidines 1-Benzyl-4-(2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl)piperidine 2-Benzylpiperidine 2-Methyl-3-phenylpiperidine 3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate 4-Benzylpiperidine 4-Fluoromethylphenidate 4-Methylmethylphenidate Desoxypipradrol Difemetorex Diphenylpyraline Ethylnaphthidate Ethylphenidate Methylnaphthidate Isopropylphenidate Methylphenidate (Dexmethylphenidate) Nocaine Phacetoperane Pipradrol Propylphenidate SCH-5472 Pyrrolidines 2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine 5-DBFPV α-PPP α-PBP α-PHP α-PVP α-PVT Diphenylprolinol DMPVP FPOP FPVP MDPPP MDPBP MPBP MPHP MPPP MOPVP MOPPP Indapyrophenidone MDPV Naphyrone PEP Picilorex Prolintane Pyrovalerone Racetams Oxiracetam Phenylpiracetam Phenylpiracetam hydrazide Tropanes 4-fluorotropacocaine 4'-Fluorococaine Altropane (IACFT) Brasofensine CFT (WIN 35,428) β-CIT (RTI-55) Cocaethylene Cocaine Dichloropane (RTI-111) Difluoropine FE-β-CPPIT FP-β-CPPIT Ioflupane (123I) Norcocaine PIT PTT RTI-31 RTI-32 RTI-51 RTI-112 RTI-113 RTI-120 RTI-121 (IPCIT) RTI-126 RTI-150 RTI-177 RTI-229 RTI-336 RTI-354 RTI-371 RTI-386 Salicylmethylecgonine Tesofensine Troparil (β-CPT, WIN 35,065-2) Tropoxane WF-23 WF-33 Tryptamines 4-HO-αMT 4-Methyl-αET 4-Methyl-αMT 5-Chloro-αMT 5-Fluoro-αMT 5-MeO-αET 5-MeO-αMT 5-MeO-DIPT 6-Fluoro-αMT 7-Methyl-αET αET αMT Others 2-MDP 3,3-Diphenylcyclobutanamine Amfonelic acid Amineptine Amiphenazole Atipamezole Atomoxetine Bemegride Benzydamine BTQ BTS 74,398 Centanafadine Ciclazindol Clofenciclan Cropropamide Crotetamide D-161 Desipramine Diclofensine Dimethocaine Efaroxan Etamivan Fenisorex Fenpentadiol Gamfexine Gilutensin GSK1360707F GYKI-52895 Hexacyclonate Idazoxan Indanorex Indatraline JNJ-7925476 Lazabemide Leptacline Lomevactone LR-5182 Mazindol Meclofenoxate Medifoxamine Mefexamide Methamnetamine Methastyridone Methiopropamine Naphthylaminopropane Nefopam Nikethamide Nomifensine O-2172 Oxaprotiline PNU-99,194 PRC200-SS Rasagiline Rauwolscine Rubidium chloride Setazindol Tametraline Tandamine Thiopropamine Thiothinone Trazium UH-232 Yohimbine ATC code: N06B Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crack_cocaine&oldid=821985965" Categories: CocaineDrug cultureHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from August 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesArticles needing additional medical references from November 2012All articles needing additional referencesArticles that may contain original research from August 2009All articles that may contain original researchAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2012


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AfrikaansالعربيةCatalàČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGaeilgeGalegoÍslenskaItalianoLatviešuLietuviųNederlands日本語NorskPortuguêsРусскийSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaکوردیSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTürkçeУкраїнська中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 23 January 2018, at 19:39. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.596","walltime":"0.739","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2835,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":112254,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":3027,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":7,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 569.259 1 -total"," 42.74% 243.294 1 Template:Reflist"," 12.82% 72.954 3 Template:Citation_needed"," 12.21% 69.529 4 Template:Fix"," 10.32% 58.748 4 Template:Cite_book"," 8.82% 50.182 1 Template:Pp-semi-protected"," 6.86% 39.050 3 Template:Delink"," 6.49% 36.918 6 Template:Cite_journal"," 6.10% 34.698 1 Template:Medical_citations_needed"," 5.96% 33.925 2 Template:Ambox"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.242","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6845322,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1258","timestamp":"20180218071807","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":839,"wgHostname":"mw1258"});});


Crack_cocaine - Photos and All Basic Informations

Crack_cocaine More Links

This Article Is Semi-protected.Wikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Wikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:VerifiabilityEnlargeFree BaseCocaineEuphoria (emotion)Recreational DrugPoverty In The United StatesInner CityNew York CityLos AngelesMiamiCrack EpidemicLocal AnestheticCocaineAdulterantsLevamisoleEnlargeBaking SodaTealightWikipedia:No Original ResearchWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:Citing SourcesHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargeSodium BicarbonateWeak BaseAmmonium BicarbonateAmmonium ChlorideAmmonium CarbonateCarbonic AcidCarbon DioxideEnlargeEuphoria (emotion)DopamineEuphoria (emotion)Wikipedia:Citation NeededDepression (mood)Injection (medicine)Euphoria (emotion)EnlargeCardiac ArrestMethylecgonidineAdulterantMilk PowderGlucoseStarchCaffeineLidocaineBenzocaineParacetamolAmphetamineHyoscine HydrobromideStrychnineRoute Of AdministrationBioavailabilityInsufflation (medicine)Wikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededLove RosePulmonary EdemaInterstitial PneumoniaDiffuse Alveolar HemorrhageEosinophilAmphetamineDelusional ParasitosisFormicationPrenatal Cocaine ExposurePregnancyFetusNational Institute On Drug AbuseBreastfeedingMarch Of DimesDrug SensitizationSubstance DependenceDopamineParanoiaVertigo (medical)ParanoiaAmphetamineAmphetamineTobaccoMarijuanaHeroinPhencyclidineEnlargeU.S. Food And Drug AdministrationSingle Convention On Narcotic DrugsSingle Convention On Narcotic DrugsCocaineStandard For The Uniform Scheduling Of Medicines And PoisonsSchedule I (Canada)Controlled Drugs And Substances ActCocaIndictable OffenseSummary ConvictionSchedule II (US)Controlled Substances ActAnti-Drug Abuse Act Of 1986Mandatory Minimum SentenceParoleFair Sentencing ActList Of Controlled Drugs In The United KingdomMisuse Of Drugs Act 1971NetherlandsOpium LawCIA And Contras Cocaine Trafficking In The USCocaine PasteProparacaineTetracaineLidocaineProcaineHexylcaineBupivacaineBenoxinateMepivacainePrilocaineEtidocaineBenzocaineChloroprocainePropoxycaineDyclonineDibucainePramoxineGoogle BooksBerkeley, CAUniversity Of California PressAnnals Of Emergency MedicineLevamisoleInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-56025-370-3Google BooksWayback MachineDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierChemico-Biological InteractionsDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierEntomologyWikipedia:Link RotWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-415-37182-7Title 21 Of The United States CodeTemplate:StimulantsTemplate Talk:StimulantsStimulantAdamantaneAdapromineAmantadineBromantaneMemantineRimantadineAdenosine Receptor8-Chlorotheophylline8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine8-PhenyltheophyllineAminophyllineCaffeineCGS-15943DimethazanParaxanthineSCH-58261TheobromineTheophyllinePsychotropic AlkylaminesCyclopentamineCypenamineCyprodenateHeptaminolIsomethepteneLevopropylhexedrineMethylhexanamineOctodrinePropylhexedrineTuaminoheptaneAmpakineCX-516CX-546CX-614FarampatorCX717IDRA-21LY-404,187LY-503,430NooglutylOrg 26576PEPA (drug)S-18986SunifiramUnifiramArylcyclohexylamineBenocyclidineDieticyclidineEsketamineEticyclidineGacyclidineKetaminePhencyclaminePhencyclidineRolicyclidineTenocyclidineTiletamineBenzazepine6-Br-APBSKF-77434SKF-81297SKF-82958AcetylcholineA-84,543A-366,833ABT-202ABT-418AR-R17779AltiniclineAnabasineArecolineBradaniclineCotinineCytisineDianiclineEpibatidineEpiboxidineGTS-21IsproniclineNicotinePHA-543,613PNU-120,596PNU-282,987PozaniclineRivaniclineSazetidine ASIB-1553ASSR-180,711TC-1698TC-1827TC-2216TebaniclineUB-165VareniclineWAY-317,538ConvulsionAnatoxin-aBicucullineDMCMFlurothylGabazinePentylenetetrazolPicrotoxinStrychnineThujoneEugeroicAdrafinilArmodafinilCRL-40,940CRL-40,941FluorenolJZ-IV-10ModafinilOxazoline4-MethylaminorexAminorexClominorexCyclazodoneFenozoloneFluminorexPemolineThozalinoneSubstituted Phenethylamine4-Methylphenylisobutylamine1-Methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane2-FA2-FMA2-Hydroxyphenethylamine2-Phenyl-3-aminobutane2,3-Methylenedioxyamphetamine3-FA3-Fluoroethamphetamine3-Fluoromethcathinone3-Methoxyamphetamine3-Methylamphetamine3,4-Dimethylmethcathinone4-Bromomethcathinone4-Chloromethcathinone4-Ethylamphetamine4-FA4-FMA4-Methylamphetamine4-Methylbuphedrone4-Methylcathinone4-Methylmethamphetamine4-Methylpentedrone4-Methylthioamphetamine6-FluoronorepinephrineAL-1095AlfetamineAlpha-EthylphenethylamineAmfecloralAmfepentorexAmfepramoneAmidephrine2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene2-Aminoindane5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole2-AminotetralinAcridorexAmphetamineDextroamphetamineLevoamphetamineAmphetaminilArbutamineΒ-MethylphenethylamineΒ-PhenylmethamphetamineBenfluorexBenzedroneBenzphetamineBenzodioxolylbutanamineBOH (drug)3-BenzhydrylmorpholineBenzofuranylpropylaminopentaneBuphedroneBupropionButyloneCamfetamineCathineCathinoneChlorphentermineCilobamineCinnamedrineClenbuterolClobenzorexCloforexClortermineCypenamineD-DeprenylDenopamineDimethoxyamphetamineDimethylamphetamineDimethylcathinoneDobutamineL-DOPAD-DOPAL-DOPADopamineDopexamineL-DOPSEthylbenzodioxolylbutanamineEphedrineEpinephrineEpinineEtafedrineEthcathinoneEthylnorepinephrineEthyloneEtilamfetamineEtilefrineFamprofazoneFencamfaminFencamineFenethyllineFenfluramineDexfenfluramineLevofenfluramineFenproporexFeprosidnineFlephedroneFludorexFormetorexFurfenorexGepefrineHexapradolHexedrone4-Hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamineHordenine4-Hydroxyamphetamine5-IAIIbopamineIndanylmethylaminopropaneIndanylaminopropaneIofetamineIsoetarineIsoethcathinoneIsoprenalineSelegilineLefetamineLisdexamfetamineLophophineMethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineMethylenedioxybutylamphetamineMethylenedioxyethylamphetamineMDMAMethylenedioxymethylphenethylamineMethylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamineMethylenedioxypropylamphetamineMethylenedioxyphenethylamineMefenorexMephedroneMephentermineMetanephrineMetaraminolMesocarbMethamphetamineMethamphetamineLevomethamphetamineMethoxamineMethoxyphenamine3-Methoxy-4-methylamphetamineMethcathinoneMethedroneMethoxyphenamineMethylenedioxycathinoneMethyloneMexedroneMMDA (drug)MMDMA3-MethoxymethamphetamineMorforexN,alpha-DiethylphenylethylamineN-EthylbuphedroneN-EthylhexedroneN,N-DimethylphenethylamineNaphthylaminopropaneNisoxetineNorepinephrineNorfenefrineNorfenfluramineNormetanephrineL-NorpseudoephedrineOctopamine (drug)OrciprenalineOrtetamineOxifentorexOxilofrinePara-BromoamphetaminePara-ChloroamphetaminePara-ChloromethamphetamineNorpholedrinePentorexPentedronePentylonePhenatinePhenpromethaminePhenterminePhenylalaninePhenylephrinePhenylpropanolaminePholedrinePara-IodoamphetaminePara-MethoxyamphetaminePara-MethoxyethylamphetaminePara-MethoxymethamphetaminePhenylpropylaminopentanePhthalimidopropiophenonePrenylaminePropylamphetaminePseudoephedrineRopiniroleSalbutamolLevosalbutamolSibutramineSolriamfetolSynephrineTheodrenalineTiflorexTranylcypromineTyramineTyrosineXylopropamineZylofuramineSubstituted Phenylmorpholine3-FluorophenmetrazineFenbutrazateFenmetramideG-130ManifaxineMorazoneMorforexOxaflozanePD-128,907PhendimetrazinePhenmetrazine2-Phenyl-3,6-dimethylmorpholinePseudophenmetrazineRadafaxinePiperazine2C-B-BZP1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-(2-phenylethyl)piperazineBenzylpiperazineCM156DBL-583GBR-12783GBR-12935GBR-13069GBR-13098GBR-13119Para-MethoxyphenylpiperazineMethylbenzylpiperazineOrtho-MethylphenylpiperazineVanoxerinePiperidine1-Benzyl-4-(2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl)piperidine2-Benzylpiperidine2-Methyl-3-phenylpiperidine3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate4-Benzylpiperidine4-Fluoromethylphenidate4-MethylmethylphenidateDesoxypipradrolDifemetorexDiphenylpyralineHDEP-28EthylphenidateHDMP-28IsopropylphenidateMethylphenidateDexmethylphenidate(+)-CPCALevophacetoperanePipradrolPropylphenidateSCH-5472Pyrrolidine2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine5-DBFPVAlpha-PyrrolidinopropiophenoneAlpha-PyrrolidinobutiophenoneAlpha-PyrrolidinohexiophenoneAlpha-PyrrolidinopentiophenoneAlpha-PyrrolidinopentiothiophenoneDiphenylprolinol3',4'-Dimethoxy-α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone4'-Fluoro-α-Pyrrolidinooctanophenone4'-Fluoro-α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone4'-Methyl-a-pyrrolidinobutiophenone4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone4'-Methoxy-α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenoneIndapyrophenidoneMethylenedioxypyrovaleroneNaphyronePhenylethylpyrrolidinePicilorexProlintanePyrovaleroneRacetamOxiracetamPhenylpiracetamPhenylpiracetam HydrazideTropane4-fluorotropacocaine4'-FluorococaineAltropaneBrasofensineWIN 35428RTI-55CocaethyleneCocaineDichloropaneDifluoropineFE-β-CPPITFP-β-CPPITIoflupane (123I)Norcocaine2-Propanoyl-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-tropane2β-Propanoyl-3β-(4-tolyl)-tropaneRTI-31RTI-32RTI-51RTI-112RTI-113RTI-120RTI-121RTI-126RTI-150RTI-177RTI-229(-)-2β-(3-(4-Methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropaneRTI-354RTI-371RTI-386SalicylmethylecgonineTesofensineTroparilTropoxane2β-Propanoyl-3β-(2-naphthyl)-tropane2α-(Propanoyl)-3β-(2-(6-methoxynaphthyl))-tropaneSubstituted Tryptamine4-HO-αMT4-Methyl-αET4-Methyl-αMT5-Chloro-αMT5-Fluoro-αMT5-MeO-αET5-MeO-αMT5-MeO-DIPT6-Fluoro-αMT7-Methyl-αETΑ-EthyltryptamineΑ-Methyltryptamine2-MDP3,3-DiphenylcyclobutanamineAmfonelic AcidAmineptineAmiphenazoleAtipamezoleAtomoxetineBemegrideBenzydamineButyltolylquinuclidineBTS 74,398CentanafadineCiclazindolClofenciclanCropropamideCrotetamideD-161DesipramineDiclofensineDimethocaineEfaroxanEtamivanFenisorexFenpentadiolGamfexineGilutensinGSK1360707FGYKI-52895HexacyclonateIdazoxanIndanorexIndatralineJNJ-7925476LazabemideLeptaclineLomevactoneLR-5182MazindolMeclofenoxateMedifoxamineMefexamideMethamnetamineMethastyridoneMethiopropamineNaphthylaminopropaneNefopamNikethamideNomifensineO-2172OxaprotilinePNU-99,194PRC200RasagilineRauwolscineRubidium ChlorideSetazindolTametralineTandamineThiopropamineThiothinoneTraziumUH-232YohimbineATC CodeATC Code N06Help:CategoryCategory:CocaineCategory:Drug CultureCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From August 2017Category:Articles With Permanently Dead External LinksCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Semi-protected PagesCategory:Articles Needing Additional Medical References From November 2012Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Articles That May Contain Original Research From August 2009Category:All Articles That May Contain Original ResearchCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From November 2012Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link